Thursday, May 31, 2012

Tourism

The main role of tourism in Indonesia

Tourism has undoubtedly played a very significant part in the country’s development process, particularly in the aspects of economy, culture, education, and environment. It has become one of the biggest sources of Indonesian foreign exchange earnings which helps boost the economic development. Nevertheless, it has to be carefully planned, developed, organized, and controlled in order to minimize its disbenefits to the entire nation. This is why the Indonesian government has intensified and expanded the tourism industry with due interest for preservation of the Indonesian culture and national identity.


The positive effects of tourism activities

Tourism activities have significantly brought positive effects to our society concerning:
  1. Culture;
    • Preservation of cultural monuments and historical places. In turn, it will motivate the sense of cultural heritage among the Indonesian people.
    • Preservation of traditional cultural patterns, art, dances, customs, and dress. It will develop the national pride, heritage, and unity.
    • Improvement of cross-cultural exchange and international understanding through contact of persons of different countries, cultures, and environment. It will promote the national culture itself.
  2. Economy:
    • Provision of employment and increase of income level.
    • Increase of foreign exchange
    • Help in paying costs of infrastructure
    • Improvement of managerial and technical skills in tourism, which, in turn, will help to pay other economic activities.
  3. Social relationship:
    • Improvement of cross-cultural exchange and better international understanding. It develops the awareness of the importance of international relationship.
    • Building stronger national pride, sense of heritage, sense of belonging, and unity among the Indonesian by learning more about the diverse culture and environment of Indonesia.
    • Improvement of infrastructure will result in easy accessibility and wider social relationship.
  4. Security:
    • Preservation of natural environment will lead to cleanliness and safety. Environmental deterioration can be minimized.
    • The improvement of infrastructure, including transportation and communication, will result in easy accessibility for law enforcement agencies.
    • Increase and improvement of law enforcement agencies as well as their facilities, e.g. security guards, police agents, police stations, patrol cars, means of communication, etc.
  5. Education:
    • Improvement of managerial and technical skills and knowledge in tourism.
    • Preserved environmental and natural features, such as parks, flora-fauna, scenic view, monuments, and historical places, will enable people to learn more about culture, nature, geography, history and other studies.

Products of Tourism

Tourism product is actually a service, which is made up of 3 main components, i.e.:
  1. Attraction of the destination.
    It concerns the image that a tourist has in mind about a tourism object.
  2. Facilities at the destination.
    It concerns the accommodation, catering, entertainment and recreation
  3. Accessibility of the destination.
    It concerns how the destination can be reached easily from the place of origin.

Motivations of Tourism Activities

People's travel motivation and the purpose of visits can be classified as follows:
  • General motivation:
    To be away from the home areas.
  • Specific motivation:
    Price inelastic: business, meeting, or conference.
    Price elastic: holiday makers, family visits, education, sports, health, religion, shopping, prestige, or conformity.

Tourism Industry

Tourism industry is the marketing effort which means the systematic and coordinated execution of business for the needs of tourists and to achieve the maximum satisfaction and obtain the appropriate returns. It coordinates the whole approach of an enterprise or organization to its business (chain of distribution). It consists of;
  1. Private sector support services:
    • Guide services
    • Travel insurance and finance services
    • Marketing support services
    • Private ports, etc.
  2. Public sector support services:
    • National / regional tourist organizations
    • Resort publicity offices
    • Public education and training establishments
    • Visa and passport offices, etc.
  3. Products:
    • Carriers; means of transportation
    • Accommodations; e.g. hotels, apartments, holiday centers, etc.
    • Man-made attractions; e.g. activity centers, theme parks, etc.
  4. Middleman: e.g. tour operators / brokers, travel agents, etc.

Saturday, May 26, 2012

Cooperative Learning (Pembelajaran Kooperatif)


Apakah Pembelajaran Kooperatif (Cooperative Learning)?

Pembelajaran kooperatif (Cooperative learning) adalah suatu strategi pembelajaran berdasarkan paham konstruktivis dimana siswa dikelompokkan dalam kelompok-kelompok kecil beranggotakan 4-5 siswa dengan tingkat kemampuan yang berbeda, melakukan berbagai macam kegiatan belajar untuk memudahkan siswa dalam menguasai suatu mata pelajaran. Masing-masing anggota tim tidak hanya memiliki tanggung-jawab untuk belajar dan mempelajari apa yang sedang diajarkan, tapi juga harus membantu rekan sekelompok dalam belajar. Suatu kelompok bisa dikatakan belum tuntas menguasai suatu materi jika masih ada salah satu anggota belum menguasai materi tersebut.

Unsur-unsur Dasar Pembelajaran Kooperatif

Unsur-unsur dasar dalam pembelajaran kooperatif adalah sebagai berikut (Lungdren, 1994)
  1. Adanya persepsi bahwa keberhasilan atau kegagalan kelompok berarti keberhasilan atau kegagalan bersama.
  2. Rasa tanggung-jawab terhadap siswa lain dalam kelompoknya, dan tanggung-jawab terhadap diri sendiri.
  3. Pandangan bahwa semua memiliki tujuan yang sama.
  4. Adanya pembagian tugas dan tanggung-jawab antara para anggota kelompok.
  5. Evaluasi siswa berpengaruh terhadap evaluasi kelompok.
  6. Kesempatan berbagi kepemimpinan antar anggota kelompok.
  7. Ketrampilan bekerja-sama selama proses pembelajaran.
  8. Setiap siswa akan diminta untuk mempertanggung-jawabkan secara individual materi yang ditangani dalam kelompok kooperatif.

Menurut Thomson, et al. (1995), dalam kelompok kooperatif siswa belajar bersama dalam kelompok-kelompok kecil yang saling membantu satu dengan yang lain. Kelompok-kelompok kecil tersebut beranggotakan 4-6 siswa dengan kemampuan yang heterogen, juga jenis kelamin, dan suku. Heterogenitas ini bermanfaat untuk melatih siswa dalam menerima perbedaan serta bekerja sama dengan teman yang memiliki latar belakang berbeda.

Pembelajaran kooperatif mengajarkan ketrampilan-ketrampilan khusus agar siswa dapat bekerja sama dengan baik di dalam kelompoknya, seperti menjadi pendengar yang baik. Selama kerja kelompok, siswa mendapat lembar kegiatan berisi pertanyaan atau tugas yang direncanakan untuk diajarkan, dan tugas anggota kelompok adalah mencapai ketuntasan belajar. (Slavin, 1995)

Mengapa Harus Pembelajaran Kooperatif

Berbagai hasil penelitian telah membuktikan adanya perkembangan dan peningkatan hasil belajar melalui pembelajaran kooperatif. Diantaranya adalah meningkatnya prestasi akademis, perbaikan perilaku, peningkatan kehadiran siswa, peningkatan rasa percaya diri dan motivasi belajar siswa, serta bertambahnya rasa suka terhadap sekolah dan teman-teman sekelas. Disamping itu, pembelajaran kooperatif relatif mudah diterapkan dan tidak membutuhkan biaya besar.

Thursday, May 10, 2012

Teaching English for Children and Adults


The English language has become the most important second language of all in many countries worldwide. Everyone uses this language for many purposes, one of which is education. When we are talking about English language education, we also relate to how the English language is taught. Nowadays, learning English language is not only for adults, but also for children. However, both children and adults have different aspects in learning English. In this essay, the writer will discuss the different aspects of teaching English for adults and children with respect to the ability of acquiring second language, the materials, and the teaching method.

The first different aspect discussed is the different ability of acquiring second language. For children, learning English as their second language besides the mother language is pretty easy to do. According to some researches, children are able to gain the second language starting from about 5 until 12 years, which is often referred to as the golden age period. We will be easier to introduce children of those ages to the second language, including English. On the other hand, adults have the weakness in acquiring the second language maximally. It is because they already have passed the golden age period, of course. Perhaps, adults who have the capability of learning English naturally will not face any kind of difficulties but for those who don’t, learning English is quite difficult. Due to the less ability of acquiring the second language, teaching English for adults needs certain methods in order to be successful.

The second different aspect in English teaching for children and adults is related to the materials. The materials of teaching English are determined by the different level of ages. In teaching children, teachers have to be able to provide the materials simply and easily. Just because the children’s second language acquisition is better than adults, it does not mean teachers are allowed to give children as complex materials as those for adults. For children, the materials needed should be simple and meaningful. Usually, children are introduced to some simple expressions such as greetings or self-introduction. They can also be introduced to some simple vocabularies or nouns like animals, colors, parts of body, jobs, and so on. Different from that for children, English material for adults is more difficult. For adults, given materials are used in daily life context or for communication. As teachers, they can provide the materials about the job interview conversation, speech, debate, retell the experience, or another topic which aim at increasing their communication skill in daily life context.

The different teaching method of teaching English for children and adults is the last contrasting point which is discussed in this essay. In teaching children, the ability of getting their attention is required for teachers. As teachers, they have to deliver the materials in a unique and fun way. The fun learning method is an essential thing in teaching English at this stage of age. Mostly, children tend to be interested in playing and doing something with fun. Those are the keys for teachers to always give the materials in some interesting yet still meaningful ways. In addition, teaching children needs patience and awareness to grab them without making them feel disappointed or being ignored. Patience is related to how the teachers can get the students’ attention effectively. The less they can pay the attention to teachers, the more patience is needed for teachers. On the other hand, some interesting ways to teach English for adults is also required. The different is on how the teacher’s performance in teaching them. At this level, teachers have to be more skillful and capable of delivering the materials because the materials are quite difficult and useful for adults’ communication skill. In speaking, teachers should be more fluent because they are considered as the role-models for the students. Serious but fun ways can be applied to adults when they learn the English language. Teachers can be their facilitator and motivator for them. It will bring positive impacts on adults’ skill and comprehension of using this second language.

Teaching English for children and adults have different points which have to be recognized by the teachers. The different abilities of acquiring the second language, the given materials, and the teaching methods are some aspects which have to be paid serious attention by teachers. Teaching English is an amusing thing if we, as teachers, know whom we are teaching and how to deliver the knowledge effectively and efficiently.
Contributed by Monica Reinca Larasaty

Tuesday, May 8, 2012

Pembelajaran Kelas Menggunakan Video


Penelitian telah membuktikan bahwa penggunaan video dalam pembelajaran kelas mampu menjadi pendukung kurikulum yang efektif dan dinamis. Sebuah penelitian guru baru-baru ini menemukan bahwa lebih dari 90% guru kelas telah menggunakan video secara efektif dalam pembelajaran. Sebagian besar dari mereka bahkan sering menggunakan video, dengan frekuensi rata-rata sekali setiap minggu. Mengapa video semakin sering digunakan dalam pembelajaran?

Manfaat Video Dalam Pembelajaran:

Tujuan para guru sebagai pendidik salah satunya tentu saja adalah membuat murid merasa bersemangat dan terlibat dalam pengalaman belajar praktis. Video jelas merupakan sebuah media pembelajaran yang mampu menciptakan suasana belajar yang menyenangkan. Kemampuan video dalam melibatkan penglihatan dan pendengaran menjadikannya media yang sangat tepat bagi pelajar yang berkarakteristik pembelajar visual atau auditorial. Video juga mampu menangkap dan melibatkan emosi positif yang dapat merangsang gairah belajar siswa. Video merupakan sarana belajar yang efektif dan inovatif bagi para guru dalam menjelaskan konsep-konsep tertentu dalam pembelajaran.

Bayangkan suasana kelas dimana siswa dapat secara langsung mendengarkan suara jeritan spesies satwa yang hampir punah, sekaligus melihat warna tubuh mereka, atau mendengar suara binatang yang hanya hidup jauh di alam liar di belahan bumi yang lain. Bayangkan juga pembelajaran yang melibatkan suara asli para tokoh terkenal dari masa lampau, tokoh-tokoh yang tercatat dalam sejarah, tokoh-tokoh politik, dan orang-orang terkenal lainnya yang hidup berabad-abad yang silam. Begitu pula pembelajaran tentang hukum gerak, suara, serta perpindahan energi akan menjadi lebih menyenangkan jika guru menayangkan film video peluncuran pesawat ulang-alik dalam perjalanannya menuju ke angkasa luar. Dalam mempelajari kebudayaan, siswa akan dapat lebih mudah memahami perbedaan budaya masyarakat yang tinggal di belahan dunia lainnya jika mereka melihatnya secara langsung pada lingkungan mereka sendiri, sekaligus mendengarkan nyanyian mereka, mengamati ritual-ritual kepercayaan mereka. Dengan bimbingan guru dan penyajian yang tepat, video mampu memberikan pengalaman indrawi yang menjadikan konsep mudah untuk dirasakan secara nyata dan dipahami.

Pengalaman membuktikan bahwa semakin besar keterlibatan siswa dalam pembelajaran, semakin interaktif pembelajaran di kelas, maka semakin besar pula ketertarikan dan daya serap siswa terhadap pelajaran. Akan semakin banyak hal-hal yang bisa dipelajari dan diingat oleh siswa. Sebagai media yang sangat fleksibel, video bisa menjadi sarana pembelajaran interaktif. Video memungkinkan untuk dihentikan, dimulai, atau diulang kapanpun dibutuhkan. Anda bisa menghentikan tayangan video lalu meminta siswa untuk memprediksi hasil atau akibat dari suatu hal, atau mendiskusikan, atau berdebat tentang suatu referensi sejarah. Anda bisa memutar ulang suatu bagian tertentu dari tayangan video untuk menambahkan suatu penjelasan atau memutar bagian tersebut dalam gerakan lambat untuk memastikan bahwa siswa memahami suatu konsep penting. Di samping itu, pembelajaran dengan video akan menjadi semakin interaktif dengan cara menirukan kegiatan dalam film, workshop, demonstrasi serta eksperimen di dalam lingkungan kelas.


Pembelajaran Dengan Menggunakan Video Secara Efektif

Suatu riset baru-baru ini menunjukkan bahwa cara paling efektif dalam menggunakan video untuk pembelajaran adalah sebagai peningkatan kualitas pembelajaran atau suatu unit pembelajaran. Video sebaiknya digunakan sebagai suatu elemen pembelajaran bersama dengan sumber atau bahan pembelajaran lainnya yang anda miliki. Dalam mengajar suatu topik, penggunaan video di dalam kelas harus dipersiapkan dengan baik sebagaimana media pembelajaran atau alat peraga lainnya. Tujuan pembelajaran khusus harus ditentukan, begitu juga langkah-langkah pembelajaran serta kegiatan pemantapan harus direncanakan dengan baik. Yang tidak kalah pentingnya adalah semua video yang akan dipergunakan dalam pembelajaran harus dikaji dulu oleh guru, agar benar-benar sesuai dengan kebutuhan pembelajaran.