Monday, May 6, 2013

"Used to" Untuk Menceritakan Kebiasaan Masa Lalu (Past Habit)

Salah satu cara untuk menceritakan kebiasaan di masa lalu adalah dengan menggunakan struktur "used to + infinitive". "Used to" memiliki makna bahwa suatu pekerjaan atau kegiatan hanya terjadi di waktu lampau, dan sekarang sudah tidak terjadi lagi. Jika diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Indonesia, "used to" kira-kira sama maknanya dengan "dulu biasanya" atau "dulu terbiasa". Jadi, "used" dalam "used to" sama sekali tidak berarti "menggunakan" atau "memakai".

Kompetensi dalam menggunakan "used to" untuk menceritakan kebiasaan di waktu lampau adalah salah satu kompetensi yang diujikan dalam Ujian Nasional Bahasa Inggris, khususnya untuk SMK. Karena itu, penggunaan "used to" harus dapat dikuasai dengan baik oleh pelajar SMA/MA dan SMK/MAK. Lihat beberapa contoh di bawah ini untuk menjelaskan penggunaan "used to":

  • She used to work in a shop. Now she works in a restaurant.
  • When I was younger, I used to swim in the river with my friends. Now it is heavily polluted with industrial waste.
  • He used to come here for breakfast almost every morning, but now he has moved to another city.
  • When I was a child, TVRI used to be the only domestic TV channel. Today, there are many channels available to choose.
  • She has got short hair now but it used to be very long.

Structure of Used to Sentences

Affirmative SentenceI
We
You
They
He
She
It
used tobe
do
write
work
have
study
play
Negative SentenceI
We
You
They
He
She
It
did not use to
didn't use to
be
do
write
work
have
study
play
Interrogative Sentence (Question)Did I
Did we
Did you
Did they
Did he
Did she
Did it
use tobe?
do?
write?
work?
have?
study?
play?
Catatan:
Penggunaan "used to ..." hanya untuk kebiasaan lampau. Kita tidak bisa menggunakan "use to ..." untuk menceritakan kebiasaan-kebiasaan di masa sekarang. Untuk mengungkapkan kebiasaan di masa sekarang (present habit), gunakanlah bentuk Simple Present tense.

Exercises:

A. Combine the two sentences using "but", and use "Used to" for the past habits.

Example:
Shanti worked in an accountant office. Now, she runs her own business.
Answer: Shanti used to work in an accountant office, but now she runs her own business.

  1. Lisa lived in a boarding house. Now, she lives in an apartment.
  2. The woman was my next-door neighbor. She has moved to another town.
  3. She took the bus to work. Now, she prefers cycling.
  4. We worked in the same office. Now, she has been transferred to another branch.
  5. The restaurant opened only on weekdays. Now, it opens in weekends too.

B. Complete these sentences. Use "used to" or the present simple (I play / she lives etc.)

Example:
He used to play football. He stopped playing a few years ago.
  1. "Do you do any sport?" ~ "Yes, I ... basketball."
  2. "Have you got a car?" ~ "No, I ... one but I sold it."
  3. "How do you go to work?" ~ "I usually ... to work by motorcycle."
  4. Wati ... a waitress. Now she works as a receptionist.
  5. When I worked in the foreign company, I ... English everyday. Now, I seldom speak English.
  6. Lia likes playing music. She ... the piano almost everyday.
  7. This room ... the language laboratory. Once a week, our students practice their speaking and listening skill here.
  8. I ... three glasses of coffee everyday, but my doctor suggested I drink less coffee.
  9. I'm an early riser. I always ... at 5 am every morning.
  10. I ... a monthly magazine. I stopped the subscription last year.
Reference:
Murphy Raymond, Essential Grammar in Use, pg. 58-59, Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, 1998.

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