Check Our Latest Update

Soal Olimpiade & Ujian Sekolah Bahasa Inggris Elementary SD - SMP: Paket Soal 4A

H ai, siswa siswi hebat. Mister Guru sekali lagi akan membagikan salinan otentik dan contoh soal Olimpiade Bahasa Inggris Tingkat SMP / MTs...

Home Posts filed under TOEFL
Showing posts with label TOEFL. Show all posts
Showing posts with label TOEFL. Show all posts

January 11, 2022

Comparative Exercises: Comparing Things in English

B
efore doing the exercises below, you may want to review what we have learned about comparisons in "Degrees of Comparison: Positive, Comparative, Superlative, dan Parallel Increase". As a reminder, here is how to compare things using adjectives.
A. Using Positive Degree:
To show that two things or people are similar in some way, we can use "as + adjective + as". Example sentences:
  • The tiger is as dangerous as the lion.
  • For me, the rose is as beautiful as the sunflower.
B. Using Comparative degree:
To compare two things which are not similar, we can use "comparative adjectives + than". Comparatives can be "adjective + er + than" or "more + adjective + than". To learn more about comparative adjectives, read THIS.
  • Apples are smaller than coconuts.
  • This motorcycle is more expensive than that one.
C. Using Superlative degree:
To compare three or more things, one of which is superior or inferior to the others, we use a "the superlative". The superlative can be formed with "the + adjective + est" or "the most + adjective".
  • John is the tallest boy in his class.
  • The rose is the most beautiful flower in my garden.
EXERCISES
I. Write the comparative of the adjectives below.
Example:
  • big: bigger.
    1. pretty: ....
    2. interesting: ....
    3. strong: ....
    4. serious: ....
    5. happy: ....
    6. good: ....
    7. bad: ....
    8. delicious: ....
    9. loud: ....
    10. heavy: ....
    II. Multiple choice quiz.
    III. Look at the pictures below and complete each sentence using the given adjectives.
    Comparative
    1. A is ...(big)... B.
    2. A is ...(big)... C.
    3. C is ...(small)... A.
    4. C is ...(small)... box.
    5. C is not ...(big)... B.
    6. B is ...(big)... than C.
    7. Comparing Things
    8. The red motorcycle is ...(fast)... the green one.
    9. The blue motorcycle is ...(slow)... the yellow one.
    10. The blue motorcycle is ...(fast)... the red one.
    11. The yellow motorcycle is ...(fast)... of all.
    12. The blue motorcycle is not ...(fast)... the yellow one.
    13. The green motorcycle is much ...(slow)... the yellow one.
    14. The green motorcycle is ...(slow)... of all.
    15. The yellow motorcycle is much ...(fast)... the green one.
    16. The green motorcycle is ...(fast)... the yellow one.
    III. Complete each of the below sentences using a comparative.
    Example:
  • Her car isn't very big. She wants a bigger one.
  • Her car is old. She wants a newer one.
    1. My job isn't very interesting. I want to do something ....
    2. He is not very tall. His brother is ....
    3. My car is old. I want to buy a ... one.
    4. These flowers aren't very nice. The blue ones are ....
    5. My chair is not comfortable. Yours is ....
    6. This car is too expensive. I want to buy a ... one.
    7. The food here isn't very good. I know a place that serves ... food.
    8. Tom doesn't work very hard. Jim works ....
    9. This knife isn't very sharp. Have you got a ... one?
    10. Our team didn't play well. The opponent played ....
    11. This beach isn't very beautiful. Mandalika beach is ....
    12. People today aren't very polite. In the past they were ....
    13. This table is too big. Let's find a ... one.
    14. Lombok is too far. I think we'll visit a ... place.
    15. The exercise is too difficult for them. They need something ....
    Prev: BSE SMK/MAK XII 62711 753PM PV5098

    August 03, 2021

    Conditional Sentence Type 0 And Type 1

    Conditional Sentence Type 0 And Type 1
    P
    reviously in our earlier post, we have learned about all types of Conditional sentences, i.e. type 0, 1, 2, 3, and mixed conditionals, including their usage or functions, examples, and exercises as well.

    In this post, we are going to focus and take a closer look at Conditional sentence type 0 and type 1.

    Conditional sentence type 0

    Structure:
  • If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Simple Present)....
  • If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Imperative)....
  • Usage / function:
    • Conditional sentences in "If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Simple Present)..." can be used to express general truths / facts. (see examples a and b below)
    • Conditional sentences in "If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Imperative)...." can be used to express suggestions, instructions, or commands. (see examples c and d below)
    Examples
    1. If the moon passes between the sun and Earth, a solar eclipse happens.
    2. If we heat water to 100 degrees Celsius, it boils.
    3. If you arrive at the station, call me.
    4. If you want to turn on the device, press this button.

    Conditional sentence type 1

    Structure:
    If ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Simple Future / Modals)....
    Usage / function:
    Conditional sentences in "If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Simple Future / Modals)..." can be used to express;
    • reminders (see examples a and b below)
    • suggestions (see examples c and d below)
    .
    Examples
    1. If you eat too much, you will get a stomachache.
    2. If you don't shut that window, we will die of cold.
    3. If we want to see the sunrise, we will have to leave very early.
    4. If you want to buy that car, you should provide a bigger garage.
    EXERCISE
    A. Match the sentences on the left with the ones on the right. Number 1 has been done for you as an example.
    If you need help,somebody will open the door.
    If we keep ice in a hot temperature,they will get wet.
    If you fail the exam,let's go for a swim.
    If you ring the bell,it melts.
    If it rains,consult your advisor.
    If it is fine,you'll need to take a remedial test.
    Answer:
    1. If you need help, consult your advisor.
    2. ....
    3. ....
    4. ....
    5. ....
    6. ....
    B. Write correct conditional sentences by putting the verbs in the bracket into the correct form. In some sentences, conditional sentence type 0 and 1 can be used interchangeably. Number 1 has been done as an example.
    1. If I get a ticket, I (go) to the concert.
      Answer: If I get a ticket, I will go to the concert.
    2. If we have time, we (visit) you.
      Answer: ....
    3. If you don't watch the TV, (turn) it off.
      Answer: ....
    4. If the weather is fine, we (go) to the beach.
      Answer: ....
    5. If you want those pictures, I (send) you the copies.
      Answer: ....
    6. If you don't feel well, (stay) at home.
      Answer: ....
    C. Complete the following conditional sentences using your own ideas and words.
    1. If you pass the exam, ....
    2. If I finish my study, ....
    3. If you want to have it, ....
    4. If you have a question, ....
    5. If the weather is fine this afternoon, ....
    D. Do the matching exercise below by dragging each clause to the correct pair.
    You can also study the lesson about conditional sentences type 0 and type 1 through the slide presentation attached below.

    May 07, 2013

    Tips dan Strategi Listening Section TOEFL

    Tips dan Strategi Listening Section TOEFL

    Pada umumnya, peserta ujian TOEFL berpendapat bahwa Listening section dalam TOEFL sangat sulit, karena percakapan dan pembicaraan tidak dapat diulangi. Peserta TOEFL diharuskan mampu memahami serta merekam informasi yang dibutuhkan hanya setelah satu kali mendengarkan. Tidak ada pengulangan, dan peserta juga tidak bisa mencatat informasi yang didengar. Karena itulah, Listening section dalam TOEFL cukup membuat calon peserta TOEFL khawatir dengan kemampuan mereka.

    Bagaimana jika materi Listening section tidak dapat terdengar dengan baik dan jelas?

    Dalam Computer-Based TOEFL (CBT), setiap peserta mendapatkan headset untuk mendengarkan percakapan dan pembicaraan dalam Listening section. Sebelum tes dimulai, peserta TOEFL memiliki kesempatan untuk menyesuaikan volume headset masing-masing. Sesuaikan volume pada saat yang dianjurkan. Jika menunggu hingga tes dimulai, peserta TOEFL tidak akan dapat menyesuaikan volume lagi.

    Sedangkan, dalam Paper-Based TOEFL, supervisor atau pengawas ujian bertanggung-jawab dalam memastikan apakah materi Listening section bisa terdengar dengan baik dan jelas oleh seluruh peserta TOEFL. Jika peserta TOEFL tidak dapat mendengarkan materi Listening section dengan baik, dia boleh mengangkat tangan dan meminta pengawas ujian menyesuaikan dan mengatur volume suara.

    Strategi Belajar sebagai Persiapan Menghadapi TOEFL Listening section

    Dengan cukup tingginya tingkat kesulitan TOEFL Listening section, peserta TOEFL harus bisa mempersiapkan diri dengan baik. Berlatih, dan terus berlatih secara teratur, sistematis, dan terarah adalah kunci menuju sukses TOEFL. Calon peserta TOEFL harus memiliki strategi yang tepat dalam melakukan latihan TOEFL Listening section.

    Berikut ini, Mister Guru akan berbagi strategi berlatih Listening section agar peserta TOEFL bisa mendapatkan hasil yang baik.

    1. Jangan mencatat atau menghentikan rekaman
      Saat berlatih Listening section, jangan mencatat informasi apapun dan jangan menghentikan rekaman sebelum latihan berakhir. Hal ini penting sebagai latihan atau pembiasaan untuk menjaga konsentrasi terhadap soal-soal Listening section. Setelah latihan berakhir, periksalah jawaban dengan melihat kunci jawaban.
    2. Ulangi Latihan
      Jika pada latihan pertama anda melewatkan banyak pertanyaan, atau tidak mampu merekam informasi yang cukup, kerjakan latihan sekali lagi. Mulailah dari awal, dan jangan menghentikan rekaman sebelum latihan berakhir. Lalu periksa jawaban sekali lagi, kali ini dengan melihat penjelasan atau pembahasan jawaban. Cara ini akan mengasah kemampuan mendengarkan (listening-comprehension skill).
    3. Perhatikan informasi rinci
      Saat mendengarkan pembicara, berikan perhatian khusus pada contoh-contoh, diagram, atau grafik yang ada di layar (untuk Computer-Based TOEFL) serta nama-nama spesifik, tempat, dan tanggal yang disebutkan sang pembicara. Seringkali muncul pertanyaan-pertanyaan tentang hal-hal itu.
    4. Pahami hubungan antara para pembicara
      Jika ada lebih dari satu pembicara, pikirkan dan pahami hubungan mereka. Apakah mereka teman kuliah (college friends), teman sekamar (roommates), teman sekelas (classmates), atau dosen (lecturer) dengan mahasiswa? Apakah mereka mahasiswa dengan pegawai/staf administratif? Dengan memahami hubungan mereka, pembicaraan mereka akan menjadi lebih mudah untuk dipahami.
    5. Bacalah pilihan jawaban secara sepintas lalu (teknik skimming)
      Meskipun TOEFL Listening section dirancang untuk menguji kecakapan mendengarkan (Listening) dan memahami bahasa Inggris lisan, secara tidak langsung tes ini juga menguji kemampuan membaca (Reading) karena peserta TOEFL harus membaca pilihan jawaban. Waktu yang sangat singkat dan terbatas mengharuskan peserta TOEFL mampu membaca secara cepat. Salah satu teknik membaca cepat adalah skimming. Dalam teknik ini, peserta TOEFL melihat semua pilihan jawaban secara sepintas, tapi bukan membaca setiap baris secara perlahan. Cobalah berlatih dengan melihat pilihan jawaban dari atas ke bawah secara sepintas lalu, tanpa harus membaca maupun mencoba memahami setiap kalimat secara seksama. Lakukan hal berikut ini:
      1. Carilah kata dan frase yang hampir sama dalam dua atau lebih pilihan jawaban. Kata-kata atau frase yang serupa tersebut dapat memberikan petunjuk tentang topik dan dapat membantu peserta dalam memahami suatu informasi yang didengar secara terperinci.
      2. Jangan memilih suatu jawaban hanya karena tampak sama atau terdengar sama dengan kata-kata yang terdengar. Kata-kata dengan bunyi yang hampir sama bisa memiliki makna berbeda, dan berfungsi sebagai "jebakan" dalam TOEFL.
    6. Lihatlah pilihan jawaban secara sekilas terlebih dahulu (khusus Paper-Based TOEFL)
      Prosedur standar dalam mengerjakan TOEFL adalah mendengarkan lalu membaca pilihan jawaban dalam naskah soal. Akan tetapi, dalam prakteknya, melihat pilihan jawaban secara sepintas sebelum mendengarkan pembicara dalam rekaman seringkali merupakan teknik yang sangat membantu memahami apa yang akan dibicarakan. Dengan melihat pilihan jawaban secara sekilas, peserta TOEFL seringkali mendapatkan petunjuk tentang topik umum yang akan dibicarakan, baik itu berupa percakapan, pembahasan, maupun pertanyaan.
    7. Baca pilihan jawaban dengan teliti saat mendengarkan rekaman (khusus Paper-Based TOEFL)
      Saat mendengarkan pembicara, melihat pilihan jawaban secara teliti seringkali dapat membantu peserta TOEFL dalam memahami informasi-informasi rinci yang sedang dibicarakan. Cobalah mencocokkan beberapa kata yang didengar dengan kata-kata yang ada dalam pilihan jawaban. Dengan teknik mengamati pilihan jawaban, peserta TOEFL biasanya dapat menebak pertanyaan yang akan diberikan. Meskipun begitu, tetaplah ingat bahwa pilihan jawaban kadang-kadang seperti serupa dan seringkali membingungkan. Dan ketika teknik ini ternyata tetap tidak bisa memberikan petunjuk, berhentilah membaca dan pusatkan perhatian secara penuh pada rekaman.

    Baca lebih lanjut tentang tes TOEFL®:

    1. Tips Sukses Tes TOEFL
    2. Tips TOEFL®: Strategi Mengerjakan Test TOEFL Dengan Mengenali Testing Point
    3. TOEFL® Preparation Exercise: Reducing An Adjective Clause In
    4. TOEFL® Preparation 1: Written Expression - Error Recognition
    5. Klik disini untuk mengunduh soal latihan TOEFL
    Semoga sukses.

    September 25, 2011

    TOEFL® Preparation Exercise: Reducing An Adjective Clause Into An Adjective Phrase

    Reducing An Adjective Clause Into An Adjective Phrase - TOEFL® Preparation Exercise
    1. Combine the following sentences using adjective clauses. Please pay attention to the punctuation, and put commas where necessary.
    2. Reduce the adjective clauses into adjective phrases
    Example:
    1. On 27 October 1945, a British plane from Jakarta dropped leaflets over Surabaya. They urged all Indonesian troops and militia to surrender their weapons.
      1. On 27 October 1945, a British plane from Jakarta dropped leaflets over Surabaya which urged all Indonesian troops and militia to surrender their weapons.
      2. On 27 October 1945, a British plane from Jakarta dropped leaflets over Surabaya urging all Indonesian troops and militia to surrender their weapons.
    2. The Battle of Surabaya became a symbol of resistance to the re-imposition of Dutch colonial rule. It cost the lives of many thousands of Indonesians.
      1. The Battle of Surabaya, which cost the lives of many thousands of Indonesians, became a symbol of resistance to the re-imposition of Dutch colonial rule.
      2. The Battle of Surabaya, costing the lives of many thousands of Indonesians, became a symbol of resistance to the re-imposition of Dutch colonial rule.
    1. Jakarta is very crowded. It is the capital city of Indonesia.
    2. The car belongs to Mr. Harun. It is parked under the tree.
    3. The old woman makes a very good living by selling clothes. She lives next door.
    4. He borrowed a book from the library. It is about Indonesian literature.
    5. The girl is very attractive. She lives opposite my house.
    6. The writer has just written an article. It criticizes the system of education in Indonesia.
    7. In playing football, the children use a small ball. It is made of solid rubber.
    8. I have found a letter. It is addressed to one of our important clients.
    9. She bought a book. It is written by a famous author.
    10. I know the lady. She was driving the car.
    11. Rujak Cingur is a traditional East Javanese dish. It is made of salad, chicken, and seafood.
    12. The krill is a tiny sea animal. It looks like a shrimp.
    13. A supernova produced the famous Crab nebula. It is a favorite among astronomers.
    14. The St. Bernard is a breed of very large working dog from the Italian and Swiss Alps. It is originally bred for rescue.
    15. Sunlight can be used to generate electricity by means of cells. They contain substances that emit electrons when bombarded with protons.
    16. Positive thinkers look at life with an attitude of hope. It influences their environment in a way that creates positive results.
    17. Cato the Elder was born in Tusculum. It was a municipal town of Latium.
    18. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in adults. It is caused by changes in the blood vessels of the retina.
    19. Anne Boleyn was the second wife of King Henry VIII. She was beheaded at the age of 29.
    20. A new species of tomato has been developed. It is adapted to harsh climatic conditions.
    21. Edward Kazarian uses microscopes and diamond-tipped tools to create figures the size of the head of a pin. He is a master of making miniatures.
    22. The vast oil spill cost millions to clean up. It smeared the coast.
    23. Majapahit kingdom reached its peak of glory during the era of Hayam Wuruk. He reigned from 1350 to 1389.
    24. James wrote an article. The article indicated that he disliked the president.
    25. The man was brought to the police station. He confessed to the crime.

    Reference:
    1. Gear J & Gear R. Cambridge Preparation for the TOEFL® Test 2nd Ed. Cambridge, Cambridge UP, 1996.
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Surabaya. Accessed Sept 25, 2011.

    TOEFL® Preparation: Adjective Clause Reduction into Adjective Phrase

    TOEFL® Preparation: Adjective Clause Reduction into Adjective PhraseSebelumnya, kita sudah belajar tentang adjective clause atau relative clause serta bagaimana menggabungkan kalimat dengan menggunakan adjective clause atau relative clause.

    Sekarang, kita akan mempelajari "peringkasan" adjective clause menjadi adjective phrase agar kalimat kita menjadi lebih efisien. Seperti halnya adjective clause, adjective phrase adalah salah satu testing point dalam tes TOEFL®, TOEIC®, dan Ujian Akhir Nasional (UAN) SMA dan SMK.

    What is an adjective phrase?

    Adjective phrase adalah "penyusutan" dari adjective clause. Fungsinya masih sama, yaitu menerangkan tentang seseorang atau sesuatu. Tidak seperti adjective clause, adjective phrase tidak memiliki subyek dan kata kerja. Pada kalimat-kalimat berikut, bagian kalimat yang bergaris bawah adalah adjective phrase.
    1. In 1920, the Panama Canal was officially opened, finally linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
    2. Much of the prosperity of this region is due to a cigar factory established more than one hundred years ago.
    3. In 1799, a soldier discovered a piece of stele (a stone pillar bearing an inscription) known as the Rosetta stone.
    4. The giant redwood trees of California, called "sequoias", will further imprint Sequoia's name in history.
    5. After writing many letters seeking employment in local factories, she was finally hired by a big garment manufacturer.

    Can we reduce all adjective clauses into adjective phrases?

    Hanya adjective clause dengan subyek "who", "which", "that" yang bisa diringkas menjadi adjective phrase.


    How to reduce an adjective clause into an adjective phrase?

    Ada dua cara meringkas adjective clause menjadi adjective phrase:
    1. Subyek "who", "which", "that" dan verb be dihilangkan.

      Reducing Adjective Clauses into Adjective Phrases
      Adjective ClausesAdjective Phrases
      The woman who is sitting next to our headmaster is the new supervisor.The woman sitting next to our headmaster is the new supervisor.
      The test which was given to us this morning was quite easy.The test given to us this morning was quite easy.
      She has just moved from Pasuruan, which is a town near Probolinggo.She has just moved from Pasuruan, a town near Probolinggo.
      The apples which are on that plate look fresh and appealing.The apples on that plate look fresh and appealing.

    2. Jika tidak ada verb be, hilangkan "who", "which", atau "that", lalu ubah Verb menjadi bentuk -ing.

      Reducing Adjective Clauses into Adjective Phrases
      Adjective ClausesAdjective Phrases
      The woman who sat next to our headmaster was the new supervisor.The woman sitting next to our headmaster was the new supervisor.
      The TOEIC® test, which consists of 200 test items, takes approximately two hours.The TOEIC® test, consisting of 200 test items, takes approximately two hours.
      A tapeworm is a parasite that lives in the intestines of humans and animals.A tapeworm is a parasite living in the intestines of humans and animals.


    Now, practice what you've just learnt. Reduce the adjective clauses in the following sentences into adjective phrases.
    1. A thunderstorm is a form of weather which is characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere which is known as thunder.
    2. The cloud type which is associated with the thunderstorm is the cumulonimbus.
    3. Thunderstorms most frequently form and develop within areas that are located at mid-latitude when warm moist air collides with cooler air.
    4. Thunderstorms, and the phenomena that occur along with them, pose great hazards to populations and landscapes.
    5. Damage that results from thunderstorms is mainly inflicted by downburst winds, large hailstones, and flash flooding which is caused by heavy precipitation.
    6. Mesoscale convective systems which are formed by favorable vertical wind shear within the tropics and subtropics are responsible for the development of hurricanes.
    7. Dry thunderstorms can cause the outbreak of wildfires with the heat that is generated from the cloud-to-ground lightning that accompanies them.
    8. The falling droplets create a downdraft of air that spreads out at the Earth's surface, which causes strong winds.
    9. Thunderstorms which cause hail to fall are known as hailstorms.
    10. Thunderstorms, which result from the rapid upward movement of warm and moist air, can be very disastrous.
    References:
    1. Azar B.S. Understanding and Using English Grammar (2nd Ed). NJ: Prentice-Hall. Inc, 1989, pg.257.
    2. Pyle M.A. and Munoz M.E. . TOEFL® Preparation Guide (5th Ed). Lincoln: Cliffs Notes Inc., 1995.
    3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thunderstorm. Accessed Sept 25, 2011.

    September 24, 2011

    Adjective Clause (Relative Clause)

    Adjective Clause (Relative Clause)-Minarni Soedardjanto
    M
    ateri tentang adjective clause atau relative clause adalah salah satu materi yang harus dikuasai dengan baik oleh siswa SMA, SMK, hingga mahasiswa perguruan tinggi. Selain dibutuhkan dalam penyusunan dan penulisan kalimat berbahasa Inggris yang efisien, adjective clause atau relative clause juga merupakan salah satu testing point yang selalu diujikan dalam test TOEFL, TOEIC, dan Ujian Akhir Nasional (UAN). Karena itu, setelah mengenal sekilas tentang adjective clause atau relative clause, sekarang kita akan mempelajarinya secara lebih terperinci lagi.

    1. Adjective Clause Using Subject Pronouns: Who, Which, That

    Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with Subject Pronouns: "Who", "Which", "That"
    Without adjective clause / relative clauseUsing adjective clause / relative clause
    I will introduce you to a friend. He runs a successful business.I will introduce you to a friend who runs a successful business.
    I will introduce you to a friend that runs a successful business.
    The book is about religion. It has raised controversy.The book which has raised controversy is about religion.
    The book that has raised controversy is about religion.
    Notes:
    • "Who", "which", atau "that" adalah subyek dalam adjective clause.
    • "Who" digunakan untuk mengganti subyek berupa orang.
    • "Which" digunakan untuk mengganti subyek berupa benda.
    • "That" digunakan untuk mengganti subyek berupa orang maupun benda, dan lebih umum dipakai daripada "which". Akan tetapi, "that" hanya bisa digunakan pada defining relative clause saja. (Baca Menggabungkan Kalimat Menggunakan Adjective Clause (Relative Clause).

    2. Adjective Clause Using Object Pronouns: Who(m), Which, That

    Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with Object Pronouns: "Who(m)", "Which", "That"
    Without adjective clause / relative clauseUsing adjective clause / relative clause
    I will introduce you to a friend. You have never met him before.I will introduce you to a friend (who(m)) you have never met before.
    I will introduce you to a friend (that) you have never met before.
    The book is about religion. I bought it in Gramedia bookstore last week.The book (which) I bought in Gramedia bookstore last week is about religion.
    The book (that) I bought in Gramedia bookstore last week is about religion.
    The song was very popular in 1990's. I am listening to it.The song to which I am listening was very popular in 1990's.
    The song (which) I am listening to was very popular in 1990's.
    The song (that) I am listening to was very popular in 1990's.
    Notes:
    • "Whom" digunakan untuk mengganti obyek berupa orang, umumnya digunakan dalam bahasa Inggris formal. Untuk bahasa Inggris informal dan percakapan, "who" lebih sering dipakai menggantikan "whom".
    • "Which" digunakan untuk mengganti obyek berupa benda.
    • "That" digunakan untuk mengganti obyek berupa orang maupun benda, dan lebih umum dipakai daripada "which". Akan tetapi, "that" hanya bisa digunakan pada defining relative clause saja. (Baca Menggabungkan Kalimat Menggunakan Adjective Clause (Relative Clause).
    • Pada bahasa Inggris percakapan (lisan), "who", "which", atau "that" seringkali dihilangkan.

    3. Adjective Clause Using Whose

    Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with "Whose"
    Without adjective clause / relative clauseUsing adjective clause / relative clause
    I will introduce you to a friend. His interest is learning English.I will introduce you to a friend whose interest is learning English.
    The old lady has a painting. Its value is inestimable.The old lady has a painting whose value is inestimable.
    Notes:
    • Dalam adjective clause atau relative clause, "whose" digunakan untuk menunjukkan milik, menggantikan "his", "her", "its", atau "their".
    • Sebagaimana "his", "her", "its", dan "their", "Whose" selalu diikuti kata benda.
    • "Whose" tidak bisa dihilangkan.

    4. Adjective Clause Using Where

    Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with "Where"
    Without adjective clause / relative clauseUsing adjective clause / relative clause
    I will take you to the restaurant. I usually have lunch there (at the restaurant).I will take you to the restaurant where I usually have lunch.
    I will take you to the restaurant at which I usually have lunch.
    I will take you to the restaurant (which) I usually have lunch at.
    The old lady has sold the house. She has lived there (in the house) for more than twenty years.The old lady has sold the house where she has lived for more than twenty years.
    The old lady has sold the house in which she has lived for more than twenty years.
    The old lady has sold the house (which) she has lived in for more than twenty years.
    Notes:
    • "Where" dalam adjective clause atau relative clause digunakan untuk menjelaskan tempat.
    • Jika "where" digunakan, preposition pada keterangan tempat (seperti in, from, to, at, on, under, above) tidak diperlukan dalam adjective clause. Sebaliknya, jika "where" tidak digunakan, preposition harus ada. (lihat contoh ke-2 dan ke-3 dalam tabel di atas)

    5. Adjective Clause Using When

    Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with "When"
    Without adjective clause / relative clauseUsing adjective clause / relative clause
    We will never forget the day. My wife gave birth to my first son then (on that day).We will never forget the day when my wife gave birth to my first son.
    We will never forget the day on which my wife gave birth to my first son.
    We will never forget the day (that) my wife gave birth to my first son.
    August is the month. The weather gets very windy then (in August).August is the month when the weather gets very windy.
    August is the month in which the weather gets very windy.
    August is the month (that) the weather gets very windy.
    Notes:
    • "When" dalam adjective clause atau relative clause digunakan untuk menjelaskan waktu.
    • Jika "when" digunakan, preposition pada keterangan waktu (seperti in, on, at) tidak diperlukan dalam adjective clause. Sebaliknya, jika "where" tidak digunakan, preposition ada. (lihat contoh ke-2 dan ke-3 dalam tabel di atas)

    Want to learn more about Adjective Clause?
    Reference:
    1. Azar B.S. Understanding and Using English Grammar (2nd Ed). NJ: Prentice-Hall. Inc, 1989.
    2. Thomson & Martinet. A Practical English Grammar (4th Ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.
    3. Swan, M. Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980.
    * Updated Tues, Oct 2, 2012.

    September 17, 2011

    Tips TOEFL®: Strategi Mengerjakan Test TOEFL Dengan Mengenali Testing Point

    Tips TOEFL®: Strategi Mengerjakan Test TOEFL® Dengan Mengenali Testing Point

    D
    alam tes TOEFL®, testing point adalah bahasan materi tertentu dalam pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris yang diujikan pada soal TOEFL®. Meskipun soal atau pertanyaan selalu berbeda pada setiap tes TOEFL®, testing point tetap tidak berubah dan selalu berkisar pada hal yang tidak jauh berbeda dengan yang diujikan pada tes TOEFL® sebelumnya.

    Karena itu, memahami testing point yang paling sering diujikan dalam tes TOEFL® merupakan salah satu tips dan strategi yang sangat bagus untuk memperoleh nilai TOEFL® yang memuaskan. Dengan memahami testing point, kita bisa mengatur dan mengelola waktu belajar kita dalam mempersiapkan diri menghadapi berbagai macam soal atau pertanyaan yang muncul dalam tes TOEFL®. Belajar sebagai persiapan tes TOEFL® dengan cara mencoba memahami testing point dalam sebuah soal akan sangat membantu kita dalam mengerjakan tes TOEFL® yang sesungguhnya, ketimbang sekedar menjawab soal demi soal tanpa memahami testing point dalam soal tersebut.

    Ada berbagai macam testing point yang terdapat dalam setiap bagian tes TOEFL®. Bahkan seringkali pula, ada beberapa atau lebih dari satu testing point dalam satu soal atau pertanyaan. Testing point bisa berkisar tentang struktur tata bahasa (grammatical structure), kosa kata umum (common vocabulary word), idiom, intonasi bahasa, atau pertanyaan tertentu pada bagian membaca (reading) atau mendengarkan (listening).

    Lebih lengkapnya, berikut ini testing point yang sering diujikan dalam tes TOEFL®.

    LISTENING SECTION

    Part A: Short Conversations
    1. Vocabulary word
    2. Idiom / phrasal verb
    3. Verb
    4. Order / sequence
    5. Comparison
    6. Intonation
    7. Similar sounds
    Part B: Long Conversations and Talks
    1. Main idea
    2. Restatement
    3. Inference
    4. Classification (khusus Computer Based TOEFL®)
    5. Choose two correct answers (khusus Computer Based TOEFL®)

    STRUCTURE SECTION

    Part 1: Sentence Completion
    1. Noun phrase
    2. Word order
    3. Subject + verb
    4. Verb / verb phrase
    5. Adjective phrase / Adjective clause
    6. Conjunction
    7. Parallel construction
    8. Adverb phrase / clause
    9. Comparison
    10. Infinitive / gerund
    11. Preposition / prepositional phrase
    12. Superlative
    13. Negative
    14. Conditional
    15. Pronoun
    Part 2: Error Identification
    1. Word form
    2. Verb form
    3. Pronoun
    4. Parallel construction
    5. Singular / plural pronoun
    6. Mistaken words
    7. Unnecessary word
    8. Omitted word
    9. Preposition
    10. Reversed words
    11. Conjunction
    12. Infinitive / gerund
    13. Comparative
    14. Superlative
    15. Article

    READING SECTION

    Topik bacaan reading comprehension yang paling umum dalam tes TOEFL®
    1. General science, natural history, human physiology
    2. North American history, government, geography
    3. Art, literature, and music
    4. Biographies of famous people
    Jenis pertanyaan reading comprehension yang paling umum dalam tes TOEFL®
    1. Main idea
    2. Inference
    3. Restatement
    4. Vocabulary
    5. Negative question
    6. Referent
    7. Author's attitude / opinion / purpose
    8. Preceding / following topic
    9. Sentence insertion (khusus Computer Based TOEFL®)
    10. Paragraph focus
    11. Line focus
    Selamat belajar. Good luck with your TOEFL® test. Reference:
    Sullivan PN, Brenner GA, Zhong GYQ. Master The TOEFL® (7th ED). NJ, Thomson Peterson's, 2004.