Monday, November 14, 2011

Procedural Text: Manuals and Instructions

Basic Competence for SMA:Working with procedural texts and monolog:
  • Listening: Understanding simple transactional and interpersonal monologs in the form of procedures.
  • Speaking: Expressing various meanings in transactional and interpersonal monologs in the form of procedures.
  • Reading: Understanding various meanings and rhetorical steps in procedural texts.
  • Writing: Expressing various meanings by developing rhetorical steps in procedural texts.
Basic Competence for SMK:3.4 Understanding and retelling manuals (procedural texts).

A. What is a procedural text?

A procedural text is a text which is intended to tell the reader how to do, operate, or make something. The information in a procedural text is usually written in the present tense and is arranged in a logical sequence of events which is broken up into several sequenced steps.

Based on its purpose, a procedural text may explain how things work or how to operate things (how to use the scanner, the computer, the camera, etc.), give instrucions on how to do an activity (cooking recipes, rules for games, science experiments, road safety rules, etc), or give advice concerning human behavior (how to be a good secretary, how to live healthily, etc).

B. What is the format of a procedural text?

  • Recipes usually consist of two groups of information; ingredients and method.
  • Game instructions usually include how to play, game rules, scoring method, and the number of players.
  • Scientific experiments usually include the purpose of the experiment, equipment, procedure, observations and conclusion.

C. How to Write a Procedural Text

  • State your goals clearly at the beginning.
  • List all materials and equipment in order of use.
  • List the steps in chronological order.
  • Focus on general people by using subject "You" or "We" instead of individuals.
  • Use action verbs (imperative verbs), such as cut, peel, plug, turn on, etc.
  • Use sequencing words to connect the steps. E.g.: First(ly), second(ly), third(ly), next, then, etc.
  • Give detailed information on how (carefully, with the knife); where (into the oven); when (after the water boils).
  • Give detailed factual description (shape, size, color, amount).

D. Example of a procedural text

How to Cook Noodles

Many people like noodles for their daily meals. Its delicious taste and simple preparation have made noodles very popular especially in some Asian countries. Here is a recipe to cook noodles.

Ingredients:

  1. Noodles
  2. Water
  3. Salt to taste
  4. Stock cube
  5. Noodle packet
  6. Vegetables
  7. Flavoring powder
  8. Seasoning sauce
  9. Spices
  10. Water

Things you need:

  1. Cooking pan
  2. Strainer
  3. Serving plates

Steps:

  1. Boil the water in a cooking pan.
  2. Add the stock cube or salt if desired. Make sure the stock cube is completely dissolved before adding the noodles.
  3. Add the noodles and turn the heat to low or off. This is different for different kinds of noodles. Some just need to be soaked, others require simmering. Check the package of the noodles to be sure.
  4. Let the noodles simmer or soak for the required number of minutes. This varies too. Follow directions on the package.
  5. Drain off the fluids in a strainer. The noodles are ready for further preparation.

Tips:

  1. The flavor of the stock depends on the ingredients you wish to add later. Choose chicken if you want to add chicken, beef if you want to add meat etc.
  2. Save the stock for soups and sauces by draining it into a pan.
  3. Take care to add the right quantity of water.
  4. Let the noodles soak the water for some time after they have been cooked.

E. Exercises:

Listen to the following short talk explaining a procedure. Then choose the best answer to the questions below.




  1. Where does the talk take place?
    1. On a plane
    2. In an airpost
    3. At a bus station
    4. At a flight club
  2. What is the purpose of the announcement?
    1. To explain an identification process
    2. To explain how to book a flight
    3. To explain how to get to Bangkok
    4. To explain a boarding procedure
  3. Who should listen to this announcement?
    1. Flight attendants
    2. Pilots
    3. Flight passengers
    4. Border security officers
  4. What should we do if we are in the main cabin?
    1. We should buy a rose.
    2. We should show our boarding pass.
    3. We should board by rows.
    4. We should wait in the waiting area.
  5. How long should we remain in the waiting area?
    1. Until 15:32
    2. Until we hear our row call
    3. For half an hour
    4. Until the pilots are ready
Reference:
  1. English Online. Instruction. http://englishonline.tki.org.nz/English-Online/Teacher-needs/Reviewed-resources/Reading/Features-of-text-forms/Instructions. Accessed Nov 6, 2011.
  2. Wikihow. How To Cook Noodles. http://www.wikihow.com/Cook-Noodles. Accessed Nov 12, 2011.
Updated: May 2nd, 2013.

Thursday, November 10, 2011

English Transcript of Bung Tomo's Speech During The November 1945 Battle of Surabaya



In the Name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful. Merdeka..!!

Comrades, the humble people throughout Indonesia, particularly those who live in Surabaya, we have all known, that today, the British troops have published pamphlets threatening all of us. Within a specified time, we are required to surrender the arms that we have seized from the hands of the Japanese troops. They have asked us to come to them with raised hands. They have asked all of us to come to them with a white flag as a sign of our capitulation.

Comrades, in previous battles, we have shown them that the Indonesian people in Surabaya, the youth who comes from Maluku, the youth who comes from Sulawesi, the youth who comes from Bali, the youth who comes from Kalimantan, the youth who comes from all over Sumatra, the youth from Aceh, the youth from Tapanuli and all the Indonesian youth in Surabaya, with all their troops, with all the people's forces formed in campongs, have shown them an unbreakable defence. We have shown them a strength which pins them everywhere. Only for their deceitful tactics in inviting the President and other government leaders to come to Surabaya, then we agreed on a ceasefire. However, they have strengthened their power during that time, and now when they are strong, this is what happens.

All my comrades, we, the Indonesian people in Surabaya, shall take the British troops challenge. And if the British troops' leaders in Surabaya want to hear the Indonesian people's answer, the answer of all Indonesian youth in Surabaya, then listen to this, British soldiers!

This is our answer! This is the answer from all the people in Surabaya! This is Indonesian youth's answer to all of you.

Hey, British soldiers! You want us to bring white flags and surrender to you!

You demand us to raise our hands coming to you! You demand us to surrender the arms we have seized from the Japanese and submit them to you!

In spite of those demands, and although we are aware that you are threatening to attack us with all your existing power, this is our answer! As long as Indonesian oxen have their red blood to make a piece of white cloth "Red and White", then as long as that, never shall we capitulate to anyone.

Comrades, the people of Surabaya, be prepared! The situation is critical. However, let me remind you once more. Do not open fire. Not until they fire at us, then we will fire back at them. Let us show them all that we are the people who want to be independent.

And to us, comrades, we'd rather be devastated and destroyed than have no freedom. Our motto remains "Independent or Dead". And let us be assured, comrades, that in the end, victory will be ours. Allah is always with the right people. Let us be assured, comrades. God will protect us all.

Allahu akbar ... Allahu akbar ... Allahu akbar. Merdeka!




Note:

The speech was made by Sutomo or Bung Tomo and was broadcast continuously during the November 1945 Battle of Surabaya by RRI (The Radio of Indonesian Republic) and other revolutionary radio stations. It greatly boosted the moral and heroism of Indonesian troops at that time.

Sixty three years later, on November 10, 2008, Bung Tomo was honored the title "National Hero" according to the Presidential Decree of the Republic of Indonesia nbr. 041/TK/Tahun 2008 dated November 6, 2008 and signed by the President of the Republic of Indonesia, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.

Never did Bung Tomo realize that this nation would later regard him as a national hero. He passed away in Padang Arafah (The Arafah Desert) during his pilgrimage on October 7, 1981, twenty-seven years before this nation started to regard him as a hero.

By request of the Government of the Republic of Indonesia, Bung Tomo was buried in his motherland, the land of the Republic of Indonesia. His grave is located in a public cemetery in Ngagel, Surabaya.

Updated 1:00 a.m. June 13th, 2013

Wednesday, November 9, 2011

Narrative Text: The Battle of Surabaya - November 10, 1945

Kompetensi Dasar:Reading: 5.2 Merespon makna dan langkah retorika teks tulis esei secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan untuk mengakses ilmu pengetahuan dalam teks berbentuk: recount, narrative, dan procedure.
Basic Competence for SMK:2.4. Talking about past events / actions and future plans..

The Battle of Surabaya - November 10, 1945


The landing of the Allied forces under the command of Brig-Gen. A.W.S. Mallaby in Surabaya on October 25, 1945 formally was intended to disarm the Japanese military. However, it became a dishonor upon the Indonesian sovereignty since there were the Dutch NICA forces behind the Allied forces. This provoked Surabaya people and led to small revolts which continued until November 3, 1945.

When the commander of the Allied forces, Brig-Gen Mallaby, was killed in an incident near Jembatan Merah (The Red Bridge) on October 30, 1945, the heated atmosphere was swept up. Without prior negotiation with President Soekarno, the Allied command issued an ultimatum forcing Surabaya people to surrender their arms at specific locations before 18:00 on November 9, 1945. If the order was not met with, the Allied forces would bombard Surabaya from the air, sea, and ashore.

After consultations with the central government leaders in Jakarta, the decision was entrusted to the leaders in Surabaya. East Java Governor Suryo then formally announced the refusal to surrender, which was welcomed by all layers of the fighters and people of Surabaya with the independence yell: Merdeka!

Independent or Dead

At dawn on November 10, the famous Battle of Surabaya broke out. British troops with an additional two brigades (9th and 123rd Indian) of the 5th Indian Division led by Major General Robert Mansergh deployed with Sherman and Stuart tanks began a methodical advance through the city under the cover of naval and air bombardment. They attacked Surabaya from all sides. Two cruisers and three destroyers including HMS Cavalier were in support. From the seaside at Tanjung Perak harbor, their gunfire was directed at the center of the city, while Allied bombers were sweeping from the air.

The allied forces, spearheaded by the British (Gurkha) troops and equipped with modern arms, found themselves up against a force of 20,000 troops of the newly-formed People's Security Army (Tentara Keamanan Rakyat), and more than 100,000 irregular fighters, all dedicated to the cause of Indonesian independence.

The battle was fierce. Ktut Tantri tried to picture the battle poetically in her book "Revolution on Peace Island", but could not avoid the tragic and heroic nuance. "... Surabaya was continuously bombarded by the Allied for three nights. Hundreds of victims fell down. The streets were moisted by blood. Women and children died in the drains. Campongs became seas of fire, and the people ran bewildered to the ricefields to save their lives. But the Indonesian people refused to capitulate ...."

The Republicans fought fearlessly in defending Surabaya, with only two words in their mind, "Independent or Dead". Lieut.-Col. A.J.F Doulton described the bravery in his book "The Fighting Cock": The Indonesian people in Surabaya did not care the victims. If one fell, another one came forward. Bren firing continued. The heaps of dead bodies piled up, but the Indonesian people continued to arrive in greater numbers, pushing on and on ....

The violence of the Indonesian resistance in Surabaya was also indicated by the decision of General Mansergh, requesting for 8 more Thunderbolts and four Mosquitoes as well as 21 Sherman tanks and a great number of carriers.

After three days and nights of the insolent assault, the hospitals and roads were full of victims. More than 6,000 Indonesian troops died and 200,000 civilians fled the devastated city. British and Indian casualties totaled approximately 600. The Allied forces lost another general in this battle when Brig. Gen Robert Guy Loder Symond was WIA on November 10, 1945 and died on the following day.

The battle of Surabaya was the bloodiest single engagement of the war demonstrating the determination of the nationalist forces. Their sacrificial resistance became a symbol and rallying-cry for the revolution. It made the British reluctant to be involved in another war. In fact, Britain openly supported the Republican cause in the United Nations. For the Dutch, it showed that the Republic was not simply a gang of collaborators without popular support, and that they were no longer a colonial power.

The "Heroes of November 10th" monument in Surabaya commemorates this battle. November 10 is now commemorated in Indonesia as "Heroes' Day", in memory of the battle.

Also read English Transcript of Bung Tomo's Speech During the November 1945 Battle of Surabaya.



Reference:
  1. Wikipedia. The Battle of Surabaya. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Surabaya, accessed November 8, 2011. 3:00pm.
  2. Public Relation Bureau East Java Province. 1992. Battle of Surabaya. Panorama, Jawa Timur.

Sunday, November 6, 2011

Report Text: Komodo Dragon (Varanus Komodoensis)



Basic Competence for SMK:1.3. Describing things, people, characteristics, time, day, month, and year.
3.1. Understanding and retelling monologs in a certain job situation.
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Komodo Dragon (Varanus Komodoensis)


The Komodo dragon or the Komodo monitor (Varanus Komodoensis) is a giant monitor lizard found in Komodo island, a small semi-arid island located between the islands of Sumbawa and Flores. The prehistoric animal can also be found in several other nearby islands including Rinca island in the Indonesian archipelago.

The Komodo dragon, which is called "Ora" by the local people, is considered the largest lizard and the last of their kind remaining in the world today. It can grow up to 3 to 4 meters in length and run at the speed of up to 24 kilometers per hour.

The Komodo dragons use their forked tongue to sample the air for scents. Their eyesight is good for distinguishing movement and color as far away as 300 metres (980 ft) except in low light. Despite their visible earholes, they are only able to hear sounds between 400hz up to 2000 Hz. The giant monitor lizards, whose ancestors roamed the earth half a million years ago, are characterized by their short legs with large talons, a stout body and very long tails that can be used as weapon to crush an opponent.

Preferring hot and dry places, the Komodo dragons typically live in dry open grassland, savanna, and tropical forest at low elevations. They are solitary animals and usually come together only to mate and feed on carrion. They sleep in caves or in gullies and among tree roots at night, and come out to feed in the morning. Female Komodo dragons can lay from 20 up to 40 eggs in a hole in the ground.

Komodo dragons' diet consists of a variety of animal species. Young Komodo dragons normally feed on insects and small lizards. However, they begin to eat mice and other small mammals as they grow older. Adult komodo dragons prey on bigger animals such as pigs, goats, deer, young buffaloes, and horses. Although the Komodo dragons are considered harmless, it is advisable to keep a safe distance from them.

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Exercises

A. Reading Comprehension: Answer these questions based on the text

  1. What is the Komodo dragon?
  2. Where can we find Komodo dragons?
  3. Please describe Komodo dragons based on their size.
  4. Please describe Komodo dragons based on their senses.
  5. Please describe Komodo dragons based on their physical appearance.
  6. Please name at least 5 (five) animals which are included in Komodo dragons' diet.
  7. What does paragraph 4 (four) talk about?
  8. "Komodo dragons are thought to have poor night vision." Which sentence in the above text supports this idea?
  9. Which sentence describes Komodo dragon as a prehistoric animal?
  10. "... as they grow older." (paragraph 5) What does "they" in the sentence refer to?

B. Vocabulary: Match each word with the correct meaning

  1. Prehistoric
  2. Archipelago
  3. Lizard
  4. Scent
  5. Talons
  6. Stout
  7. Savanna
  8. Carrion
  9. Gullies
  10. Prey
  1. Relatively long-bodied reptile with usually two pairs of legs and a tapering tail
  2. The dead and rotting body of an animal
  3. Sharp hooked claws, especially on a bird of prey
  4. Animal hunted or caught for food
  5. A flat grassland in tropical or subtropical regions
  6. A group of many islands in a large body of water
  7. Deep ditches cut by running water (especially after a prolonged downpour)
  8. Having rugged physical strength; inured to fatigue or hardships
  9. Any property detected by the olfactory system
  10. Belonging to or existing in times before recorded history
--> Reference:
  1. Wikipedia. Komodo Dragon. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komodo_dragon, accessed November 6, 2011 2:00 pm.
  2. Antor.org. Komodo Dragon Island, geography, how to get there, information about Komodo Dragons. http://www.antor.org/indonesia/komodo-dragon-island.html, accessed November 6, 2011 3:00 pm.
  3. Ministry of Culture and Tourism Republic of Indonesia, 2010. Indonesia Travel Planner. Jakarta.
Updated: July 23, 2013

Sunday, October 30, 2011

"In Front of", "In the Front of", or "At the Front of"?

When using English, especially in conversation, English learners usually make mistakes when they describe places. This is because there are different "rules" in their native language and when they use English, the "rules" are still applied by mistake.

In talking about specific locations, English learners often confuse the use of "in front of", "in the front of", and "at the front of". Probably, it is because those three phrases have one meaning in their native language. For example, "in front of", "in the front of", and "at the front of" in the Indonesian language have the same meaning, that is "di depan". There will be a confusion in saying "di depan" in English if we don't know the correct use of "in front of", "in the front of", and "at the front of".

To avoid such mistakes, let's learn how to use "in front of", "in the front of", and "at the front of" correctly. It can also help us in TOEIC test, especially in the Listening Section" Analying Pictures, in which we often have to identify the specific location of things in a picture.

Common Mistakes in using "in front of"

The most common mistakes in using "in front of" happens when people talk about things which are on opposite sides of a road, street, river, room, etc. "Opposite" or "facing" should be used instead. Look at the following picture.
In Indonesia, when people want to say "Dia tinggal didepan rumah saya" or "Rumahnya berada di depan rumah saya", they usually say:
  • He lives in front of my house.
  • His house is in front of mine.
The above sentences are incorrect. Remember, in front of is not used to talk about things which are on opposite sides of a road, street, river, room, etc. Instead, we should use opposite or facing.

These are the correct sentences to describe the picture:
  • He lives opposite my house.
  • His house is opposite mine.
  • There is a truck parked in front of the house.
  • A car is parked in front of the house.

"In front of"

"In front of" is the antonym / opposite of "behind".
  • There was a flagpole in front of the building.
  • We were delayed by a slow heavy truck in front of us for about thirty minutes until we overtook it.
  • Although she sits in front of me, I don't know much about her.
  • He couldn't enjoy the movie since the couple in front of him kept talking loudly.
  • An old lady was standing in front of me in the queue.
  • Shy students always get nervous when they speak in front of the class.

"In the front of"

"In the front" is the antonym / opposite of "in the back".
  • My father and grandfather were sitting in the front of the car, while the rest of us were sitting in the back.
  • The new student sat in the front of the class. (in the front row)

"At the front of"

"At the front of" is the antonym / opposite of "at the back of".
  • There's a big advertisement board at the front of the building.
  • The car has a distinguished trademark at the front.
  • The boy is standing at the front of the queue.

Exercise

Fill in the blanks with "in front of", "opposite", "in the front of", or "at the front of".
  1. She was very surprised and stood there ... him for a moment.
  2. You will be able to find the office easily. There's a big billboard ... it.
  3. I can't see the writing on the board clearly. I think I'll sit ... the class.
  4. Walk along this street. The office is ... the museum.
  5. Watch out. The car ... us is swaying in and out carelessly.
  6. When traveling, my daughter prefers sitting ... the car.
  7. I enjoyed watching the sunset from the balcony ... my room.
  8. He lives in a big old house ... a vocational school.
  9. Who is the young girl sitting ... Anna? I've never seen her before.
  10. A police car was ... the convoy.
Click here to download the answer key.



Reference: Swan, M. Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Sunday, October 23, 2011

TOEIC Practice Test: Incomplete Sentences


TOEIC PRACTICE TEST: INCOMPLETE SENTENCES

Verb Forms, Word Families, Comparisons.


  
In this test, you will have to choose the best answer to complete the sentences. If your answer is correct, there will be a feedback which shows the correct word or phrase, and the button caption will change to a smiley face :-), and if it's wrong, it will change to an X. If your answer is wrong, you can continue choosing answers until a correct answer is selected. The score for each question is based on the number of tries taken to get a correct answer. Once a correct answer is chosen, the scoring is "frozen", but you can still click on buttons to see the feedback for other answers without penalty.
This is a timed test. You have 30 minutes to do this test.





 





You may also want to read: TOEIC Test Tips and Strategies