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W riting this material reminds me of one of the most amusing experiences that I have had during my long years of being an English teacher. T...

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Showing posts with label Reading Exercise. Show all posts

March 05, 2022

News Item Texts: Function, Structure, Features, and Exercises

News Texts
hen you hear the word "news", what do you have in mind? Yes, I bet the word "news" is very familiar to all of us today. We watch news on the television, read it on printed media be it online on the internet or offline such as in newspapers. It usually refers to a particular piece of news, usually from a journalistic source, dealing with a particular story.
I. Definition and function of news items
What is a news item? A news item is a text that informs readers about events of the day. They give important information about newsworthy or important events that happen today, or have happened recently.
II. Generic structure of news items
A news item usually consists of:
  1. Main / newsworthy Event(s): recounts the event in the form of summary
  2. Background Events: elaborate what happened, to whom, in what circumstances.
  3. Sources: comments by participants in, witnesses to and/or authorities expert on the event.
III. Lexicogrammatical features of news items
A news item usually has the following features:
  • Short, telegraphic information about the story captured in headline.
  • Use of material processes to retell the event.
    Material processes (usually action verbs) show that some entity physically does something to some other entity. It gives information about the process of doing something. E.g. killed, searched, crashed, rescued, etc.
  • Use of projecting verbal processes in sources stage.
    Verbal processes represent process of ‘saying’. E.g. said, told, explained, informed, etc.
  • Focus on Circumstances (e.g. mostly within Qualifiers).
IV. Examples of news items
News Text 1
East Java flash Floods Kill At Least EightTitle / Headline
Rescuers scrambled Friday to find survivors under mud-swamped hillsides after flash floods in East Java killed at least eight people, the disaster agency said. Torrential rains on Thursday unleashed flash floods in Malang and the highland city of Batu, inundating houses with mud and debris, while a wall of water destroyed local bridges. Six people were pulled from the detritus alive, while rescuers found a half dozen bodies in Batu and two more victims in Malang.Summary/recount of the newsworthy event
On Friday, teams raced to find several more people unaccounted for in Batu, according to the National Disaster Mitigation Agency, as the dead were placed in body bags.Elaboration (background events)
"Until now, we are still trying to find three people still missing," the agency's chairman Abdul Muhari said in a statement. Fatal landslides and flash floods are common across Indonesia during the rainy season, which started in September.Comments by participants, witnesses, experts. and/or authorities
The disasters are often caused by deforestation and poor mitigation planning, according to environmentalists. Seven people were killed in a landslide triggered by torrential storms in Sumatra last month. In April, more than 200 people were killed in a cluster of far-eastern islands in Indonesia and neighbouring Timor Leste as Tropical Cyclone Seroja turned small communities into wastelands of mud and uprooted trees.Summary/recount of similar events
News Text 2
BMKG: Severe Weather Forecasted This Week for Parts of IndonesiaTitle / Headline
TEMPO.CO, Jakarta - The Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics Agency (BMKG) is warning that potentially extreme weather, such as moderate to heavy rain accompanied by lightning and strong winds, as well as high waves, is possible this week, February 17-23, in some parts of Indonesia.Summary/recount of the newsworthy event
“The public is advised to stay vigilant and cautious about potential extreme weather and its possible impact of hydrometeorological disasters, such as floods, landslides, flash floods, puddles, fallen trees, and others,” said the Meteorology Unit Deputy Guswanto in a statement received in Jakarta, Wednesday, Feb. 16.

Guswanto explained that the potential for extreme weather was based on the latest analysis on atmospheric dynamics.
Comments by participants, witnesses, experts. and/or authorities
The BMKG reiterated that the phenomenon is triggered by phase-3 Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) around the Indian Ocean which significantly contributes to the growth of rain clouds in several Indonesian regions. It is also strengthened by atmospheric waves, viz. equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves in a number of regions.

The potential for moderate to heavy rain is predicted to occur in Aceh, North Sumatra, Riau, Jambi, Bengkulu, South Sumatra, Lampung, Banten, Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, Yogyakarta, East Java, Bali, West Nusa Tenggara, West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, North Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, Gorontalo, Central Sulawesi, West Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi, North Maluku. Maluku, West Papua, and Papua.
Elaboration (background events)
A. Identify the parts of the following news texts.
News Text 3
Study: Climate change is making typhoons more dangerous for Asia, and their ‘destructive power’ will double by the end of the century...
The “destructive power” of tropical storms in the Pacific Ocean, known locally as typhoons, could double by the end of the century, according to a new study. The average typhoon could last around five hours longer, with average wind speed at landfall increased by 6 percent, and it would travel 50 percent further inland, according to the projections of researchers from the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area Weather Research Centre for Monitoring Warning and Forecasting in Shenzhen....
These changes would collectively make typhoons twice as damaging — and they already are well underway. Between 1979 and 2016, typhoons increased in duration by two to nine hours and penetrated 30 to 190 kilometers farther inland, the researchers found. The study was published in the journal Frontiers in Earth Science. Its findings are based on a scenario in which average global temperatures reach 3.7 degrees Celsius higher than pre-industrial levels by 2100, which is a likely outcome if greenhouse gas emissions remain high, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. So far, temperatures have risen by 1.2 degrees Celsius from that baseline....
The effects of these stronger storms are visible in recent Asian cyclones such as Typhoon Rai, which hit the Philippines on Dec. 16. On Monday, the Philippine government raised the number of confirmed deaths from Rai to 388. There are an additional 60 people still missing and an estimated 500,000 left homeless after winds or flooding damaged or destroyed 482,000 houses....
Previous studies have found that higher average global temperatures, due to emissions of greenhouse gasses, are causing more intense storms, because warmer weather causes more evaporation. Other studies have concluded that storms from warmer seawater temperatures ramp up quicker....
“More Asian inland regions may be exposed to further severe typhoon-related hazards in the future as a result of climate change,” the lead author of the study, Francis Tam Chi-yung, a professor of Earth System Science at Chinese University of Hong Kong, told the South China Morning Post. The most affected areas will include major cities such as Hong Kong and Vietnam’s capital, Hanoi....
Hong Kong was hit by super-typhoons in 2017 and 2018, causing widespread damage from flooding and the impact of heavy wind, such as trees being toppled.
News Text 4
School Attendance Increases Omicron Cases among Children: Pediatric Association....
TEMPO.CO, Jakarta - The Indonesian Pediatric Association (IDAI) chairman, Piprim Basarah Yanuarso, said that Covid-19 cases among children showed a significant rise in the past month. The figures went up following on-site learning activities, known as PTM 100%, at schools earlier this January.....
"Fellow pediatricians reported that the case has now increased tenfold when compared to January. The surge is egregious," he said during the launching of Covid-19 Guidelines Book 4th edition in Jakarta, February 9.....
According to Yanuarso, the surging trend of Covid cases on children began on January 24 with 646 patients. It rose to 2,775 on January 31 and it became 7,190 on February 7. "It rose by 300%."....
The case surge among pupils and teachers has resulted in the issuance of a back-to-school policy at 50% capacity by the Education Ministry. IDAI appreciated the government's effort that also offers parents to choose a safe environment for their children to study.....
Yanuarso believed the decision can reduce the number of children infected with Coronavirus. "Do not underestimate mild symptoms. Even reports of severe cases on children have started to show," he said.....
IDAI calls on parents to ensure the health protocols of their children, particularly for those above 2 years old. If they show symptoms such as cough and cold, immediately contact a doctor, as it could be an Omicron infection.....
B. Comprehension Exercise.
Choose whether each of the following sentences is TRUE or FALSE based on the relevant text.
  1. These sentences refer to news text 1.
    1. The text is about a natural disaster.
    2. The flash flood killed eight people.
    3. When the news was published, six people were still missing.
    4. The flash floods happened in Malang and Batu following severe and heavy rains.
    5. Deforestation and poor mitigation planning may cause landslides and flash floods.
  2. These sentences refer to news text 2.
    1. The text talks about a warning of potential extreme weather in Indonesia.
    2. The public is expected to prevent the possible impact of hydrometeorological disasters.
    3. The impact of hydrometeorological disasters includes floods, landslides, flash floods, forest fires, fallen trees, and others.
    4. The warning was based on the latest analysis on atmospheric dynamics.
    5. Kelvin and Rossby are experts in meteorology, climatology, and geophysics.
  3. These sentences refer to news text 3.
    1. The news talks about the causes of climate change in Asia.
    2. A new study suggests that tropical storms in the Pacific Ocean could be much more destructive by the end of the century.
    3. Between 1979 and 2016, typhoons remained the same in duration and size of areas.
    4. According to studies, global warming, due to emissions of greenhouse gases, is the cause of extreme weather phenomena.
    5. Typhoon Rai hitting the Philippines on Dec. 16 killed at least 388 people and damaged more than 400,000 houses.
  4. These sentences refer to news text 4.
    1. The news mainly talks about the increase of Omicron cases among the members of Pediatric Association.
    2. Based on the text, we can conclude that on-site learning activities, known as PTM 100%, contributed to the increase of Covid-19 cases among children.
    3. Covid cases on children increased by 300% during the month of January.
    4. The Education Ministry has applied back-to-school policy at 50% capacity as a response to the increasing Covid cases.
    5. IDAI makes phone calls to parents to interview them about the health protocols of their children.
News source:

January 01, 2022

Report Text With Exercises For Elementary - Intermediate Learners

ead the text below and do the exercises.
You may look at your dictionary while doing the exercises.

Things Around Us

There are many things around us. They can be different in size, shape, color, smell or texture. They can also be made from different materials. Things are different because they have different properties.

Things are similar in some ways too. Let's take a look at how things can be similar.

Reading Text For Elementary
Things have weight
The weight of a book tells us how heavy that book is. Every thing, be it big or small, has weight. We often use 'heavy' or 'light' to describe the weight of something.

Some things, such as a pencil or a feather, are light. We can lift them easily. Some things, such as a cupboard or a desk, are heavy. We cannot lift them easily.

It is easy to lift an empty pail, but when the pail is full of water, it is harder to lift it. This shows that water has weight.

What about air? Does it have weight? Air, like water, and all the things around us, has weight too.

Things occupy space
Look at this cupboard. Only one shelf is filled with books.

The books occupy half the space in the cupboard. There is still space for some more books.

The glass is filled with colored water. The water occupies all the space in the glass. What do you think will happen if you put a few pieces of ice into the glass of water?

Air occupies space too. When we blow air into a balloon, the air fills the space inside the balloon.

In science, anything that has weight and occupies space is called matter.

I. Match each word with its synonym.
II. State whether these sentences are "TRUE" or "FALSE"
III. Complete this crossword puzzle.

August 16, 2021

Factual Reports About Covid-19

Reading text 1

Covid in Indonesia

Covid-19 Covid-19 or Coronavirus Disease-2019 is an infectious disease caused by a new virus called SARS-Cov-2. This disease was first identified in Wuhan, China, in the end of 2019. The virus widely spread over many countries and then in March 2020, WHO declared Covid-19 a pandemic.

This disease attacks respiratory system. Covid-19 also makes infected people experience several symptoms. The common symptoms are fever, dry cough, and tiredness. Some also experience aches, sore throat, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, headache, and loss of taste or smell. More serious symptoms are shortness of breath, chest pain, and loss of speech. However, there are many who do not experience symptoms.

It takes about 5-6 days for the symptoms to show. However, the incubation period takes 14 days. People who have mild to moderate illness may recover without hospitalization. Meanwhile, those who experience serious symptoms have to seek medical attention. The virus spreads through droplets when infected people sneeze or cough. Therefore, WHO recommends us to prevent infection by wearing a mask, washing hands regularly with soap and water, avoiding touching the face, covering our mouth and nose while sneezing or coughing, staying at home, and practicing physical distancing.

Questions A:
  1. What does "COVID-19" stand for?
  2. When and where was the disease first identified?
  3. What are the common symptoms of the disease?
  4. What happens in more serious cases?
  5. How long does it take for the symptoms to show?
  6. How long is the common incubation period?
  7. How does the virus spread?
  8. How can we prevent the disease according to WHO?

Reading text 2


Covid-19 is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered virus namely SARS-Cov-2. This virus first appeared in Wuhan, China and eventually spread into many countries, including Indonesia.

In Indonesia, the first case of Covid-19 was reported on March 2, 2020. After WHO declaring Covid-19 a pandemic, activities such as working and studying have been done in homes.

However, the number of novel coronavirus cases kept growing. By the end of March 2020, the total case of the disease had reached 1528 cases. To respond to this pandemic, UNICEF has been leading efforts with governments, the World Health Organization and other partners.

The President also issued regulations regarding the pandemic, including Government Regulation No. 21/2020 which regulates a large-scale social restriction (PSBB, now PPKM) and has been implemented in coordination and collaboration with various parties, in accordance with statutory provisions.

Questions B:
  1. According to the text, what virus causes Covid-19?
  2. When was the first case of Covid-19 identified in Indonesia?
  3. How many cases had been identified by the end of March 2020?
  4. What did United Nations' organizations do to deal with the pandemic?
  5. What did the President do to respond to the pandemic?
  6. What is Government Regulation No. 21/2020 about?
Adapted from

April 12, 2020

The White Dragon's Egg: The Legend Of Lok Si Naga

Narrative Text-The White Dragon's Egg

long time ago, there lived a humble fisherman's family near a big river in South Kalimantan. They were very hard-working. Every day, they would go to the river to catch fish using a big rattan scoop called "tangguk" and sold the fish they had caught in a nearby market. Every time they went fishing to the river, they would leave their only son at home as he was still too young to be taken to the big river.

One day, as usual, the fisherman and his wife were fishing in the river. They had been fishing for hours but unfortunately, they were hardly able to catch any fish. Time and time again, they lifted the tangguk only to find to their disappointment that the tangguk was still empty. The fisherman sighed and almost gave up in despair, "What's happening? Where are the fish?" "If we don't catch enough fish, what should we eat?" said his wife. The fisherman didn't say anything but kept on working with the tangguk.

Suddenly, he felt his bucket was much heavier. "Aha!" He shouted with delight, feeling sure that he had caught a very big fish, and quickly lifted the trap out of the water. His heart jumped when he saw what was inside the scoop. It was a huge egg instead of a fish! "What on earth is it? An egg?" Feeling scared, he quickly put the tangguk back into the water to return the egg. However, every time he lifted the tangguk out of the water the egg was still there. It seemed that the egg didn’t want to leave the scoop. This happened several times until the fisherman and his wife decided to take the egg home.

Their boy was asleep when they arrived. "I'm hungry, but we caught nothing except the big egg." said the fisherman softly to his wife, not wanting to disturb the little boy's sleep. Having no fish to eat or sell, they decided to boil the egg they had found in the river. They both ate it and spared some for their son to eat when he woke up.

However, as soon as they had finished eating the egg, they felt something strange. Their skin became scaly and their body grew longer and longer. Now they realized that they had been cursed by the white dragon, an evil dragon living in the big river. But it was too late! They had turned into two big dragons!

When the boy woke up, he was very frightened of what he saw. Much to his horror, two big dragons were lying next to him. He screamed and cried for help, "Daaad ... help!" The two dragons soon tried to soothe him. They convinced him that they were his parents. They hugged their beloved son and told him how they turned into dragons. They reminded him not to eat the egg on the dining table as it was cursed by the white dragon. Whoever ate the white dragon's egg, they would change into a dragon.

They told their son that they had to find the white dragon and kill him to stop the curse. Before disappearing into the river, the two dragons told him that when he saw red blood on the surface of the river, it would mean that they had lost the fight, whereas white blood would be a sign of the white dragon's defeat. The sign would appear on a rainy day with an arch of a rainbow in the sky.

From then on, the boy would go to the riverbank every day, and sat there looking at the surface of the water for hours, worrying about his parents. And so it happened that, one day, after a slight rain on a sunny day and a rainbow appeared in the sky, he saw milky white blood on the surface of the water. It was the sign of the white dragon's defeat! Feeling certain that the two dragons had won the fight, he waited for them to return, but they never did. Nevertheless, he kept waiting patiently his entire life, by the river which the locals call "Lok Si Naga" or "Lok Lua", the River of the Dragons.

This narrative text is a folktale from South Kalimantan, retold in English by Mister Guru. Click the arrow sign on the left to learn more about narrative texts.

What is a narrative text?
A narrative text is a genre of writing which aims to entertain its readers by telling a story with the text type that includes adventures, fairy tales, fantasies, historical fictions, mysteries, personal narratives, realistic fictions, and science fictions.

What is the purpose of a narrative text?
A narrative text serves the purpose of amusing, entertaining and dealing with actual or vicarious experience, or problematic events leading to a crisis or turning point which in turn often finds a resolution.

What is the generic structure of a narrative text like?
A narrative text mostly consists of:

  • The orientation, which is a setting of the scene to introduce the participants, the time and place the story happened (who/what, when, and where).
  • The complication, which talks about a crisis or problem(s) that occurred.
  • The resolution, which mostly talks about how the crisis is resolved, for better or worse.
  • The re-orientation (optional), which ends the story

What are the lexicogrammatical features of a narrative text?
A narrative text mostly;

  • focuses on specific and usually individualized participants,
  • uses verbs showing us what happened/happens,
  • uses verbs of relational and mental processes,
  • uses temporal conjunctions and circumstances.
  • use verbs in past tense.
Adapted from Kumpulan Cerita Rakyat Nusantara.
Su060610 1236 PM 230

May 28, 2019

How to Write a Recount Text

A. What is a Recount Text?

Recount texts retell a past event. They tell the reader what happened in the past, e.g. a visit to a place of interest. Therefore, recount texts are mostly written in the past tense.

B. What is the structure of Recount Texts?

  1. Orientation:
    Recount texts start by telling the reader who was involved, what happened, where this event took place and when it happened. This is called the orientation.
  2. Sequence of events:
    The sequence of events is usually described in the order of time (chronological order).
  3. Reorientation:
    There can be a reorientation at the end which summarizes the event.

C. How to write a Recount Text?

When writing a recount text, pay attention to the checklist below:
  • Focus on individual people i.e. use the words, I or we
  • Use the words which indicate when the events took place (e.g. after ..., before ...).
  • Use the words which indicate where the events took place (e.g. at the beach, on the grass)
  • Write in the past tense e.g. went, visited, took.
  • Use action words e.g. made, walked, bought.

D. Read an example of recount text below.

A Day Out

We were having dinner when Uncle Hadi arrived. During the meal, he said, “I have an idea. Let’s go out for the day tomorrow. My friends told me that Bromo is a nice place. Why don’t we go there? We could have a picnic.“

of events
We agreed that it was a good idea. So, after preparing a big basket full of food, we left the house at about half past eight. At first, we all enjoyed the drive. The scenery was really beautiful. But then it began to rain. My father had to be very careful on the slippery road, so it took us two hours to get there.

After the long journey, we wanted to go for a walk, but we didn’t have any umbrellas with us. So we just sat at a gazebo near a restaurant and had our picnic.

It was still raining at three o’clock, so in the end we all decided to go home. Everybody was very disappointed, except Uncle Hadi. He kept smiling and telling jokes all day long.
Read the recount text below and do the exercise.
How to Write a Recount Text

Last Saturday I woke up early, but I didn’t get up because there was no school. Suddenly, my telephone rang. It was my friend Fanny. She asked me to go with her at 10.00 o clock. She wanted to buy something in traditional market.

Finally, we were out. On the street, I saw a piece of pink coupon. Attracted by its color, I took it. Then, Fanny and I read it. We were fully shocked. It was a receipt of a four nights tour to Lombok! The expiry date was that day. To our surprise, the name was Fanny Fenita and the birth date was exactly the same as hers. It was also valid for two persons. My God! We were thinking that maybe the coupon had fallen from the sky and now it was there for us.

We hurried to the address of the tour agency that issued the coupon. The tour agency took care of everything. We went home and still could not believe what was going on.

Two days later we were lying on the warm sand under the sun at Senggigi Beach. We had long public holiday, so we could enjoy the “gift” happily. We also bought some presents for our family and friends.

  1. What will be the best title for the above text?
  2. Please identify the orientation in the text.
  3. Please list the past tense verbs used in the text in chronological order.
  4. Is there a reorientation in the text? Which sentence/paragraph?
  5. How many persons were involved in the above text?
  6. Where did the events take place? Mention at least two places.
  7. When did the events happen?
  8. What does the word "gift" in the last paragraph mean?

F. Writing Practice

Now, by referring to the above checklist, write your own recount text. You can talk about your experience:
  • Going to the ....(Beach, Museum, etc.)
  • Visiting ....(My Uncle, the Zoo, etc.)
  • A Day at the ....(Farm, Lake, Beach, etc.)
  • My Unforgettable Experience in ....(Bali, Malang, etc.)
  • Going ....(Shopping, Swimming, for a Picnic, etc.)
Happy trying.

March 02, 2014

Vocabulary Exercise: "Animal Races in SEMIPRO Festival" Descriptive Text

SEMIPRO, a one-week festival in Probolinggo city, offers a number of enjoyable entertainment shows and competitions. In the festival which starts from late June to early July every year, there are also animal races, such as goat race, red cow race, and cow muddy race.

Goat Race

Vocabulary Exercise - Animal Races in SEMIPRO Festival Descriptive Text

Goat race is one of the most ...(1)... tourist attractions held in SEMIPRO (A Week in Probolinggo City) festival. Since 2009, goat race has ...(2)... the enthusiasm of not only local contestants, ...(3)... those from other cities.

The most important element in this race basically lies ...(4)... the speed of the goats in reaching the finish line. Contestants are ...(5)... to bring additional equipment as well as noise-makers to stimulate the goats’ running speed.

Looking at the enthusiasm of its contestants and the locals from year to year, the goat race is ...(6)... to be held in SEMIPRO festival every year.

  1. A. interest
    B. interested
    C. interesting
    D. interests

  2. A. raise
    B. raising
    C. raises
    D. raised

  1. A. but also
    B. but as well
    C. also
    D. and

  2. A. in
    B. at
    C. of
    D. on

  1. A. allowing
    B. allowed
    C. allow
    D. allows

  2. A. like
    B. alike
    C. likeness
    D. likely

Red Cow Race

Vocabulary Exercise - Animal Races in SEMIPRO Festival Descriptive Text

Similar ...(7)... goat race, red cow race has become an important agenda in SEMIPRO festival. Despite the fact that the red cow race was never ...(8)... in SEMIPRO festival until 2011, the race has received great interest of the locals.

The characteristics of red cows ...(9)... to those of race cows, marked with their speed and power. If a cow ...(10)... one or more races, it will be a very profitable bid for the owner. A five-thousand-dollar cow can be worth U$7,500 after winning a race.

  1. A. with
    B. as
    C. for
    D. to

  2. A. hold
    B. holding
    C. held
    D. be held

  1. A. belong
    B. belonged
    C. belonging
    D. belongs

  2. A. win
    B. won
    C. wins
    D. will win

Cow Muddy Race

Vocabulary Exercise - Animal Races in SEMIPRO Festival Descriptive Text
One of the most ...(11)... and unique events in SEMIPRO festival is cow muddy race which takes place on muddy farming land. The race is ...(12)... to be part of daily life in Pendalungan culture, that is the combination of Javanese and Maduranese culture. Its integration into SEMIPRO festival in 2011 has made it one of the formal ...(13)... events held in Probolinggo city. The prizes offered in the formal race pay the highest contribution in attracting local racers as well as racers from ...(14)... regions and towns.

Beside its noises and tension, what makes the cow muddy race unique is that it requires the art and skill of making the cows run ...(15)... possible on muddy farm land. The fastest cows will win the race. However, it requires a certain skill to keep the cows in the right ...(16)... and reach the finish line in record time.
  1. A. attraction
    B. attractive
    C. attracted
    D. attractively

  2. A. believes
    B. believing
    C. believe
    D. believed

  1. A. annually
    B. annual
    C. annuity
    D. anniversary

  2. A. other
    B. others
    C. another
    D. the other

  1. A. as fast
    B. faster than
    C. the fastest
    D. as fast as

  2. A. directly
    B. direction
    C. directive
    D. direct

Vocabulary Exercise

Match the words on the left with the correct meaning or definition on the right.
  1. Attraction
  2. Enthusiasm
  3. Element
  4. Equipment
  5. Locals
  6. Worth
  7. Culture

  8. Integration
  9. Tension
  10. Skill
  1. An instrumentality needed for an undertaking or to perform a service
  2. Having a specified value
  3. A state of mental or emotional strain or suspense
  4. People who live nearby
  5. A lively interest
  6. The act of combining into an integral whole
  7. The attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group
  8. An entertainment that is offered to the public
  9. An ability that has been acquired by training
  10. An abstract part of something

November 14, 2011

Procedural Text: Manuals, Procedures, and Instructions

Basic Competence for SMA:Working with procedural texts and monolog:
  • Listening: Understanding simple transactional and interpersonal monologs in the form of procedures.
  • Speaking: Expressing various meanings in transactional and interpersonal monologs in the form of procedures.
  • Reading: Understanding various meanings and rhetorical steps in procedural texts.
  • Writing: Expressing various meanings by developing rhetorical steps in procedural texts.
Basic Competence for SMK:3.4 Understanding and retelling manuals (procedural texts).

A. What is a procedural text?

A procedural text is a text which is intended to tell the reader how to do, operate, or make something. The information in a procedural text is usually written in the present tense and is arranged in a logical sequence of events which is broken up into several sequenced steps.

Based on its purpose, a procedural text may explain how things work or how to operate things (how to use the scanner, the computer, the camera, etc.), give instrucions on how to do an activity (cooking recipes, rules for games, science experiments, road safety rules, etc), or give advice concerning human behavior (how to be a good secretary, how to live healthily, etc).

B. What is the format of a procedural text?

  • Recipes usually consist of two groups of information; ingredients and method.
  • Game instructions usually include how to play, game rules, scoring method, and the number of players.
  • Scientific experiments usually include the purpose of the experiment, equipment, procedure, observations and conclusion.

C. How to Write a Procedural Text

  • State your goals clearly at the beginning.
  • List all materials and equipment in order of use.
  • List the steps in chronological order.
  • Focus on general people by using subject "You" or "We" instead of individuals.
  • Use action verbs (imperative verbs), such as cut, peel, plug, turn on, etc.
  • Use sequencing words to connect the steps. E.g.: First(ly), second(ly), third(ly), next, then, etc.
  • Give detailed information on how (carefully, with the knife); where (into the oven); when (after the water boils).
  • Give detailed factual description (shape, size, color, amount).

D. Example of a procedural text

Procedural Text: Manuals, Procedures, and Instructions

How to Cook Noodles

Many people like noodles for their daily meals. Its delicious taste and simple preparation have made noodles very popular especially in some Asian countries. Here is a recipe to cook noodles.


  1. Noodles
  2. Water
  3. Salt to taste
  4. Stock cube
  5. Noodle packet
  6. Vegetables
  7. Flavoring powder
  8. Seasoning sauce
  9. Spices
  10. Water

Things you need:

  1. Cooking pan
  2. Strainer
  3. Serving plates


  1. Boil the water in a cooking pan.
  2. Add the stock cube or salt if desired. Make sure the stock cube is completely dissolved before adding the noodles.
  3. Add the noodles and turn the heat to low or off. This is different for different kinds of noodles. Some just need to be soaked, others require simmering. Check the package of the noodles to be sure.
  4. Let the noodles simmer or soak for the required number of minutes. This varies too. Follow directions on the package.
  5. Drain off the fluids in a strainer. The noodles are ready for further preparation.


  1. The flavor of the stock depends on the ingredients you wish to add later. Choose chicken if you want to add chicken, beef if you want to add meat etc.
  2. Save the stock for soups and sauces by draining it into a pan.
  3. Take care to add the right quantity of water.
  4. Let the noodles soak the water for some time after they have been cooked.
  1. English Online. Instruction. Accessed Nov 6, 2011.
  2. Wikihow. How To Cook Noodles. Accessed Nov 12, 2011.
Updated: May 2nd, 2013.