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Showing posts with label Past Tenses. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Past Tenses. Show all posts

July 05, 2022

Past Perfect Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, dan Latihan Soal

Past Perfect
Pada kesempatan kali ini, kita akan membahas tentang struktur atau susunan kalimat dalam bentuk Past Perfect tense serta bagaimana penggunaannya. Untuk mempermudah kita dalam mempelajarinya, pembahasan ini dilengkapi dengan contoh kalimat serta latihan soal yang dapat kita kerjakan di akhir pembelajaran. Selamat belajar.
I. Struktur Past Perfect Tense
Struktur Past Perfect tense cukup mudah untuk diingat dan dipahami. Untuk kalimat positif, lihatlah struktur berikut:
Subject + auxiliary verb "HAD" + Past participle (VERB 3)
(Subyek + kata kerja bantu "HAD" + kata kerja bentuk ke-3)
Untuk daftar Verb 3 irregular verbs, lihat di SINI
Contoh kalimat:
  1. (+) I had been there. / I'd been there.
    (?) Had I been there?
    (-) I had not been there. / I hadn't been there
  2. (+) He had worked hard. / He'd worked hard.
    (?) Had he worked hard?
    (-) He had not worked hard. / He hadn't worked hard.
  3. (+) They had gone away. / They'd gone away.
    (?) Had they gone away?
    (-) They had not gone away. / They hadn't gone away.
Catatan:
  1. Untuk kalimat tanya (interrogative / question), letakkan kata kerja bantu "had" di depan subyek. Contoh; "Had they gone?"
  2. Untuk kalimat menyangkal (negative), tambahkan "not" di belakang kata kerja bantu "had". Contoh; "They hadn't gone?"
  3. Dalam percakapan, had seringkali disingkat dengan cara yang sama seperti saat kita menyingkat kata would menjadi 'd. Perbedaannya ada pada kata kerja yang mengikutinya. Pada Past Perfect tense, 'd selalu diikuti oleh verb-3 (past participle), sedangkan kata "would" yang disingkat menjadi 'd selalu diikuti oleh verb-1 (infinitive). Contoh:
    • They'd gone = They had gone.
    • They'd go = They would go.
    • She'd sung = She had sung.
    • She'd sing = She would sing.
II. Penggunaan Past Perfect Tense
Bagaimana dan kapan kita menggunakan bentuk Past Perfect Tense?
  1. Past Perfect Tense digunakan untuk membicarakan kejadian/tindakan yang terjadi sebelum sebuah kejadian/tindakan lainnya terjadi di waktu lampau. Jadi, Past Perfect Tense menunjukkan kejadian/tindakan yang terjadi lebih dulu sebelum kejadian/tindakan lainnya. Contoh:
    • The train left at 7am. We arrived at 7.10am. When we arrived, the train had left. The train had left when we arrived.
    • The fact that he came late wasn't surprising to me. It had happened a few times before.
  2. Past Perfect Tense digunakan sebagai bentuk yang setara dengan Present Perfect tense, misal dalam kalimat tidak langsung (Indirect / Reported speech). Contoh:
    • He said, "I have submitted the report." ~ He said that he had submitted the report.
    • She said, "I've lost my wallet." ~ She said that she had lost his wallet.
  3. Past Perfect Tense digunakan dalam kalimat Conditional (If - conditional) tipe ke 3. Kalimat conditional tipe ke 3 ini digunakan untuk mengungkapkan pengandaian tentang kejadian / keadaan di masa lampau yang tidak sesuai dengan fakta yang sebenarnya. Contoh:
    • If you had arrived ten minutes earlier, you wouldn't have missed the train. (Fakta: you didn't arrive ten minutes earlier and you missed the train)
    • He would have been soaking wet if he hadn't worn a raincoat. (Fakta: He wasn't wet because he wore a raincoat.)
  4. Sama halnya dengan when pada penggunaan pertama (no. 1) di atas, Past Perfect Tense bisa digunakan bersama Simple Past tense as soon as, the moment, immediately, till/until, before, after untuk menegaskan atau memperjelas bahwa kegiatan atau peristiwa yang dimaksud terjadi atau selesai dilakukan sebelum kegiatan lainnya di masa lampau. Contoh:
    • When he had shut the window, he turned on the AC.
    • Before we had reached the basecamp, the rain poured down.
    Pelajari lebih jauh DI SINI.
Lihat contoh dialog tentang penggunaan Past Perfect tense DI SINI.

III. LATIHAN SOAL
A. Put the verbs in brackets into the past perfect tense.
  1. They were very tired. They (work) hard all day.
  2. I didn't know her. I (never met) her before.
  3. When the accident happened, I (finish) working at my garden.
  4. They found out that some burglars (break) into their house.
  5. When the cops arrived, the thieves (run) away.
  6. Sue did not go to work that day. She (be) sick for a week.
  7. We (not leave) the meeting room.
  8. you (arrive)?
  9. they (had) dinner?
  10. Some of the students (not do) the assignment.
B. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past or the Past Perfect tense.
  1. Jim (wait) for an hour when the bus (show) up.
  2. The classroom (look) clean. The students (clean) them when we (get) there.
  3. We (try) to chase the car after it (hit) the motorist.
  4. As soon as they (left) the building, it finally (collapse).
  5. I (hear) about his resignation before you (tell) me.
  6. Before I (become) a teacher in 2015, I (work) as an Assistant Manager for 6 years.
  7. The burglars (escape) before the cops (arrive) at the scene.
  8. If she (read) the announcement, she would have known about the change of schedule.
  9. Diane (tell) me that she (send) the goods on the previous day.
  10. The engine (break) after the race (start) for 10 minutes.
C. The Simple Past or the Past Perfect tense? Do this online exercise.
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February 14, 2022

Past Continuous Tense: Struktur, Penggunaan, & Latihan Soal

Past Continuous Tense
J
ika sebelumnya kita sudah belajar tentang Simple Past tense dan Present Continuous tense, pada materi ini kita akan membahas tentang bentuk waktu lain yang juga sangat penting untuk dipelajari dalam bahasa Inggris, yaitu "Past Continuous tense".

Past continuous tense adalah bentuk waktu yang digunakan saat kita membicarakan suatu aktifitas atau peristiwa yang sedang dilakukan atau sedang terjadi pada saat tertentu di masa lampau.

Sebagai ilustrasi, lihatlah gambar di atas dan perhatikan bentuk kata kerja (verbs) pada kalimat-kalimat dalam paragraf singkat berikut ini:

At ten o'clock, Nancy was working out. She wasn't cooking. Now she is cooking and preparing lunch. She is not working out.

Perhatikan kalimat dengan kata kerja (verbs) dicetak tebal, yaitu:
  • At ten o'clock, Nancy was working out.
  • She wasn't cooking.

Kata-kata yang dicetak tebal pada kedua kalimat di atas inilah contoh kata kerja dalam bentuk Continuous tense.

I. Bentuk dan Struktur Past Continuous tense
A. Kalimat Afirmatif / positif.
Subject + was / were + verb-ing
SubjectAuxiliary verb BEMain verb (verb-ing)
Iwasworking.
We
She and I
My friends and I
were
were
were
working.
working.
working.
Youwereworking.
They
The men
My friends
were
were
were
working.
working.
working.
He
She
It
Nancy
The man
was
was
was
was
was
working.
working.
working.
working.
working.
B. Kalimat Interogatif / tanya.
Was / Were + subject + verb-ing?
Auxiliary verb BESubjectMain verb (verb-ing)?
WasIworking?
Were
Were
Were
we
she and I
my friends and I
working?
working?
working?
Wereyouworking?
Were
Were
Were
they
the men
my friends
working?
working?
working?
Was
Was
Was
Was
Was
he
she
it
Nancy
the man
working?
working?
working?
working?
working?
C. Kalimat Negatif / penyangkalan.
Subject + was not (wasn't) / were not (weren't) + verb-ing
SubjectAuxiliary verb BE + NOTMain verb (verb-ing)
Iwas not (wasn't)working.
We
She and I
My friends and I
were not (weren't)
were not (weren't)
were not (weren't)
working.
working.
working.
Youwere not (weren't)working.
They
The men
My friends
were not (weren't)
were not (weren't)
were not (weren't)
working.
working.
working.
He
She
It
Nancy
The man
was not (wasn't)
was not (wasn't)
was not (wasn't)
was not (wasn't)
was not (wasn't)
working.
working.
working.
working.
working.
II. Penggunaan Past Continuous tense.
Past Continuous tense pada umumnya digunakan untuk tujuan-tujuan berikut ini:
  1. Membicarakan kegiatan / peristiwa yang sedang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau. Kegiatan / peristiwa tersebut dimulai sebelum waktu itu, dan saat itu masih sedang terjadi dan belum berakhir.
    Contoh kalimat:
    • At ten o'clock, Nancy was working out. She wasn't cooking. She started cooking at nine, and finished at eleven.
    • Yesterday I watched a movie on the internet. The movie started at 7 pm and finished at 9 pm. At 8 pm yesterday, I was watching the movie.
    Past Continuous tense illustration
  2. Dalam bercerita, past continuous tense umumnya digunakan untuk menggambarkan situasi yang menjadi latar belakang sebuah adegan. Cerita tersebut seringkali dimulai dengan past continuous tense untuk menggambarkan peristiwa yang menjadi latar belakang, lalu dilanjutkan dengan kalimat dalam simple past tense untuk menceritakan adegan yang terjadi.
    Contoh:
    "The farmer and his wife were working in their farm. The sun was shining. The wind was blowing gently. The birds were chirping on the trees around the farm. Suddenly, they heard a loud explosion from the barn."
  3. Past continuous tense sering digunakan bersama simple past tense dengan kata penghubung "when" atau "while" untuk 2 (dua) peristiwa/kegiatan yang terjadi pada waktu yang bersamaan di masa lampau. Past continuous tense digunakan untuk peristiwa/kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung saat peristiwa/kegiatan lainnya terjadi (biasanya menggunakan bentuk simple past tense). Jadi past continuous membicarakan peristiwa/kegiatan yang lebih lama, sedangkan simple past tense membicarakan peristiwa yang tiba-tiba terjadi pada saat itu.

    Pada contoh kalimat di bawah ini, ada 2 (dua) peristiwa/kegiatan yang sedang dibicarakan.

    1. Kegiatan yang lebih lama (she was watching a movie at 8 pm), menggunakan bentuk past continuous tense.
    2. Peristiwa yang tiba-tiba terjadi (the door opened), menggunakan bentuk simple past tense.
    Kedua peristiwa/kegiatan tersebut bisa diungkapkan dalam satu kalimat dengan menggunakan kata hubung "when" (untuk peristiwa yang tiba-tiba terjadi) atau "while" (untuk kegiatan yang lebih lama). Contoh-contoh kalimat di bawah ini menggunakan 4 (empat) kombinasi yang berbeda:
    • She was watching a movie when the door opened.
    • When the door opened, she was watching a movie.
    • While she was watching a movie, the door opened.
    • The door opened while she was watching a movie.
    Catat bahwa "when the door opened" juga merupakan keterangan waktu.
  4. Past Continuous juga sering digunakan dengan "while" untuk membicarakan dua kegiatan / peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung secara bersamaan di waktu lampau. Kedua kegiatan / peristiwa tersebut berlangsung selama beberapa lama, dan keduanya menggunakan bentuk Past Continuous tense. Contoh:
    • While I was sunbathing, my friends were playing beach volleyball.
    • He was playing a video game while his sister was watching a movie.
    • The mechanic was repairing the car while Andy was curiously watching him.
  5. Past continuous seringkali digunakan bersama frase "I was wondering if you could/would…….., I was hoping, and I was thinking". Di sini, past continuous digunakan agar permintaan atau saran terdengar lebih halus dan sopan. Contoh:
    • I was wondering if you’d like to go out with me for dinner one evening.
    • I was hoping you would be able to come to my party.
  6. Past continuous digunakan untuk menggambarkan situasi yang sedang berubah. Contoh:
    • It was getting darker. The wind was rising.
    • Despite the headwinds created by the COVID-19, the economy was recovering.
  7. Pada kalimat tak langsung (indirect speech), past continuous digunakan untuk mengganti kata kerja berbentuk present continuous. Contoh:
    • Ann said, "I am still working."
      Ann said that she was still working.
  8. Sama halnya dengan present continuous, ada beberapa kata kerja (verbs) yang tidak biasa digunakan dalam bentuk past continuous.
  • Lihat How to Use Past Continuous Tense untuk mempelajari penggunaan Past Continuous Tense dalam versi bahasa Inggris.
  • Bagaimana membedakan penggunaan Simple Past Tense dengan Past Continuous tense? Pelajari selengkapnya DI SINI.
III. LATIHAN SOAL

A. Ubahlah kata kerja di dalam kurung ke dalam bentuk Past Continuous tense yang benar.
  1. John (work) in his office at 10 am this morning.
  2. When I walked past his house, he (mow) the lawn.
  3. The sun (shine) while the afternoon breeze (blow).
  4. The teacher (explain) his lesson when the fire alarm went off.
  5. Jane (practice) the piano at 8 pm last night.
  6. He (not joke) when he told the news.
  7. The children (not play) football at 4 pm this afternoon.
  8. What you (do) at 7 pm last night?
  9. What he (do) when you entered the room?
  10. Mom (cook) when Dad called her.
  11. We (work) in the garden when it started to rain.
  12. She left early because it (snow).
  13. They (visit) the museum at 10 am this morning.
  14. At 8 am yesterday morning, the students (do) their test.
  15. At that time, the moon (hide) behind the cloud.
B. Ubahlah kata kerja di dalam kurung ke dalam bentuk Past Continuous tense atau Simple Past tense.
  1. When the principal (appear) at the classroom door, some students (make) a presentation. They (talk) about cyberbullying while others (listen) attentively.
  2. At 8 am this morning, they (clean) the room. They (start) working at 7 and (finish) at about 10.
  3. The boys (practice) when David (call). He (say) that he was still at work.
Dapatkan soal latihan lebih lengkap lagi di Exercise: Contrasting The Simple Past With The Past Continuous
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April 20, 2020

Simple Past Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, dan Latihan Soal

KOMPETENSI DASAR
3.6Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait keadaan / tindakan / kegiatan / kejadian yang dilakukan/terjadi di waktu lampau yang merujuk waktu terjadinya dan kesudahannya, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya. (Perhatikan unsur kebahasaan simple past tense vs present perfect tense)
4.6Menyusun teks interaksi transaksional, lisan dan tulis, pendek dan sederhana, yang melibatkan tindakan unsur dan meminta informasi terkait keadaan/tindakan/kegiatan/kejadian yang dilakukan/terjadi di waktu lampau yang merujuk waktu terjadinya dan kesudahannya, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai konteks.

Simple Past Tense
S
imple Past tense adalah bentuk kata kerja yang digunakan untuk membicarakan kegiatan atau kejadian di waktu lampau. Ada beberapa tenses yang bisa digunakan untuk membicarakan sesuatu yang terjadi di masa lampau, akan tetapi simple past tense inilah yang paling sering digunakan. Dalam materi ini, kita akan mempelajari bentuk atau struktur serta penggunaan Simple Past tense melalui contoh-contoh kalimat dan latihan soal untuk membantu kalian dalam belajar.
1. Bagaimana struktur kalimat dan bentuk kata kerja Simple Past tense?
Untuk membuat kalimat dalam Simple Past tense, kita menggunakan;
kata kerja bentuk lampau (Verb 2)
atau
auxiliary (did) + kata kerja dasar (verb 1)

Struktur kalimat positif, kalimat tanya, dan kalimat negatif dalam Simple Past tense secara lengkap adalah sebagai berikut:
(+) Subject + verb 2
(?)Did + subject + verb 1?
(-) Subject + did not (didn't) + verb 1

Lihatlah contoh-contoh kalimat dalam Simple Past tense berikut ini.
Contoh kalimat positif dalam Simple Past tense
SubjectPast verb (verb 2)
Isentthe email yesterday.
Hecleanedthe windows this morning.
Alyaplanteda flower in the garden.
Contoh kalimat tanya dalam Simple Past tense
Didsubjectverb 1
Didyousendthe email yesterday?
Didhecleanthe windows this morning?
DidAlyaplanta flower in the garden?
Contoh kalimat negatif dalam Simple Past tense
Subjectdid not (didn't)verb 1
Idid not (didn't)sendthe email yesterday.
Hedid not (didn't)cleanthe windows this morning.
Alyadid not (didn't)planta flower in the garden.
Di bawah ini adalah contoh beberapa kata kerja dasar (verb 1), baik regular maupun irregular verbs, dengan perubahannya dalam bentuk Simple Past (verb 2).
Regular verbsIrregular verbs
Verb 1Verb 2Verb 1Verb 2
basebasedblowblew
workworkedgowent
wantwantedcomecame
likelikedseesaw
visitvisitedreadread
playplayedwritewrote
Untuk daftar irregular verbs yang lebih lengkap, bisa dilihat dan diunduh di halaman Daftar Irregular Verbs Lengkap Dengan Artinya.
2. Bagaimana dengan kata kerja "to be" dalam Simple Past tense?
Penting diketahui bahwa kata kerja "to be" tidak menggunakan struktur kalimat past tense seperti di atas. Kata kerja "to be" (was, were) tidak membutuhkan auxiliary pada kalimat negatif dan kalimat tanya. Subyek I/he/she/it membutuhkan bentuk "to be" was, sedangkan we/you/they membutuhkan bentuk "to be" were. Perhatikan struktur kalimat Simple Past tense dengan kata kerja "to be" berikut ini:
Struktur kalimat Simple Past tense dengan kata kerja "to be"
Subjectto be
(+)I
He
They
was
was
were
here yesterday.
here yesterday.
here yesterday.
(?)Were
Was
Were
you
he
they
here yesterday?
here yesterday?
here yesterday?
(-)I
He
They
was not (wasn't)
was not (wasn't)
were not (weren't)
here yesterday.
here yesterday.
here yesterday.
3. Bagaimana dan kapan kita menggunakan Simple Past tense?

Seperti yang telah disebutkan di atas, Simple Past tense adalah bentuk kata kerja yang digunakan untuk kegiatan atau kejadian di waktu lampau. Karena itu, Simple Past tense hampir selalu digunakan dalam teks recount tentang pengalaman seseorang atau biografi seorang tokoh, narrative, seperti dongeng, legenda, dan cerita rakyat, serta teks berita (news item).

Secara lebih spesifik, Simple Past tense digunakan untuk:

  • Membicarakan suatu keadaan, kejadian atau kegiatan di waktu lampau dan waktu kejadiannya disebutkan atau sudah diketahui. Contoh:
    • The coronavirus first surfaced in a Chinese seafood and poultry market in Wuhan at the end of 2019.
    • On January 11 2020, Chinese state media reported the first known death from an illness caused by the virus.
    • Wage Rudolf Supratman, the writer of "Indonesia Raya" national anthem, was born on March 9, 1903 in Somongari, Purworejo, Central Java.
  • Membicarakan suatu keadaan, kejadian atau kegiatan yang sudah jelas terjadi di waktu lampau meskipun waktu kejadian tidak disebutkan secara spesifik. Contoh:
    • I graduated from a vocational high school in Probolinggo.
    • She worked in that factory for two years. (but she does not work there now.)
    • I bought this book in a book market in Malang.
  • Membicarakan suatu keadaan, kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi di suatu periode waktu lampau yang tidak mungkin akan terjadi lagi. Contoh:
    • Ismail Marzuki wrote at least 22 songs in his life.
    • My father took me to the zoo twice when I was a child.
    • It rained three times last week.
    Di sinilah letak perbedaan Simple Past dengan Present Perfect tense.

    Peristiwa-peristiwa lampau dalam kalimat contoh di atas tidak mungkin akan terjadi lagi karena jangka waktunya sudah berakhir. Jika jangka waktu masih belum berakhir dan masih ada kemungkinan untuk terjadi lagi, kita harus menggunakan bentuk Present Perfect tense.

  • Menanyakan kapan waktu terjadinya suatu keadaan, kejadian, atau kegiatan di waktu lampau. Contoh:
    • When did you arrive from Surabaya?
    • When did you meet her?
    • What time did you leave the office last night?
  • Dengan adverbs of frequency seperti always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, rarely, never, Simple Past digunakan untuk membicarakan kebiasaan di masa lampau, sama seperti penggunaan used to untuk membicarakan kebiasaan lampau. Contoh:
    • My father always picked me up from school.
    • They never came late.
    • He was always busy in the morning.
  • Membuat kalimat conditional (conditional sentence) type 2. Contoh:
    • If you took a closer look, you would be able to see the difference between these two pictures.
    • If they weren't so noisy, we would be able to concentrate.
    • It would not be so cold if you closed that window.
EXERCISE
A. Lengkapilah kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini dengan bentuk Simple Past (verb 2) dari kata kerja yang sesuai.

borrow - drive - give - watch - be - eat - spend - teach - decide - play

  1. He ... his childhood in a small village in East Java.
  2. I ... a good movie last night.
  3. We ... a very satisfying dinner last night.
  4. Before moving here, we always ... an hour to work every day.
  5. Lusi often ... tennis on weekends.
  6. The Japanese teacher ... our class last semester.
  7. She ... absent from school yesterday.
  8. We ... to work until late last night in order to meet the deadline.
  9. My Mom ... me a wonderful present on my last birthday.
  10. He ... my dictionary a few days ago.
B. Lengkapilah kalimat-kalimat berikut dengan mengubah kata kerja di dalam kurung ke dalam Simple Past tense. Lakukan perubahan susunan kalimat jika diperlukan.
Example:
  • She (make) this delicious cake this morning.
    Answer: She made this delicious cake this morning.
  • How you (get) your present job?
    Answer: How did you get your present job?
  1. My grandmother once (live) in Jember, East Java.
  2. She (work) in a foreign company for 3 years.
  3. They (buy) the car from a showroom last month.
  4. She (go) to the movie last night?
  5. I am sorry. I (not hear) the telephone.
  6. When you (send) the email?
  7. She (be) late because of the traffic jam.
  8. On 17 August 1945, Soekarno and Hatta (proclaim) the independence of Indonesia.
  9. They (not celebrate) the event because of Covid-19 outbreak.
  10. You (enjoy) your holiday?
C. Lengkapilah kalimat-kalimat berikut dengan mengubah kata kerja di dalam kurung ke dalam Simple Past tense. Pilihlah antara kalimat positif dan negatif sesuai dengan makna kalimat.
Example:
  • It was hot in the room, so we ... the windows. (open)
    Answer: It was hot in the room, so we opened the windows.
  • It was cold outside, so we ... the windows. (open)
    Answer: It was cold outside, so we didn't open the windows.
  1. It was very crowded, so we ... the concert. (enjoy)
  2. It was very cloudy this morning, so I ... my umbrella. (bring)
  3. I was very tired, but I ... very well. The bed was uncomfortable. (sleep)
  4. Atri ... to work yesterday because he was sick. (go)
  5. I have submitted the documents they need. I ... it by email about an hour ago. (send)
Reference:
  • Azar B.S. Understanding and Using English Grammar (2nd Ed). NJ: Prentice-Hall. Inc, 1989.
  • Thomson and Martinet (1986). A Practical English Grammar (4th Ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Daftar Irregular Verbs Lengkap Dengan Artinya

Daftar Irregular Verbs Lengkap

D
alam bahasa Inggris, irregular verb adalah kata kerja yang bentuk lampaunya (past tense) tidak dibentuk dengan cara biasa yaitu menambahkan akhiran -ed. Jadi untuk bentuk Past Simple (verb 2) dan Past Participle (verb 3), irregular verb tidak harus selalu berakhiran -d, -ed, atau -ied, karena itu disebut Irregular verb, atau kata kerja tidak beraturan.

Pengetahuan tentang irregular verb atau kata kerja tidak beraturan dalam bahasa Inggris sangatlah penting jika kita ingin mengikuti aturan tata bahasa Inggris secara benar terutama saat kita berbicara tentang masa lampau (past tense), menggunakan kalimat pasif (passive voice), atau kalimat conditional. Apalagi beberapa kata kerja bahasa Inggris yang paling sering digunakan kebetulan adalah irregular verbs, seperti; come, do, go, get, make, say, see, think, take, know.

Berikut ini daftar Irregular Verbs (kata kerja tak beraturan) dalam bahasa Inggris lengkap dengan artinya. Tautan (link) untuk mengunduh ada di bawah daftar ini.

Irregular Verbs (Kata Kerja Tidak Beraturan) dalam Bahasa Inggris
SIMPLE FORM
(Verb 1)
SIMPLE PAST
(Verb 2)
PAST PARTICIPLE
(Verb 3)
abideabode, abidedabode, abidedpatuh, bertahan
arisearosearisentimbul, muncul
awakeawokeawaked, awokenterbangun, sadar
bewas, werebeen
bearborebornemembawa
beatbeatbeatenmemukul, mengalahkan
becomebecamebecomemenjadi
befallbefellbefallenmenimpa
begetbegotbegottenmelahirkan
beginbeganbegunmemulai
beholdbeheldbeheldmenatap
bendbentbentmenekuk
bereavebereaved, bereftbereaved, bereftkehilangan
beseechbesoughtbesoughtmemohon
besetbesetbesetmenimpa
betbet, bettedbet, bettedbertaruh
bidbade, bidbidden, bidmenawar
bindboundboundmengikat
bitebitbittenmenggigit
bleedbledbledberdarah
blendblended, blentblended, blentmencampur
blowblewblownmeniup
breakbrokebrokenmematahkan
breedbredbredmembiakkan
bringbroughtbroughtmembawa
broadcastbroadcasted, broadcastbroadcasted, broadcastmenyiarkan
buildbuiltbuiltmembangun
burnburntburntmembakar
burstburstburstmeledak
buyboughtboughtmembeli
castcastcastmembuang
catchcaughtcaughtmenangkap
choosechosechosenmemilih
cleaveclove, cleftcloven, cleftmembelah
clingclungclungmelekat
clotheclothed, cladclothed, cladmenutupi
comecamecomedatang
costcostcostseharga
creepcreptcreptmerayap
crowcrowed, crewcrowedberkokok
cutcutcutmemotong
dealdealtdealtberurusan
digdugdugmenggali
divedived, dove (US)divedmenyelam
dodiddonemengerjakan
drawdrewdrawnmenggambar
dreamdreamed, dreamtdreamed, dreamtbermimpi
drinkdrankdrunkminum
drivedrovedrivenmengemudi
dwelldweltdweltmenetap
eatateeatenmakan
fallfellfallenjatuh
feedfedfedmemberi makan
feelfeltfeltmerasa
fightfoughtfoughtbertarung
findfoundfoundmenemukan
fleefledfledmelarikan diri
flingflungflungmelemparkan
flyflewflownterbang
forbearforboreforbornemenahan diri
forbidforbad(e)forbiddenmelarang
forecastforecastforecastmemperkirakan
foreseeforesawforeseenmeramalkan
foretellforetoldforetoldmeramalkan
forsakeforsookforsakenmengabaikan
forgetforgotforgottenmelupakan
forgiveforgaveforgivenmemaafkan
freezefrozefrozenmembeku
getgotgot, gotten (US)menjadi, mendapat
givegavegivenmemberi
gowentgonepergi
grindgroundgroundmenggiling
growgrewgrowntumbuh
hanghanged, hunghanged, hungmenggantung
havehadhadmempunyai
hearheardheardmendengar
heaveheaved, hoveheaved, hovemengangkat beban berat
hidehidhiddenmenyembunyikan
hithithitmemukul
holdheldheldmemegang, memeluk
hurthurthurtmenyakiti, sakit
inlayinlaidinlaidmenempelkan hiasan
keepkeptkeptmenjaga, tetap
knitknitted, knitknitted, knitmerajut
kneelkneltkneltberlutut
knowknewknownmengetahui
laylaidlaidmeletakkan
leadledledmemimpin
leanleaned, leantleaned, leantmenyandarkan
leapleaped, leaptleaped, leaptmeloncat
learnlearned, learntlearned, learntbelajar
leaveleftleftmeninggalkan
lendlentlentmeminjamkan
letletletmembiarkan
lielaylainberbaring
lightlighted, litlighted, litmenyala
loselostlostkehilangan, kalah
makemademademembuat
meanmeantmeantberarti
meetmetmetbertemu
meltmeltedmelted, moltenmencair
mistakemistookmistakensalah
misunderstandmisunderstoodmisunderstoodsalah paham
mowmowedmown, mowed (US)memotong rumput
outbidoutbidoutbidkalah menawar
overhearoverheardoverheardmenguping
oversleepoversleptoversleptketiduran
overtakeovertookovertakenmenyalip
paypaidpaidmembayar
proveprovedproved, provenmembuktikan
putputputmeletakkan
quitquitted, quitquitted, quitkeluar
readreadreadmembaca
rendrentrentmenyewakan
ridridded, ridridded, ridmembersihkan
rideroderiddenmengendarai
ringrangrungberdering
riseroserisennaik, terbit
runranrunberlari
sawsawedsawed, sawnmenggergaji
saysaidsaidmengatakan
seesawseenmelihat
seeksoughtsoughtmencari
sellsoldsoldmenjual
sendsentsentmengirim
setsetsetmengatur
sewsewedsewed, sewnmenjahit
shakeshookshakenmengocok
shedshedshedmengucurkan
shineshoneshonebersinar
shootshotshotmenembak
showshowedshowed, shownmenunjukkan
shrinkshrank, shrunkshrunk, shrunkenmenyusut
shutshutshutmenutup
singsangsungbernyanyi
sinksanksunktenggelam
sitsatsatduduk
slayslewslainmembunuh
sleepsleptslepttidur
slideslidslidbergeser
slingslungslungmenggantung
slinkslunkslunkmengendap-endap
slitslitslitmengiris
smellsmeltsmeltberbau, membaui
smitesmotesmittenmemukul keras
sowsowedsowed, sownmenanam benih
speakspokespokenberbicara
speedspedspedmengebut
spellspelled, speltspelled, speltmengeja
spendspentspentmembelanjakan
spillspilled, spiltspilled, spiltmenumpahkan
spinspunspunmemutar
spitspatspatmeludah
splitsplitsplitmembelah
spoilspoiled, spoiltspoiled, spoiltmerusak
spreadspreadspreadmenyebar(kan)
springsprangsprungmelompat
standstoodstoodberdiri
stavestaved, stovestaved, stovemendobrak
stealstolestolenmencuri
stickstuckstuckmelekat(kan)
stingstungstungmenyengat
stinktank, stunkstunkberbau busuk
stridestrodestriddenmelangkah tegap
strikestruckstruck, strickenmenghantam
stringstrungstrungmerentangkan
strivestrovestrivenberjuang
swearsworeswornbersumpah
sweepsweptsweptmenyapu
swellswelledswelled, swollenmembengkak
swimswamswumberenang
swingswungswungmengayun
taketooktakenmengambil
teachtaughttaughtmengajar
teartoretornmenyobek
telltoldtoldmengatakan
thinkthoughtthoughtberpikir
thrivethrived, throvethrived, throveberkembang, maju
throwthrewthrownmelempar
thrustthrustthrustmenusuk
treadtrodtroddenmelangkah
understandunderstoodunderstoodmengerti
undertakeundertookundertakenmenjalani
undoundidundonemembatalkan
upsetupsetupsetmengecewakan
wakewokewokenmembangunkan
wearworewornmemakai
weavewovewovenmenenun
weepweptweptmenangis
winwonwonmenang
windwoundwoundmemutar
withdrawwithdrewwithdrawnmenarik mundur
withstandwithstoodwithstoodbertahan
wringwrungwrungmemeras
writewrotewrittenmenulis
Kata kerja tak beraturan (Irregular verb) yang anda cari tidak ditemukan? Unduh Daftar Irregular Verbs yang lebih lengkap beserta artinya melalui tautan di bawah ini. Reference:
  • Hornby A. S. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1974.
  • Azar B.S. Understanding and Using English Grammar (2nd Ed). NJ: Prentice-Hall. Inc, 1989.
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