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Giving And Asking For Permission, And Making And Responding To Preventions In English

W riting this material reminds me of one of the most amusing experiences that I have had during my long years of being an English teacher. T...

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Showing posts with label TOEFL Preparation Exercise. Show all posts
Showing posts with label TOEFL Preparation Exercise. Show all posts

November 26, 2021

Participial Adjectives (Participle sebagai Adjective)

Participial Adjectives
A
pakah yang dimaksud dengan PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVE? Participial adjective adalah bentuk participle, yang berfungsi sebagai ajektiva. Ajektiva (adjective), atau seringkali disebut sebagai kata sifat, memiliki fungsi untuk menjelaskan kata benda (nouns).

Participle itu sendiri sebenarnya adalah turunan dari kata kerja (verb). Ada 2 (dua) jenis participle, yaitu;

  1. Present participle, yang dikenal sebagai kata kerja (verb) berakhiran -ing, contoh; interesting, drawing, amazing, shocking, dsb.
  2. Past participle, atau dikenal sebagai kata kerja ke-3 (verb 3), contoh; interested, drawn, amazed, shocked, dsb.
A. Perbedaan antara Present Participle dengan Past Participle

Sebagai kata sifat, kedua jenis participle ini memberikan makna yang berbeda terhadap kata benda yang dibicarakan. Lihat contoh kalimat yang menggunakan participle di bawah ini:

  1. Winning the match was an exciting experience for the players. (Present participle)
  2. The excited players were celebrating the victory. (Past participle)
Penjelasan:

Present participle pada contoh no. 1 memiliki makna aktif, yaitu menyebabkan atau melakukan sesuatu. Kata benda (noun) ‘experience’ menyebabkan sesuatu hal, sehingga disebut sebagai ‘exciting experience'.

Sedangkan, past participle memiliki makna pasif. Kata benda (noun) yang dimaksud menjadi obyek dan terdampak oleh berbagai situasi. Pada contoh no. 2, kata benda "players" menjadi obyek dari sesuatu, sehingga disebut sebagai ‘excited players’.

B. Daftar Participial Adjective
Kenalilah beberapa participial adjective yang ada di dalam daftar berikut dan cobalah memahami maknanya. Lengkapilah daftar ini dengan participial adjective yang kalian ketahui.
VerbPresent ParticiplePast Participle
boreboringbored
exciteexcitingexcited
confuseconfusingconfused
sortsortingsorted
surprisesurprisingsurprised
encloseenclosingenclosed
includeincludingincluded
amazeamazingamazed
astonishastonishingastonished
terrifyterrifyingterrified
disappointdisappointingdisappointed
breakbreakingbroken
writewritingwritten
interestinterestinginterested
threatenthreateningthreatened
EXERCISES
A. Horse Race Game
To win the horse race. Choose the correct answer for each of the following sentences. Only the fastest answer can get the full score and all others get only half a point. Now, let's get the race started.

B. Sentence Completion Exercise
Do the following exercise. Use either present participle or past participle of the verbs in the brackets.
  1. The ... announcement has raised questions among the students. (confuse)
  2. The ... students did not know what uniform to wear on the following day. (confuse)
  3. The ... film caused me to fall asleep. (bore)
  4. The ... audience fell asleep during the speech. (bore)
  5. The ... brochure provides tourists with the information they need. (enclose)
  6. The team were ... when they heard about the approval. (excite).
  7. I was very ... to see what was happening at that time. (shock)
  8. This is one of the most ... books I’ve ever read. (interest)
  9. The children soon fell asleep after the ... journey. (tire)
  10. Our vacation was ruined by the ... experience. (frighten)
  11. Aceh was completely destroyed by a ... tsunami on December 26, 2004. (devastate)
  12. The process of repairing ... buildings and streets took years to complete. (damage)
  13. The snake is still a ... sight for most women. (terrify)
  14. The ... workers sat down to rest under the shade of a tree. (exhaust)
  15. His experiences in Jakarta were rather .... (depress)
  16. The woman was trying to comfort the ... child when a policeman came. (cry)
  17. Lapindo tragedy clearly wiped out many ... business opportunities in the area. (promise)
  18. To anticipate the ... volume of air passengers in the holiday season, the airline has added more than 40,000 seats to 14 routes. (increase)
  19. The new ... system is equipped with an advanced protection system. (operate)
  20. A month after the theft, the ... jewelry was recovered. (steal)
Prev: BSE SMP Cls IX 072311 0343PM PV 5113

November 13, 2021

Cause and Effect, Opposition, and Condition Words

I
n this post, we are going to learn adverb clause words, transitions, conjunctions, and prepositions which express cause and effect, opposition, and condition. To make it easier for you to understand the subject, there are example sentences as well as an interactive exercise where you can practice and test your uderstanding. Happy learning.
A. CAUSE & EFFECT, OPPOSITION, CONDITION WORDS / PHRASES
ADVERB CLAUSE WORDSTRANSITIONSCONJUNCTIONSPREPOSITIONS
CAUSE & EFFECTbecause
since
now that
as
as/so long as
inasmuch as
so (that)
therefore
consequently
so
for
because of
due to
OPPOSITION / CONTRASTeven though
although / though
whereas
while
nevertheless
nonetheless
however
on the other hand
but (... anyway)
yet (... still)
despite
in spite of
CONDITIONif
unless
only if / even if
whether or not
provided (that)
providing (that)
in case (that)
in the event (that)
otherwiseor (else)in case of
or (else)
B. EXAMPLE SENTENCES OF CAUSE & EFFECT, OPPOSITION, CONDITION

1. Adverb clauses
  1. He went to bed because he was sleepy. (Cause and effect)
  2. Gold is expensive, whereas copper is cheap. (Opposition)
  3. I’m going to the movie this evening whether or not it rains. (Condition)
2. Transitions:
  1. It was hot. Therefore, he turned on the air condition. (Cause and effect)
  2. It was raining. Nevertheless, he went out. (Opposition)
  3. You’d better wear a jacket. Otherwise, you’ll catch cold. (Condition)
3. Conjunctions:
  1. It was getting late, so we decided to go home. (Cause and effect)
  2. It was getting late, yet we still continued working. (Opposition)
  3. You should leave now, or (else) you’ll be late for school. (Condition)
4. Prepositions:
  1. The flight was canceled due to the heavy fog. (Cause and effect)
  2. They went out despite the bad weather. (Opposition)
  3. In case of fire, call 911 immediately. (Condition)
C. MULTIPLE CHOICE INTERACTIVE EXERCISE


D. SENTENCE COMPLETION EXERCISE

Do this exercise. Complete the sentences using one of the words listed in the above table.
Cause and Effect, Opposition, and Condition Words
  1. Dina lives in the city, ... Rinda lives in the country.
  2. The meeting was postponed ... the heavy rain.
  3. ... I had a cold, I decided to go to school.
  4. You’d better prepare for the test, ... you will fail again.
  5. You forget the meaning of these words ... you never practice it.
  6. Mastering English is just a matter of practice. ... you must practice a lot.
  7. She kept riding her motorcycle ... the flat back tire.
  8. I’m going to take my TV set ... it hasn’t been repaired.
  9. Her father has told her to study. ... she is going to the movie.
  10. Parents should supervise their children when watching TV. ... they may watch inappropriate programs.
  11. He didn't get the job ... he didn't have enough experience.
  12. He got the job ... he didn't have enough experience.
  13. I'll lend you some money ... you really need it.
  14. The music was loud ... you could hear it from miles away.
  15. I couldn't sleep ... I was very tired.
  16. ... it rained a lot, we enjoyed our vacation.
  17. We went out ... the rain.
  18. He passed the exam ... he was well-prepared.
  19. I didn't get the job ... I had all the necessary qualifications.
  20. ... fire, please leave the building as quickly as possible.

November 27, 2019

Dari Adverb Clause ke Modifying Phrase Menggunakan Participle

Adverb Clause ke Modifying Phrase Menggunakan Participle
Untuk meningkatkan efisiensi kalimat dan keindahan gaya bahasa, kita bisa menyingkat atau memperpendek adverb clause menjadi modifying phrase dengan menggunakan past participle (verb 3) atau present participle (verb -ing).

Bagaimana cara menyingkat Adverb clause menjadi Modifying phrase?
Untuk menyingkat adverb clause menjadi modifying phrase dengan menggunakan participle, perhatikan beberapa catatan di bawah ini:
  • Subyek dalam adverb clause (anak kalimat keterangan) harus sama dengan subyek dalam main clause (kalimat induk). Jika subyek dalam adverb clause tidak sama dengan subyek dalam main clause (kalimat induk), maka adverb clause tidak dapat diubah menjadi modifying phrase. (Lihat contoh-contoh kalimat di bawah untuk lebih jelasnya.)
  • Jika adverb clause berbentuk kalimat aktif (active voice), maka modifying phrase harus menggunakan present participle (verb -ing). Contoh:
    1. Because she felt upset, she didn't say a single word. (adverb clause)
      Feeling upset, she didn't say a single word. (modifying phrase)
    2. He locked the door before he left. (adverb clause)
      He locked the door before leaving. (modifying phrase)
  • Jika adverb clause berbentuk kalimat pasif (passive voice), maka modifying phrase harus menggunakan past participle (verb 3). Contoh:
    1. Because he was trained by a professional coach, he soon learnt much about difficult techniques. (adverb clause)
      Trained by a professional coach, he soon learnt much about difficult techniques. (modifying phrase)
    2. When the door is opened, it squeaks. (adverb clause)
      When opened, the door squeaks. (modifying phrase)

Apa saja fungsi modifying phrase?
  1. Menyingkat time clause (klausa keterangan waktu). Time clause biasanya ditandai dengan adanya kata after, before, while, when, as, since. Di sini, modifying phrase memiliki makna “during the same time; while”. Contoh:
    • Since she moved to this country, she has made many friends.
      Since moving to this country, she has made many friends.
    • Before you do the test, read the instructions carefully.
      Before doing the test, read the instructions carefully.
    • While he was watching a film last night, he fell asleep.
      While watching a film last night, he fell asleep.
  2. Menyingkat adverb clause “cause and effect” (sebab akibat), umumnya ditandai dengan "because, since, as". Di sini, modifying phrase memiliki makna adanya “cause and effect relationship; because”. Contoh:
    • Because she needed money to support her children, she had to work.
      Needing money to support her children, she had to work.
    • Because I have seen the movie before, I don’t want to go again.
      Having seen the movie before, I don’t want to go again.
    • Because I had seen the movie before, I didn’t want to go again.
      Having seen the movie before, I didn’t want to go again.
    • Because Anne could not see clearly from the back row, she moved to the front row.
      Not (being) able to see clearly from the back row, Anne moved to the front row.
Latihan Soal
A. Garis bawahi semua modifying phrase dan pilihlah makna yang sesuai ("while" atau "because") seperti pada contoh nomer 1.
  1. Sitting on the white sand, she enjoyed the amazing beauty of the sunset at the beach. (while/because)
  2. Unable to afford a car, she bought a motorcycle. (while/because)
  3. While living here, she made many friends. (while/because)
  4. Not wanting to disappoint her, he decided to say nothing about it. (while/because)
  5. Standing in front of the house, I realized how much it had changed. (while/because)
  6. Pointing to the sentence on the board, the teacher explained the meaning of modifying phrases. (while/because)
B. Ubahlah adverb clause dalam kalimat-kalimat berikut menjadi modifying phrase.
  1. Before I came to class, I had a cup of tea.
  2. After she had completed her work, she submitted it to the teacher.
  3. Because he didn’t want to wake everybody up, he tried not to make much noise.
  4. Because he had run a red traffic light, he got a ticket and had to pay a fine.
  5. After I had read the explanation twice, I finally understood the theory.
  6. While I was reading the paper this morning, I saw an article on global warming.
  7. Because they were unable to send their children to school, they let them work at an early age.
  8. Before he became a teacher, he worked for a garment manufacturer and exporter in Surabaya.
  9. While I was sitting at the quiet beach, I felt united with the nature.
  10. Because she had never seen an active volcano before, she never stopped admiring the beauty of Bromo.
C. Gabunglah kedua kalimat di setiap nomer dengan menjadikan kalimat pertama sebagai modifying phrase.
  1. I did not want to be late again. I left very early this morning.
  2. She thought she would never learn to play the piano. She stopped taking lessons.
  3. The student checked his answers. He found he had made many mistakes.
  4. I wanted to finish the work in time. I had to work late last night.
  5. They were exhausted. They stopped to rest under a very shady tree.
  6. She had just recovered from her illness. She had to stay home during the weekend.
  7. The child played computer games too much. He got an eye irritation.
  8. Many housewives develop the habit of watching TV in the morning. They become less productive.
  9. The students did not understand the lesson. They asked the teacher to repeat the explanation.
  10. He wants to save some money every month. He has decided to cook his own meals.
  11. She could not tolerate the noise. She tapped her fingers loudly on the table.
  12. I was bored. I went out for a walk to the park last night.
  13. The snake felt threatened. It started hissing and spitting at the cat.
  14. The building was being renovated. It was closed for visitors.
  15. The little boy felt the unbearable pain. He never stopped crying.
BSE SMA Kelas XI 052011 0558 AM 17661

September 25, 2011

TOEFL® Preparation Exercise: Reducing An Adjective Clause Into An Adjective Phrase

Reducing An Adjective Clause Into An Adjective Phrase - TOEFL® Preparation Exercise
  1. Combine the following sentences using adjective clauses. Please pay attention to the punctuation, and put commas where necessary.
  2. Reduce the adjective clauses into adjective phrases
Example:
  1. On 27 October 1945, a British plane from Jakarta dropped leaflets over Surabaya. They urged all Indonesian troops and militia to surrender their weapons.
    1. On 27 October 1945, a British plane from Jakarta dropped leaflets over Surabaya which urged all Indonesian troops and militia to surrender their weapons.
    2. On 27 October 1945, a British plane from Jakarta dropped leaflets over Surabaya urging all Indonesian troops and militia to surrender their weapons.
  2. The Battle of Surabaya became a symbol of resistance to the re-imposition of Dutch colonial rule. It cost the lives of many thousands of Indonesians.
    1. The Battle of Surabaya, which cost the lives of many thousands of Indonesians, became a symbol of resistance to the re-imposition of Dutch colonial rule.
    2. The Battle of Surabaya, costing the lives of many thousands of Indonesians, became a symbol of resistance to the re-imposition of Dutch colonial rule.
  1. Jakarta is very crowded. It is the capital city of Indonesia.
  2. The car belongs to Mr. Harun. It is parked under the tree.
  3. The old woman makes a very good living by selling clothes. She lives next door.
  4. He borrowed a book from the library. It is about Indonesian literature.
  5. The girl is very attractive. She lives opposite my house.
  6. The writer has just written an article. It criticizes the system of education in Indonesia.
  7. In playing football, the children use a small ball. It is made of solid rubber.
  8. I have found a letter. It is addressed to one of our important clients.
  9. She bought a book. It is written by a famous author.
  10. I know the lady. She was driving the car.
  11. Rujak Cingur is a traditional East Javanese dish. It is made of salad, chicken, and seafood.
  12. The krill is a tiny sea animal. It looks like a shrimp.
  13. A supernova produced the famous Crab nebula. It is a favorite among astronomers.
  14. The St. Bernard is a breed of very large working dog from the Italian and Swiss Alps. It is originally bred for rescue.
  15. Sunlight can be used to generate electricity by means of cells. They contain substances that emit electrons when bombarded with protons.
  16. Positive thinkers look at life with an attitude of hope. It influences their environment in a way that creates positive results.
  17. Cato the Elder was born in Tusculum. It was a municipal town of Latium.
  18. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in adults. It is caused by changes in the blood vessels of the retina.
  19. Anne Boleyn was the second wife of King Henry VIII. She was beheaded at the age of 29.
  20. A new species of tomato has been developed. It is adapted to harsh climatic conditions.
  21. Edward Kazarian uses microscopes and diamond-tipped tools to create figures the size of the head of a pin. He is a master of making miniatures.
  22. The vast oil spill cost millions to clean up. It smeared the coast.
  23. Majapahit kingdom reached its peak of glory during the era of Hayam Wuruk. He reigned from 1350 to 1389.
  24. James wrote an article. The article indicated that he disliked the president.
  25. The man was brought to the police station. He confessed to the crime.

Reference:
  1. Gear J & Gear R. Cambridge Preparation for the TOEFL® Test 2nd Ed. Cambridge, Cambridge UP, 1996.
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Surabaya. Accessed Sept 25, 2011.

TOEFL® Preparation: Adjective Clause Reduction into Adjective Phrase

TOEFL® Preparation: Adjective Clause Reduction into Adjective PhraseSebelumnya, kita sudah belajar tentang adjective clause atau relative clause serta bagaimana menggabungkan kalimat dengan menggunakan adjective clause atau relative clause.

Sekarang, kita akan mempelajari "peringkasan" adjective clause menjadi adjective phrase agar kalimat kita menjadi lebih efisien. Seperti halnya adjective clause, adjective phrase adalah salah satu testing point dalam tes TOEFL®, TOEIC®, dan Ujian Akhir Nasional (UAN) SMA dan SMK.

What is an adjective phrase?

Adjective phrase adalah "penyusutan" dari adjective clause. Fungsinya masih sama, yaitu menerangkan tentang seseorang atau sesuatu. Tidak seperti adjective clause, adjective phrase tidak memiliki subyek dan kata kerja. Pada kalimat-kalimat berikut, bagian kalimat yang bergaris bawah adalah adjective phrase.
  1. In 1920, the Panama Canal was officially opened, finally linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
  2. Much of the prosperity of this region is due to a cigar factory established more than one hundred years ago.
  3. In 1799, a soldier discovered a piece of stele (a stone pillar bearing an inscription) known as the Rosetta stone.
  4. The giant redwood trees of California, called "sequoias", will further imprint Sequoia's name in history.
  5. After writing many letters seeking employment in local factories, she was finally hired by a big garment manufacturer.

Can we reduce all adjective clauses into adjective phrases?

Hanya adjective clause dengan subyek "who", "which", "that" yang bisa diringkas menjadi adjective phrase.


How to reduce an adjective clause into an adjective phrase?

Ada dua cara meringkas adjective clause menjadi adjective phrase:
  1. Subyek "who", "which", "that" dan verb be dihilangkan.

    Reducing Adjective Clauses into Adjective Phrases
    Adjective ClausesAdjective Phrases
    The woman who is sitting next to our headmaster is the new supervisor.The woman sitting next to our headmaster is the new supervisor.
    The test which was given to us this morning was quite easy.The test given to us this morning was quite easy.
    She has just moved from Pasuruan, which is a town near Probolinggo.She has just moved from Pasuruan, a town near Probolinggo.
    The apples which are on that plate look fresh and appealing.The apples on that plate look fresh and appealing.

  2. Jika tidak ada verb be, hilangkan "who", "which", atau "that", lalu ubah Verb menjadi bentuk -ing.

    Reducing Adjective Clauses into Adjective Phrases
    Adjective ClausesAdjective Phrases
    The woman who sat next to our headmaster was the new supervisor.The woman sitting next to our headmaster was the new supervisor.
    The TOEIC® test, which consists of 200 test items, takes approximately two hours.The TOEIC® test, consisting of 200 test items, takes approximately two hours.
    A tapeworm is a parasite that lives in the intestines of humans and animals.A tapeworm is a parasite living in the intestines of humans and animals.


Now, practice what you've just learnt. Reduce the adjective clauses in the following sentences into adjective phrases.
  1. A thunderstorm is a form of weather which is characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere which is known as thunder.
  2. The cloud type which is associated with the thunderstorm is the cumulonimbus.
  3. Thunderstorms most frequently form and develop within areas that are located at mid-latitude when warm moist air collides with cooler air.
  4. Thunderstorms, and the phenomena that occur along with them, pose great hazards to populations and landscapes.
  5. Damage that results from thunderstorms is mainly inflicted by downburst winds, large hailstones, and flash flooding which is caused by heavy precipitation.
  6. Mesoscale convective systems which are formed by favorable vertical wind shear within the tropics and subtropics are responsible for the development of hurricanes.
  7. Dry thunderstorms can cause the outbreak of wildfires with the heat that is generated from the cloud-to-ground lightning that accompanies them.
  8. The falling droplets create a downdraft of air that spreads out at the Earth's surface, which causes strong winds.
  9. Thunderstorms which cause hail to fall are known as hailstorms.
  10. Thunderstorms, which result from the rapid upward movement of warm and moist air, can be very disastrous.
References:
  1. Azar B.S. Understanding and Using English Grammar (2nd Ed). NJ: Prentice-Hall. Inc, 1989, pg.257.
  2. Pyle M.A. and Munoz M.E. . TOEFL® Preparation Guide (5th Ed). Lincoln: Cliffs Notes Inc., 1995.
  3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thunderstorm. Accessed Sept 25, 2011.

August 24, 2011

TOEFL® Preparation 1: Written Expression - Error Recognition

TOEFL® Practice Test - Written Expression: TOEFL® Written Expression test is designed to measure your ability to recognize language that is appropriate for standard written English. Let's do this preparation exercise and prepare for the TOEFL® by practicing your error identification skill.

Type: Error recognition
No. of items: 25 items
Time Allocation: 20 minutes

Directions: In this TOEFL® Practice Test, each sentence has four underlined words or phrases. Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be correct. Start of TOEFL® Practice Test - Written Expression
  1. Since erect in 1886, the Statue of Liberty has served as a symbol of freedom.
  2. A traveler can reach some of the village along th Amazon only by riverboat.
  3. Natural predators, disturbing from tourists, and pollution have all contributed to the decline of the California condor.
  4. Today the number of people which enjoy winter sports is almost double that of twenty years ago.
  5. The Soay sheep, the old breed of sheep in existence, has changed little since 3500 B.C.
  6. Voyager 2 is a spacecraft which has greatly expanded us knowledge of the solar system.
  7. Dolphins, whales, and many other sea creatures use high sophisticated navigation systems.
  8. The smallest things in the universe are, paradoxically, be explored by the largest machines.
  9. Fiber is important element in nutrition, and it aids in protecting the digestive tract as well.
  10. Copper is a metal which is easy worked and which mixes well with other metals to form alloys.
  11. An exchange rate is the price of one currencies in terms of another.
  12. The Bactrian, or Asian, camel can be identified by their two humps.
  13. The first European settlement of Australia left the city of Portsmouth in May 1787.
  14. Scurvy, caused by the lack of vitamin C, could kill the most of a ship's crew on a long voyage.
  15. The term "Punchinello" refer to a clown in Italian puppet shows.
  16. Symptoms of multiple selerosis may be eased by injecting a solution consisted of snake venom.
  17. The rupture of the Mareb Dam in ancient Yemen brought it about the collapse of many small kingdoms.
  18. The tiger's cunning, strength, and agile have earned it a legendary reputation.
  19. Uranus is the alone planet in the solar system which is tipped on its side
  20. Most critics agree that William Shakespeare was the greater writer in the English language.
  21. Much nutritionists argue that people's intake of fat should be reduced.
  22. The refracting telescope contains lenses that magnification the image which reaches it.
  23. In some societies hired people cook, clean, take care after the children, and do the yard work.
  24. Many American novelists, such as Gore Vidal, resides in other countries.
  25. Some paper dolls, which were once relatively cheap, are previously considered valuable collectors' items.

End of TOEFL® Practice Test - Written Expression

Note: The actual time allocation to do this TOEFL® Practice Test - Written Expression is 20 minutes. Please set your clock for 20 minutes.
TOEFL® is a registered trademark of ETS.
Source: Gear J & Gear R. Cambridge Preparation for the TOEFL® Test 2nd Ed. Cambridge, Cambridge UP, 1996, p. 18-19.