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Showing posts with label Adjective Clause. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Adjective Clause. Show all posts

September 25, 2011

TOEFL® Preparation Exercise: Reducing An Adjective Clause Into An Adjective Phrase

Reducing An Adjective Clause Into An Adjective Phrase - TOEFL® Preparation Exercise
  1. Combine the following sentences using adjective clauses. Please pay attention to the punctuation, and put commas where necessary.
  2. Reduce the adjective clauses into adjective phrases
Example:
  1. On 27 October 1945, a British plane from Jakarta dropped leaflets over Surabaya. They urged all Indonesian troops and militia to surrender their weapons.
    1. On 27 October 1945, a British plane from Jakarta dropped leaflets over Surabaya which urged all Indonesian troops and militia to surrender their weapons.
    2. On 27 October 1945, a British plane from Jakarta dropped leaflets over Surabaya urging all Indonesian troops and militia to surrender their weapons.
  2. The Battle of Surabaya became a symbol of resistance to the re-imposition of Dutch colonial rule. It cost the lives of many thousands of Indonesians.
    1. The Battle of Surabaya, which cost the lives of many thousands of Indonesians, became a symbol of resistance to the re-imposition of Dutch colonial rule.
    2. The Battle of Surabaya, costing the lives of many thousands of Indonesians, became a symbol of resistance to the re-imposition of Dutch colonial rule.
  1. Jakarta is very crowded. It is the capital city of Indonesia.
  2. The car belongs to Mr. Harun. It is parked under the tree.
  3. The old woman makes a very good living by selling clothes. She lives next door.
  4. He borrowed a book from the library. It is about Indonesian literature.
  5. The girl is very attractive. She lives opposite my house.
  6. The writer has just written an article. It criticizes the system of education in Indonesia.
  7. In playing football, the children use a small ball. It is made of solid rubber.
  8. I have found a letter. It is addressed to one of our important clients.
  9. She bought a book. It is written by a famous author.
  10. I know the lady. She was driving the car.
  11. Rujak Cingur is a traditional East Javanese dish. It is made of salad, chicken, and seafood.
  12. The krill is a tiny sea animal. It looks like a shrimp.
  13. A supernova produced the famous Crab nebula. It is a favorite among astronomers.
  14. The St. Bernard is a breed of very large working dog from the Italian and Swiss Alps. It is originally bred for rescue.
  15. Sunlight can be used to generate electricity by means of cells. They contain substances that emit electrons when bombarded with protons.
  16. Positive thinkers look at life with an attitude of hope. It influences their environment in a way that creates positive results.
  17. Cato the Elder was born in Tusculum. It was a municipal town of Latium.
  18. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in adults. It is caused by changes in the blood vessels of the retina.
  19. Anne Boleyn was the second wife of King Henry VIII. She was beheaded at the age of 29.
  20. A new species of tomato has been developed. It is adapted to harsh climatic conditions.
  21. Edward Kazarian uses microscopes and diamond-tipped tools to create figures the size of the head of a pin. He is a master of making miniatures.
  22. The vast oil spill cost millions to clean up. It smeared the coast.
  23. Majapahit kingdom reached its peak of glory during the era of Hayam Wuruk. He reigned from 1350 to 1389.
  24. James wrote an article. The article indicated that he disliked the president.
  25. The man was brought to the police station. He confessed to the crime.

Reference:
  1. Gear J & Gear R. Cambridge Preparation for the TOEFL® Test 2nd Ed. Cambridge, Cambridge UP, 1996.
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Surabaya. Accessed Sept 25, 2011.

TOEFL® Preparation: Adjective Clause Reduction into Adjective Phrase

TOEFL® Preparation: Adjective Clause Reduction into Adjective PhraseSebelumnya, kita sudah belajar tentang adjective clause atau relative clause serta bagaimana menggabungkan kalimat dengan menggunakan adjective clause atau relative clause.

Sekarang, kita akan mempelajari "peringkasan" adjective clause menjadi adjective phrase agar kalimat kita menjadi lebih efisien. Seperti halnya adjective clause, adjective phrase adalah salah satu testing point dalam tes TOEFL®, TOEIC®, dan Ujian Akhir Nasional (UAN) SMA dan SMK.

What is an adjective phrase?

Adjective phrase adalah "penyusutan" dari adjective clause. Fungsinya masih sama, yaitu menerangkan tentang seseorang atau sesuatu. Tidak seperti adjective clause, adjective phrase tidak memiliki subyek dan kata kerja. Pada kalimat-kalimat berikut, bagian kalimat yang bergaris bawah adalah adjective phrase.
  1. In 1920, the Panama Canal was officially opened, finally linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
  2. Much of the prosperity of this region is due to a cigar factory established more than one hundred years ago.
  3. In 1799, a soldier discovered a piece of stele (a stone pillar bearing an inscription) known as the Rosetta stone.
  4. The giant redwood trees of California, called "sequoias", will further imprint Sequoia's name in history.
  5. After writing many letters seeking employment in local factories, she was finally hired by a big garment manufacturer.

Can we reduce all adjective clauses into adjective phrases?

Hanya adjective clause dengan subyek "who", "which", "that" yang bisa diringkas menjadi adjective phrase.


How to reduce an adjective clause into an adjective phrase?

Ada dua cara meringkas adjective clause menjadi adjective phrase:
  1. Subyek "who", "which", "that" dan verb be dihilangkan.

    Reducing Adjective Clauses into Adjective Phrases
    Adjective ClausesAdjective Phrases
    The woman who is sitting next to our headmaster is the new supervisor.The woman sitting next to our headmaster is the new supervisor.
    The test which was given to us this morning was quite easy.The test given to us this morning was quite easy.
    She has just moved from Pasuruan, which is a town near Probolinggo.She has just moved from Pasuruan, a town near Probolinggo.
    The apples which are on that plate look fresh and appealing.The apples on that plate look fresh and appealing.

  2. Jika tidak ada verb be, hilangkan "who", "which", atau "that", lalu ubah Verb menjadi bentuk -ing.

    Reducing Adjective Clauses into Adjective Phrases
    Adjective ClausesAdjective Phrases
    The woman who sat next to our headmaster was the new supervisor.The woman sitting next to our headmaster was the new supervisor.
    The TOEIC® test, which consists of 200 test items, takes approximately two hours.The TOEIC® test, consisting of 200 test items, takes approximately two hours.
    A tapeworm is a parasite that lives in the intestines of humans and animals.A tapeworm is a parasite living in the intestines of humans and animals.


Now, practice what you've just learnt. Reduce the adjective clauses in the following sentences into adjective phrases.
  1. A thunderstorm is a form of weather which is characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere which is known as thunder.
  2. The cloud type which is associated with the thunderstorm is the cumulonimbus.
  3. Thunderstorms most frequently form and develop within areas that are located at mid-latitude when warm moist air collides with cooler air.
  4. Thunderstorms, and the phenomena that occur along with them, pose great hazards to populations and landscapes.
  5. Damage that results from thunderstorms is mainly inflicted by downburst winds, large hailstones, and flash flooding which is caused by heavy precipitation.
  6. Mesoscale convective systems which are formed by favorable vertical wind shear within the tropics and subtropics are responsible for the development of hurricanes.
  7. Dry thunderstorms can cause the outbreak of wildfires with the heat that is generated from the cloud-to-ground lightning that accompanies them.
  8. The falling droplets create a downdraft of air that spreads out at the Earth's surface, which causes strong winds.
  9. Thunderstorms which cause hail to fall are known as hailstorms.
  10. Thunderstorms, which result from the rapid upward movement of warm and moist air, can be very disastrous.
References:
  1. Azar B.S. Understanding and Using English Grammar (2nd Ed). NJ: Prentice-Hall. Inc, 1989, pg.257.
  2. Pyle M.A. and Munoz M.E. . TOEFL® Preparation Guide (5th Ed). Lincoln: Cliffs Notes Inc., 1995.
  3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thunderstorm. Accessed Sept 25, 2011.

September 24, 2011

Adjective Clause (Relative Clause)

Adjective Clause (Relative Clause)-Minarni Soedardjanto
M
ateri tentang adjective clause atau relative clause adalah salah satu materi yang harus dikuasai dengan baik oleh siswa SMA, SMK, hingga mahasiswa perguruan tinggi. Selain dibutuhkan dalam penyusunan dan penulisan kalimat berbahasa Inggris yang efisien, adjective clause atau relative clause juga merupakan salah satu testing point yang selalu diujikan dalam test TOEFL, TOEIC, dan Ujian Akhir Nasional (UAN). Karena itu, setelah mengenal sekilas tentang adjective clause atau relative clause, sekarang kita akan mempelajarinya secara lebih terperinci lagi.

1. Adjective Clause Using Subject Pronouns: Who, Which, That

Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with Subject Pronouns: "Who", "Which", "That"
Without adjective clause / relative clauseUsing adjective clause / relative clause
I will introduce you to a friend. He runs a successful business.I will introduce you to a friend who runs a successful business.
I will introduce you to a friend that runs a successful business.
The book is about religion. It has raised controversy.The book which has raised controversy is about religion.
The book that has raised controversy is about religion.
Notes:
  • "Who", "which", atau "that" adalah subyek dalam adjective clause.
  • "Who" digunakan untuk mengganti subyek berupa orang.
  • "Which" digunakan untuk mengganti subyek berupa benda.
  • "That" digunakan untuk mengganti subyek berupa orang maupun benda, dan lebih umum dipakai daripada "which". Akan tetapi, "that" hanya bisa digunakan pada defining relative clause saja. (Baca Menggabungkan Kalimat Menggunakan Adjective Clause (Relative Clause).

2. Adjective Clause Using Object Pronouns: Who(m), Which, That

Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with Object Pronouns: "Who(m)", "Which", "That"
Without adjective clause / relative clauseUsing adjective clause / relative clause
I will introduce you to a friend. You have never met him before.I will introduce you to a friend (who(m)) you have never met before.
I will introduce you to a friend (that) you have never met before.
The book is about religion. I bought it in Gramedia bookstore last week.The book (which) I bought in Gramedia bookstore last week is about religion.
The book (that) I bought in Gramedia bookstore last week is about religion.
The song was very popular in 1990's. I am listening to it.The song to which I am listening was very popular in 1990's.
The song (which) I am listening to was very popular in 1990's.
The song (that) I am listening to was very popular in 1990's.
Notes:
  • "Whom" digunakan untuk mengganti obyek berupa orang, umumnya digunakan dalam bahasa Inggris formal. Untuk bahasa Inggris informal dan percakapan, "who" lebih sering dipakai menggantikan "whom".
  • "Which" digunakan untuk mengganti obyek berupa benda.
  • "That" digunakan untuk mengganti obyek berupa orang maupun benda, dan lebih umum dipakai daripada "which". Akan tetapi, "that" hanya bisa digunakan pada defining relative clause saja. (Baca Menggabungkan Kalimat Menggunakan Adjective Clause (Relative Clause).
  • Pada bahasa Inggris percakapan (lisan), "who", "which", atau "that" seringkali dihilangkan.

3. Adjective Clause Using Whose

Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with "Whose"
Without adjective clause / relative clauseUsing adjective clause / relative clause
I will introduce you to a friend. His interest is learning English.I will introduce you to a friend whose interest is learning English.
The old lady has a painting. Its value is inestimable.The old lady has a painting whose value is inestimable.
Notes:
  • Dalam adjective clause atau relative clause, "whose" digunakan untuk menunjukkan milik, menggantikan "his", "her", "its", atau "their".
  • Sebagaimana "his", "her", "its", dan "their", "Whose" selalu diikuti kata benda.
  • "Whose" tidak bisa dihilangkan.

4. Adjective Clause Using Where

Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with "Where"
Without adjective clause / relative clauseUsing adjective clause / relative clause
I will take you to the restaurant. I usually have lunch there (at the restaurant).I will take you to the restaurant where I usually have lunch.
I will take you to the restaurant at which I usually have lunch.
I will take you to the restaurant (which) I usually have lunch at.
The old lady has sold the house. She has lived there (in the house) for more than twenty years.The old lady has sold the house where she has lived for more than twenty years.
The old lady has sold the house in which she has lived for more than twenty years.
The old lady has sold the house (which) she has lived in for more than twenty years.
Notes:
  • "Where" dalam adjective clause atau relative clause digunakan untuk menjelaskan tempat.
  • Jika "where" digunakan, preposition pada keterangan tempat (seperti in, from, to, at, on, under, above) tidak diperlukan dalam adjective clause. Sebaliknya, jika "where" tidak digunakan, preposition harus ada. (lihat contoh ke-2 dan ke-3 dalam tabel di atas)

5. Adjective Clause Using When

Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with "When"
Without adjective clause / relative clauseUsing adjective clause / relative clause
We will never forget the day. My wife gave birth to my first son then (on that day).We will never forget the day when my wife gave birth to my first son.
We will never forget the day on which my wife gave birth to my first son.
We will never forget the day (that) my wife gave birth to my first son.
August is the month. The weather gets very windy then (in August).August is the month when the weather gets very windy.
August is the month in which the weather gets very windy.
August is the month (that) the weather gets very windy.
Notes:
  • "When" dalam adjective clause atau relative clause digunakan untuk menjelaskan waktu.
  • Jika "when" digunakan, preposition pada keterangan waktu (seperti in, on, at) tidak diperlukan dalam adjective clause. Sebaliknya, jika "where" tidak digunakan, preposition ada. (lihat contoh ke-2 dan ke-3 dalam tabel di atas)

Want to learn more about Adjective Clause?
Reference:
  1. Azar B.S. Understanding and Using English Grammar (2nd Ed). NJ: Prentice-Hall. Inc, 1989.
  2. Thomson & Martinet. A Practical English Grammar (4th Ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.
  3. Swan, M. Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980.
* Updated Tues, Oct 2, 2012.

September 23, 2011

Menggabungkan Kalimat Menggunakan Adjective Clause (Relative Clause)

Perhatikan dua pasang kalimat berikut ini.
  • The woman comes from Bandung. She lives next door.
  • I bought a new book. The book was written by a famous author.
Menggabungkan Kalimat Menggunakan Adjective Clause (Relative Clause)Kedua pasang kalimat di atas terasa tidak mengalir lancar dan efisien, karena pada tiap pasang kalimat terdapat kesamaan hal yang sedang dibicarakan, yaitu the woman / she dan a new book / the book, namun tidak "dimampatkan" dengan baik ke dalam satu kalimat. Untuk menghasilkan kalimat atau tulisan yang mengalir lancar, efisien dan terhindar dari pengulangan yang tidak perlu, kita bisa menggabungkan kedua kalimat di atas dengan mengubah kalimat kedua, yang berisi informasi tambahan tentang orang / hal yang dibicarakan pada kalimat pertama, menjadi adjective clause atau relative clause.
  • The woman who lives next door comes from Bandung.
  • I bought a new book which was written by a famous author.

What is an adjective clause or relative clause?

Bagian kalimat yang dicetak miring di sebut adjective clause atau relative clause. Adjective clause atau relative clause adalah klausa (anak kalimat) yang tidak dapat berdiri sendiri dan merupakan bagian dari suatu kalimat induk (main clause). Adjective clause atau relative clause memberikan informasi tambahan tentang seseorang, suatu benda, tempat, atau waktu. Pada kalimat di atas, who lives next door memperjelas siapa yang sedang dibicarakan.

Jadi, fungsi dari adjective clause atau relative clause adalah:
  1. Memperjelas atau mendefinisikan orang atau benda manakah yang sedang dibicarakan, tanpa membuat suatu kalimat baru.
  2. Menghindari pengulangan kata yang tidak perlu. Remember, avoid repetition as much as possible.
Di sinilah letak pentingnya penggunaan adjective clause atau relative clause secara baik dan benar dalam membuat kalimat berbahasa Inggris yang efisien.

Perlu diketahui, adjective clause atau relative clause adalah salah satu testing point yang hampir selalu diujikan dalam setiap test TOEFL. (baca Tips TOEFL: Strategi Mengerjakan Test TOEFL Dengan Mengenali Testing Point)

Penulisan adjective clause atau relative clause dalam kalimat: Dengan koma atau tanpa koma?

Kadang kita bingung dalam menentukan apakah adjective clause atau relative clause harus dipisah dari kalimat induk dengan menggunakan koma atau tidak. Pahamilah aturan ini.
  1. Jangan gunakan koma jika keberadaan adjective clause atau relative clause dalam kalimat dibutuhkan sebagai penjelas yang mendefinisikan orang / benda yang sedang dibicarakan. Inilah yang dalam istilah grammar disebut defining relative clause. Tanpa defining relative clause, hal yang dibicarakan dalam kalimat akan menjadi tidak jelas.
  2. Gunakan koma jika keberadaan adjective clause atau relative clause dalam kalimat hanya sebagai informasi tambahan tentang seseorang / suatu hal. Inilah yang dalam istilah grammar disebut non-defining relative clause. Tanpa menggunakan non-defining relative clause-pun, hal / orang yang dibicarakan dalam kalimat sudah jelas.
Defining and Non-defining Relative Clause
Defining Relative ClauseNon-defining Relative Clause
The rhincodon typus is a species of shark which reaches approximately 12 metres (39 ft).

I will introduce you to a friend who runs a successful business.
Sharks, which date from more than 420 million years ago, have diversified into 440 species.

Mr. Lui, who has been our principal for two years, is a very energetic man.


Tips singkat membuat adjective clause atau relative clause

  1. "Who" digunakan jika adjective clause atau relative clause membicarakan seseorang, bukan benda.
    • The doctor who is examining the patient is a heart specialist.
    • I am going to tell you a story about a man who risked his own life to help another..
  2. "That" atau "which" digunakan jika adjective clause atau relative clause membicarakan benda, bukan seseorang.
    • The book that I borrowed from the local library two days ago was about the theories of learning.
    • My son enjoyed reading the storybook that I bought him last month.
  3. "That" lebih umum digunakan daripada "which". Akan tetapi, non-defining relative clause hanya boleh menggunakan "which".
    • She lived in a house that / which overlooked the beach.
    • He told us about his new job, which he enjoyed very much. (‘that’ is not possible)
  4. "Whose" digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti milik "his", "her", "their".
    • A widow is a woman whose husband is dead. (her husband is dead)
    • Do you still remember the boy whose book you borrowed?
  5. "Whom" digunakan untuk menggantikan kata ganti orang jika posisinya adalah sebagai obyek pada relative clause. Dalam bahasa Inggris lisan, "whom" seringkali digantikan oleh "who", "that", atau dihilangkan sama sekali.
    • Do you know the man (whom) we met in the hotel lobby this morning?
    • The student (whom) the teacher sent out was caught cheating during a test.
  6. "Where" digunakan jika relative clause membicarakan suatu tempat.
    • The house where we lived before moving here was quite old.
    • The beach where human skeletons were found is closed for public.
  7. "When" digunakan jika relative clause membicarakan waktu.
    • Do you still remember the day when we first met?
    • September is the month when mango trees start to bear fruit.

Exercise: Combine the sentences using adjective clause or relative clause

  1. The village has changed a lot. I grew up there.
  2. I ran into an old friend on Facebook. I haven't seen her for twenty years.
  3. The movie was boring. I saw it last week.
  4. I am reading a blog post. It talks about adjective clauses.
  5. The man is my teacher. He wrote the article.
  6. Saturday is the day. We are going to have a picnic to the beach on that day.
  7. We visited a farmer. His house is at the foot of a mountain.
  8. I will explain my absence to my teacher. I missed his class.
  9. The foreigner came from UK. I had conversation with him on a bus.
  10. The TV program was good. I watched it last night.
Untuk mempelajari adjective clause atau relative clause secara lebih terperinci, baca Adjective Clause.

Untuk mengetahui posisi adjective clause atau relative clause sebagai testing point dalam test TOEFL, baca Tips TOEFL: Strategi Mengerjakan Test TOEFL Dengan Mengenali Testing Point.
Reference:
  1. Azar B.S. Understanding and Using English Grammar (2nd Ed). NJ: Prentice-Hall. Inc, 1989.
  2. Thomson & Martinet. A Practical English Grammar (4th Ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.
  3. Swan, M. Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980.