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Showing posts with label Tenses. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Tenses. Show all posts

February 14, 2022

Past Continuous Tense: Struktur, Penggunaan, & Latihan Soal

Past Continuous Tense
J
ika sebelumnya kita sudah belajar tentang Simple Past tense dan Present Continuous tense, pada materi ini kita akan membahas tentang bentuk waktu lain yang juga sangat penting untuk dipelajari dalam bahasa Inggris, yaitu "Past Continuous tense".

Past continuous tense adalah bentuk waktu yang digunakan saat kita membicarakan suatu aktifitas atau peristiwa yang sedang dilakukan atau sedang terjadi pada saat tertentu di masa lampau.

Sebagai ilustrasi, lihatlah gambar di atas dan perhatikan bentuk kata kerja (verbs) pada kalimat-kalimat dalam paragraf singkat berikut ini:

At ten o'clock, Nancy was working out. She wasn't cooking. Now she is cooking and preparing lunch. She is not working out.

Perhatikan kalimat dengan kata kerja (verbs) dicetak tebal, yaitu:
  • At ten o'clock, Nancy was working out.
  • She wasn't cooking.

Kata-kata yang dicetak tebal pada kedua kalimat di atas inilah contoh kata kerja dalam bentuk Continuous tense.

I. Bentuk dan Struktur Past Continuous tense
A. Kalimat Afirmatif / positif.
Subject + was / were + verb-ing
SubjectAuxiliary verb BEMain verb (verb-ing)
Iwasworking.
We
She and I
My friends and I
were
were
were
working.
working.
working.
Youwereworking.
They
The men
My friends
were
were
were
working.
working.
working.
He
She
It
Nancy
The man
was
was
was
was
was
working.
working.
working.
working.
working.
B. Kalimat Interogatif / tanya.
Was / Were + subject + verb-ing?
Auxiliary verb BESubjectMain verb (verb-ing)?
WasIworking?
Were
Were
Were
we
she and I
my friends and I
working?
working?
working?
Wereyouworking?
Were
Were
Were
they
the men
my friends
working?
working?
working?
Was
Was
Was
Was
Was
he
she
it
Nancy
the man
working?
working?
working?
working?
working?
C. Kalimat Negatif / penyangkalan.
Subject + was not (wasn't) / were not (weren't) + verb-ing
SubjectAuxiliary verb BE + NOTMain verb (verb-ing)
Iwas not (wasn't)working.
We
She and I
My friends and I
were not (weren't)
were not (weren't)
were not (weren't)
working.
working.
working.
Youwere not (weren't)working.
They
The men
My friends
were not (weren't)
were not (weren't)
were not (weren't)
working.
working.
working.
He
She
It
Nancy
The man
was not (wasn't)
was not (wasn't)
was not (wasn't)
was not (wasn't)
was not (wasn't)
working.
working.
working.
working.
working.
II. Penggunaan Past Continuous tense.
Past Continuous tense pada umumnya digunakan untuk tujuan-tujuan berikut ini:
  1. Membicarakan kegiatan / peristiwa yang sedang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau. Kegiatan / peristiwa tersebut dimulai sebelum waktu itu, dan saat itu masih sedang terjadi dan belum berakhir.
    Contoh kalimat:
    • At ten o'clock, Nancy was working out. She wasn't cooking. She started cooking at nine, and finished at eleven.
    • Yesterday I watched a movie on the internet. The movie started at 7 pm and finished at 9 pm. At 8 pm yesterday, I was watching the movie.
    Past Continuous tense illustration
  2. Dalam bercerita, past continuous tense umumnya digunakan untuk menggambarkan situasi yang menjadi latar belakang sebuah adegan. Cerita tersebut seringkali dimulai dengan past continuous tense untuk menggambarkan peristiwa yang menjadi latar belakang, lalu dilanjutkan dengan kalimat dalam simple past tense untuk menceritakan adegan yang terjadi.
    Contoh:
    "The farmer and his wife were working in their farm. The sun was shining. The wind was blowing gently. The birds were chirping on the trees around the farm. Suddenly, they heard a loud explosion from the barn."
  3. Past continuous tense sering digunakan bersama simple past tense dengan kata penghubung "when" atau "while" untuk 2 (dua) peristiwa/kegiatan yang terjadi pada waktu yang bersamaan di masa lampau. Past continuous tense digunakan untuk peristiwa/kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung saat peristiwa/kegiatan lainnya terjadi (biasanya menggunakan bentuk simple past tense). Jadi past continuous membicarakan peristiwa/kegiatan yang lebih lama, sedangkan simple past tense membicarakan peristiwa yang tiba-tiba terjadi pada saat itu.

    Pada contoh kalimat di bawah ini, ada 2 (dua) peristiwa/kegiatan yang sedang dibicarakan.

    1. Kegiatan yang lebih lama (she was watching a movie at 8 pm), menggunakan bentuk past continuous tense.
    2. Peristiwa yang tiba-tiba terjadi (the door opened), menggunakan bentuk simple past tense.
    Kedua peristiwa/kegiatan tersebut bisa diungkapkan dalam satu kalimat dengan menggunakan kata hubung "when" (untuk peristiwa yang tiba-tiba terjadi) atau "while" (untuk kegiatan yang lebih lama). Contoh-contoh kalimat di bawah ini menggunakan 4 (empat) kombinasi yang berbeda:
    • She was watching a movie when the door opened.
    • When the door opened, she was watching a movie.
    • While she was watching a movie, the door opened.
    • The door opened while she was watching a movie.
    Catat bahwa "when the door opened" juga merupakan keterangan waktu.
  4. Past Continuous juga sering digunakan dengan "while" untuk membicarakan dua kegiatan / peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung secara bersamaan di waktu lampau. Kedua kegiatan / peristiwa tersebut berlangsung selama beberapa lama, dan keduanya menggunakan bentuk Past Continuous tense. Contoh:
    • While I was sunbathing, my friends were playing beach volleyball.
    • He was playing a video game while his sister was watching a movie.
    • The mechanic was repairing the car while Andy was curiously watching him.
  5. Past continuous seringkali digunakan bersama frase "I was wondering if you could/would…….., I was hoping, and I was thinking". Di sini, past continuous digunakan agar permintaan atau saran terdengar lebih halus dan sopan. Contoh:
    • I was wondering if you’d like to go out with me for dinner one evening.
    • I was hoping you would be able to come to my party.
  6. Past continuous digunakan untuk menggambarkan situasi yang sedang berubah. Contoh:
    • It was getting darker. The wind was rising.
    • Despite the headwinds created by the COVID-19, the economy was recovering.
  7. Pada kalimat tak langsung (indirect speech), past continuous digunakan untuk mengganti kata kerja berbentuk present continuous. Contoh:
    • Ann said, "I am still working."
      Ann said that she was still working.
  8. Sama halnya dengan present continuous, ada beberapa kata kerja (verbs) yang tidak biasa digunakan dalam bentuk past continuous.
  • Lihat How to Use Past Continuous Tense untuk mempelajari penggunaan Past Continuous Tense dalam versi bahasa Inggris.
  • Bagaimana membedakan penggunaan Simple Past Tense dengan Past Continuous tense? Pelajari selengkapnya DI SINI.
III. LATIHAN SOAL

A. Ubahlah kata kerja di dalam kurung ke dalam bentuk Past Continuous tense yang benar.
  1. John (work) in his office at 10 am this morning.
  2. When I walked past his house, he (mow) the lawn.
  3. The sun (shine) while the afternoon breeze (blow).
  4. The teacher (explain) his lesson when the fire alarm went off.
  5. Jane (practice) the piano at 8 pm last night.
  6. He (not joke) when he told the news.
  7. The children (not play) football at 4 pm this afternoon.
  8. What you (do) at 7 pm last night?
  9. What he (do) when you entered the room?
  10. Mom (cook) when Dad called her.
  11. We (work) in the garden when it started to rain.
  12. She left early because it (snow).
  13. They (visit) the museum at 10 am this morning.
  14. At 8 am yesterday morning, the students (do) their test.
  15. At that time, the moon (hide) behind the cloud.
B. Ubahlah kata kerja di dalam kurung ke dalam bentuk Past Continuous tense atau Simple Past tense.
  1. When the principal (appear) at the classroom door, some students (make) a presentation. They (talk) about cyberbullying while others (listen) attentively.
  2. At 8 am this morning, they (clean) the room. They (start) working at 7 and (finish) at about 10.
  3. The boys (practice) when David (call). He (say) that he was still at work.
Dapatkan soal latihan lebih lengkap lagi di Exercise: Contrasting The Simple Past With The Past Continuous
081211 0248PM PV1107

November 19, 2021

The Simple Future Tense (Will + Infinitive)

I. Positive and negative statement with "Will + Infinitive"
SubjectAuxiliary Verb (Will)Main Verb (Infinitive)
I / We / You / They / He / She / It / David / The studentswill ('ll)
will not (won't)
buy
practice
work
leave
wait
II. Interrogative statement (Question) with "Will + Infinitive"
Auxiliary Verb (Will)SubjectMain Verb (Infinitive)
WillI / We / You / They / He / She / It / David / The studentsbuy?
practice?
work?
leave?
wait?
III. Usage of future tense with "Will" and example sentences
  1. We use "will" for the future (tomorrow / next week / next month, etc.). E.g.:
    • Sue travels a lot. Today she is in Madrid. Tomorrow, she'll be in Rome. Next week she'll be in Tokyo.
    • Leave the old bread in the garden. The birds will eat it.
    • Don't drink coffee before you go to bed. You won't sleep.
    • She will not be at school tomorrow.
  2. We use "will" for unplanned future actions, which are done spontaneously at the time of speaking. E.g.:
    • Hold on. I'll get a pen.
    • We will see what we can do to help you.
    • Maybe we'll stay in and watch television tonight.
    For things we have arranged or planned to do, "be going to + infinitive" is commonly used.
    Learn more about Contrasting Future Forms "Be Going To" VS "Will" HERE.
  3. We often use the simple future tense (will + infinitive) after "I think ...."E.g.:
    • I think I'll talk to him about it.
    • I think I will see her after work.
    • I don't think I will do that.
  4. We use the simple future tense (will + infinitive) to make a prediction about what we think will happen in the future. E.g.:
    • The weather forecast says that it will rain tomorrow.
    • Things will get better soon.
    • Thousands of people will come to the new circuit to watch the first race.
    Learn more about Talking about Future Plans and Predictions in English HERE
    Learn more about Making Predictions with Future Continuous Tense HERE.
  5. "Will you ...?" are usually used in polite requests. To make requests sound even more polite, "please" can be used at the end of the sentence.E.g.:
    • Will you talk to him about it?
    • Will you sign here, please?
    • Will you be quiet, please? I'm trying to concentrate.
    Learn more about Imperative Sentences and Polite Requests in English HERE
IV. EXERCISES
  1. Write affirmative (positive), interrogative (question), and negative sentences with "will ...". Number 1 has been done as an example.
    1. They - build a new office.
      +: They will build a new office.
      ?: Will they build a new office?
      -: They won't build a new office.
    2. Ria - get the job.
    3. We - be away for a week.
    4. It - take a long time.
    5. She - be at work tomorrow.
    6. The committee - postpone the meeting.
  2. In this interactive exercise, choose the correct answer for each question, "will" or "won't".
  3. Helen is travelling in Europe. By referring to the picture below, complete the sentences with "she's", "she was", or "she'll be".
      Simple Future Tense
    1. Yesterday, ... in Paris.
    2. Tomorrow, ... in Amsterdam.
    3. Last week, ... in Barcelona.
    4. Next week, ... in London.
    5. At the moment, ... in Brussels.
    6. Three days ago, ... in Munich.
    7. At the end of her trip, ... very tired.
  4. Write sentences beginning with "I think ..." or "I don't think ...". Number 1 and 2 have been done as an example.
    1. Diana will pass the exam.
      Answer: I think Diana will pass the exam.
    2. John won't pass the exam.
      Answer: I don't think John will pass the exam.
    3. We'll win the game.
    4. I won't be here tomorrow
    5. Sue will like her present.
    6. They won't get married.
    7. You won't enjoy the film.
    8. We will finish the project in time.
    9. We will not leave yet.
    10. The train will arrive on time.
  5. Change the following commands into polite requests using "Will you ...? Number 1 has been done as an example.
    1. Sign this form, please.
      Answer: Will you sign this form, please?
    2. Leave your bags here.
    3. Speak loudly, please.
    4. Say that again.
    5. Come with me.
    6. Make some coffee, please.
Reference:
  • Murphy, Raymond Essential Grammar In Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • 6610-0124PM-940.

    September 09, 2021

    Exercises: The Simple Past VS Present Perfect Tense (Intermediate)

    Simple Past VS Present Perfect
    I
    n this post, we are going to do some exercises on contrasting the Simple Past with the Present Perfect tense. To learn about the differences between the Simple Past and the Present Perfect tense, read "Contrasting The Simple Past VS The Present Perfect Simple".

    To learn more about both tenses separately, read "Simple Past Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, dan Latihan Soal" and "Present Perfect Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, dan Latihan Soal".

    A. Use the words in brackets to answer the questions.
    Example:
    Man: "Has the package arrived?"
    Woman: "Yes, ...(a few hours ago)...."
    Answer: "Yes, it arrived a few hours ago."
    1. Man: "Have you seen Bob?"
      Woman: "Yes, ...(a few minutes ago)...."
    2. Woman: "Have you started your new job?"
      Man: "Yes, ...(last week)...."
    3. Man: "Have you had lunch?"
      Woman: "Yes, ...(an hour ago)...."
    4. Man: "Have you submitted the report?"
      Woman: "...(yesterday)...."
    5. Man: "Have they contacted you?"
      Woman: "...(on Monday)...."
    B. Right or wrong? Correct the underlined verbs if they are wrong.
    Example:
    • I've lost my key. I can't find it.
      Answer: RIGHT
    • Have you seen Bob yesterday?
      Answer: WRONG: Did you see Bob yesterday?
    1. I've finished my work at 2 o'clock.
    2. I'm ready now. I've finished my work at 2 o'clock.
    3. What time have you finished your work?
    4. Sue isn't here. She's gone out.
    5. Jim's grandfather has died in 2009.
    6. Where have you been last night?
    7. I have started my carreer as a teacher in 2002.
    8. I have worked as a teacher for more than 20 years.
    9. Laila left a few minutes ago.
    10. The letter hasn't arrived yesterday.
    C. Put the verbs in the simple past or present perfect.
    Example:
    • I ...(lose)... my key. I can't find it.
      Answer: I've lost my key. I can't find it.
    • We ...(not have)... a holiday last year.
      Answer: We didn't have a holiday last year.
    1. My friend is a writer. He ...(write)... many books.
    2. I ...(play)... tennis yesterday afternoon.
    3. What time ...(you/go)... to bed last night?
    4. ...(you/ever/meet)... a famous person?
    5. The weather ...(not/be)... very good yesterday.
    6. My hair is wet. I ...(just wash)... it.
    7. I ...(wash)... my hair before breakfast this morning.
    8. Kathy travels a lot. She ...(visit)... many countries.
    9. Sonia isn't here. She ...(not/come)... yet.
    10. We ...(live)... in Malang for two years but now we live in Jember.
    11. Man: "Have you ever been to Bali?"
      Woman: "Yes, we ...(go)... there on holiday last year.
    12. Man: "Where's Tika?"
      Woman: "I don't know. I ...(not see)... her.
    13. Lia works in an office. She ...(work)... there for almost two years.
    14. I ...(meet)... your sister at a party last week. She's very nice.
    15. I ...(wait)... here since seven o'clock and she ...(not come)... yet.
    16. I ...(look)... at this picture for five minutes, but I can't see you in it.
    17. COVID-19 outbreak ...(start)... in early 2020.
    18. Since then, the government ...(take)... various measures to stop the spread of the virus.
    19. The World Health Organization ...(declare)... COVID-19 a pandemic in March 2020.
    20. ...(you/see)... a good movie lately?
    Want to practice more? Try to do another exercise on contrasting the Simple Past with the Present Perfect tense HERE.

    October 26, 2020

    Present Perfect Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, dan Latihan Soal

    KOMPETENSI DASAR
    3.6Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait keadaan / tindakan / kegiatan / kejadian yang dilakukan/terjadi di waktu lampau yang merujuk waktu terjadinya dan kesudahannya, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya. (Perhatikan unsur kebahasaan simple past tense vs present perfect tense)
    4.6Menyusun teks interaksi transaksional, lisan dan tulis, pendek dan sederhana, yang melibatkan tindakan unsur dan meminta informasi terkait keadaan/tindakan/kegiatan/kejadian yang dilakukan/terjadi di waktu lampau yang merujuk waktu terjadinya dan kesudahannya, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai konteks.

    Present Perfect Tense
    P
    resent Perfect tense adalah bentuk waktu dalam bahasa Inggris yang penting untuk dipelajari karena sangat sering digunakan, baik dalam percakapan maupun dalam bahasa tertulis. Agar dapat menggunakan Present Perfect tense secara baik dan benar, konsepnya harus dipahami, diterima, lalu diterapkan secara utuh, tanpa memaksakan konsep bahasa kita ke dalamnya. Karena konsepnya yang asing itulah yang membuat Present Perfect tense sangat menarik untuk dipelajari.
    I. Struktur Present Perfect tense

    Struktur Present Perfect tense tergolong sederhana dan sangat mudah dipahami. Berikut ini beberapa contoh kalimat Present Perfect tense dalam bentuk positif/afirmatif, pertanyaan, dan negatif. Perhatikan baik-baik susunan kata-kata yang dicetak tebal.

    A. Kalimat dengan subyek I, we, you, they, dan kata benda jamak (students, parents, Andi and Tika, dll).
    • (+): I have learned English for many years.
    • (?): Have I learned English for many years?
    • (-): I have not learned English for many years.
    • We have had breakfast.
    • Have we had breakfast?
    • We have not had breakfast.
    • The students have submitted their assignment.
    • Have the students submitted their assignment?
    • The students have not submitted their assignment.
    B. Kalimat dengan subyek He, She, It, dan kata benda tunggal (book, student, Andi, Tika, dll).
    • (+): He has learned English for many years.
    • (?): Has he learned English for many years?
    • (-): He has not learned English for many years.
    • She has had breakfast.
    • Has she had breakfast?
    • She has not had breakfast.
    • The student has submitted his assignment.
    • Has the student submitted his assignment?
    • The student has not submitted his assignment.
    Yang harus diingat tentang struktur Present Perfect Tense.
    1. Subyek I, we, you, they, dan kata benda jamak (students, parents, Andi and Tika, dll) menggunakan auxiliary "HAVE" diikuti Verb 3 (Past Participle). Struktur lengkap kata kerjanya adalah HAVE + VERB 3.
    2. Subyek He, She, It, dan kata benda tunggal (book, student, Andi, Tika, dll) menggunakan auxiliary "HAS" diikuti Verb 3 (Past Participle). Struktur lengkap kata kerjanya adalah HAS + VERB 3.
    3. Tidak ada perubahan bentuk kata kerja dalam kalimat tanya maupun negatif, tetap HAVE + VERB 3 atau HAS + VERB 3, hanya susunan saja yang berubah.
    4. Penulisan "have" dan "has" dalam Present Perfect tense bisa disingkat. Lihat contoh kalimat di bawah ini:
      • I've never been to Gili island.
      • You've done right.
      • He's left already.
      • She's sent the email.
      • It's been there for years.
      • John's gone home already.
      • The car's broken down.
      • We've applied a new system.
      • They've finished their work.
      Jadi, jika menemukan penyingkatan 's, seperti pada he's, she's, it's, jangan gegabah menyimpulkan bahwa itu adalah singkatan dari "is". Bisa jadi itu adalah penyingkatan dari "has" jika bentuknya adalah Present Perfect tense.
    II. Penggunaan Present Perfect tense
    Tense ini disebut Present Perfect tense karena penggunaannya menyiratkan adanya hubungan antara masa sekarang (present) dengan masa lampau (past). Penggunaan Present Perfect tense yang penting untuk diketahui adalah:
    1. Present Perfect tense mengungkapkan hal atau kejadian yang pernah dialami di masa lampau, tanpa membicarakan atau menitik-beratkan pada waktu kejadian, bahkan seringkali waktu kejadian tidak diketahui secara pasti.
      • I have seen monkeys in that forest.
      • She has been to many beautiful places.
      • They have lived here before.
      Jika kita menyebutkan waktu kejadian dalam contoh kalimat di atas, Simple Past tense harus digunakan.
    2. Present perfect tense digunakan untuk memberikan informasi terbaru tentang perkembangan atau kegiatan yang baru saja terjadi atau mengalami perubahan.
      • He has recovered from his illness. (Last week, he was still sick.)
      • They have bought a house. (Last year, they didn't have a house)
      • My English has improved a lot. I couldn't speak English well, but now I can.
    3. Dengan menggunakan for (selama) dan since (sejak), Present perfect tense membicarakan kejadian atau kegiatan yang berawal di waktu lampau dan masih berlanjut sampai sekarang.
      • For dalam bahasa Indonesia berarti "selama" jangka waktu tertentu, misal for 2 hours, for a week, for a month, for a year, for ten years, dll.
      • Since dalam bahasa Indonesia berarti "sejak" saat tertentu di waktu lampau, misal since 6.00 a.m., since yesterday, since July, since 2019, since the beginning of the year, dll.
      Contoh kalimat Present Perfect tense dengan "for" dan "since":
      • I have lived here for two years.
      • She has been sick for 2 days.
      • They have lived here since 2019.
      • The regulation has been effective since January.
    4. "Just" seringkali digunakan dalam Present Perfect tense positif / afirmatif, dengan makna "a short time ago (baru saja)". Contoh:
      • She has just left. (Dia baru saja berangkat.)
      • I've just had dinner. (Saya baru saja makan malam)
      • The package has just arrived. (Paket itu baru saja tiba).
    5. "Already" seringkali digunakan dalam Present Perfect tense positif / afirmatif dan pertanyaan (question) dengan makna "sudah". Contoh:
      • She has already left. (Dia sudah berangkat.)
      • Has he already known about the news? (Sudahkah dia tahu tentang berita itu?)
      • The package has already arrived. (Paket itu sudah tiba).
    6. "Yet" seringkali digunakan dalam Present Perfect tense pertanyaan atau negatif dan diletakkan di akhir kalimat, yang bermakna "until now (belum)". Contoh:
      • She hasn't left yet. (Dia belum berangkat.)
      • I haven't had dinner yet. (Saya belum makan malam)
      • Has the package arrived yet? (Apakah paket itu belum tiba?).
    7. Present Perfect tense sering digunakan bersama "Ever" dalam kalimat tanya (question) dengan makna "pernahkah", dan "Never" dengan makna "tidak pernah / belum pernah". Contoh:
      • Have you ever been here before? (Pernahkah kamu ke sini sebelum ini?)
      • Have you ever eaten mangosteens? (Pernahkah kamu makan manggis?)
      • He has never travelled by air. (Dia belum pernah bepergian naik pesawat?).
    Itulah beberapa penggunaan Present Perfect tense yang penting untuk diketahui. Yang harus diingat, jangan memaksakan konsep bahasa kita saat menterjemahkan atau menggunakan Present Perfect tense. Pahami bentuk dan penggunaannya, lalu terapkan konsepnya secara utuh.

    Sebagai tambahan, bentuk Present Perfect tense seringkali dikontraskan dengan Simple Past tense.

    Lebih jauh tentang perbedaan Present Perfect tense dengan Simple Past tense di sini.
    Selamat berlatih dan semoga sukses.
    LATIHAN SOAL PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
    I. Buatlah kalimat Present Perfect tense bentuk positif, pertanyaan, dan negatif menggunakan subyek dan kata kerja berikut ini.
    Contoh:We - finish our assignment.
    +: We have finished the asignment.
    ?: Have we finished the assignment?
    -: We haven't finished the assignment.
    1. He - clean his room.
    2. They - do the assignment.
    3. Ani - talk to the Principal.
    4. I - send you an email.
    5. His parents - work abroad before.
    II. Lengkapi kalimat-kalimat berikut dengan bentuk Present Perfect tense dari kata kerja yang di dalam kurung. Sesuaikan apakah kalimat tersebut membutuhkan bentuk positif, pertanyaan, atau negatif.
    1. Ovy: "Do the students know about the test?"
      Dina: "Yes, I ...(tell)... them."
    2. Pras: "May I borrow the newspaper?"
      Yoko: "Wait a minute. I ...(finish)... reading it."
    3. "I need to talk to Rama. ... you ...(see)... him?"
    4. Student: "Where's Ms. Yuni, Sir?"
      Teacher: "I think she ...(leave)...."
    5. Gani: "Where are my keys?"
      Kiki: "I don't know. I ...(see)... them."
    6. Tia: "This office is very dusty."
      Umi: "Well, it ...(be)... closed since the pandemic started."
    7. Dea: "Make sure you send the email as soon as possible."
      Lala: "Don't worry. I ...(do)... it already."
    8. Benny: "I can't find the shop. It used to be here."
      Rio: "I think they ...(move)...."
    9. Eka: "What's your plan for the holiday?"
      Ima: "I don't know. I ...(think)... about it yet."
    10. I want to visit her but I ...(have)... much time to go out of town.
    III. Buatlah kalimat tanya dengan diawali "Have you ever ...?" dengan menggunakan kata di dalam kurung, lalu jawablah dengan "Yes, once / twice / three times / many times / a few times" atau "No, never" sesuai dengan pengalaman kalian sendiri.
    Contoh:
  • (Lombok) = "Have you ever been to Lombok?" ~ "Yes, once."
  • (eat / mangoes) = "Have you ever eaten durians?" ~ "No, never."
    1. (Bromo) = ....
    2. (play / Congklak) = ....
    3. (Komodo Island) = ....
    4. (live / abroad) = ....
    5. (eat / Padang food) = ....
    6. (cook / Rawon) = ....
    7. (see / Kasada ceremony) = ....
    8. (ride / a horse) = ....
    9. (see / Karapan Sapi) = ....
    10. (travel / by air) = ....
    IV. Lengkapi kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini dengan "for" atau "since".
    1. My brother has lived in Jakarta ... more than ten years.
    2. She has moved to a new department ... last month.
    3. I've known her ... we both were kids.
    4. Indonesia has been an independent country ... 1945.
    5. We have waited ... an hour.
    083011 1246AM 1338

    July 19, 2020

    English Dialogue With Passive Voice: Meeting Friends At The Airport

    J
    im and Betty have come to the airport to meet their friends, Nancy and Tom, who are returning from a holiday in Indonesia. The plane has just arrived.
    Betty:Oh, Jim, isn't it exciting!
    Jim:Yes, it is. Can you see Nancy and Tom?
    Betty:No, not yet.
    Jim:Look, Betty, the stairs are being pushed towards the plane!
    Betty:Yes, they're being put near the door of the plane. Oh, now the door is being opened. Oh, another door is being opened! What is that door for?
    Jim:The passengers' luggage is taken out of that door.
    Betty:I see. Oh, now the passengers are being allowed to come out of the plane! But I can't see Nancy and Tom yet.
    Jim:Never mind. Perhaps they've been sitting at the back of the plane. They're probably being delayed by all the other passengers in front of them.
    Betty:Look behind you, Jim! What a lot of people are waving handkerchiefs! They're recognising their friends.
    Jim:My handkerchief is ready. I'll wave it as soon as I see Nancy and Tom.
    Betty:Oh bother! Mine is in my bag. Jim, there's Nancy.
    Jim:And there's Tom!
    Betty:They haven't seen us yet.
    Jim:I suppose our handkerchiefs can't be seen among all these other ones.
    Betty:Oh, Jim, the passengers aren't being allowed to come and say "hello" to their friends. They're being taken into that room over there!
    Jim:Yes, Betty. That's the Customs room. Their luggage must be examined by the Customs officials before they're allowed to talk to their friends.
    Betty:Look, Nancy has seen us! She's waving to us.
    Jim:So is Tom.
    Betty:Hello, Nancy!
    Jim:Tom! Hello!
    Betty:Oh, we can't be heard - there's too much noise! How long before we'll be able to talk to them?
    Jim:Oh, people are never kept very long by the Customs officials. After their luggage is examined, they'll be able to talk to us.
    Betty:But while their luggage is being examined, we aren't allowed to go into the Customs room.
    Jim:No, nobody is allowed to go into the Customs room to speak to the passengers. Let's go and wait near the door.
    Betty:Oh yes! I can hardly wait to be told all about their holiday in Indonesia.
    Meeting Friends At The Airport
    Answer the following questions.
    1. Where does the conversation take place?
    2. What are Jim and Betty doing there?
    3. Where have Nancy and Tom been?
    4. What will Jim do with his handkerchief?
    5. Where's Betty's handkerchief?
    6. Can the passengers come and say 'hello' to their friends after they come out of the plane?
    7. Where are the passengers being taken?
    8. When will Jim and Betty be able to talk to their friends?
    9. Where will they wait for their friends?
    10. Please copy all the sentences with "passive present continuous" and underline the verbs.
    7/27/11, 11:34 PM, PV 2353
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    April 23, 2020

    Present Continuous Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, & Latihan Soal

    Latihan soal Present Continuous Tense
    P
    resent continuous tense atau present progressive tense adalah salah satu bentuk waktu (tense) yang sering digunakan dalam bahasa Inggris. Present continuous tense berbeda dengan simple present tense, baik dalam penggunaannya maupun struktur dan bentuk kata kerjanya. Dalam materi kali ini, kita akan membahas struktur, bentuk, dan penggunaan present continuous tense secara lengkap, lalu diikuti dengan latihan soal untuk memastikan pemahaman kalian tentang present continuous tense.
    I. Bagaimana struktur & bentuk Present Continuous tense?
    Struktur dan bentuk Present Continuous tense adalah sbb:
    (+) Subject + auxiliary verb (be) + main verb (verb + ing)
    (?) Auxiliary verb (be) + subject + main verb (verb + ing)?
    (-) Subject + auxiliary verb (be) not + main verb (verb + ing)

    Lihatlah contoh-contoh kalimat Present continuous tense di bawah ini:
    Contoh kalimat positif dalam Present Continuous tense
    Subject auxiliary verb (be)main verb
    (verb + ing)
    Iamworkingwith a laptop.
    YouarestudyingEnglish.
    Aniisreadinga magazine.
    The studentsaredoinga test.
    Contoh kalimat tanya dalam Present Continuous tense
    Auxiliary verb (be)Subjectmain verb
    (verb + ing)
    AmIworkingwith a laptop?
    AreyoustudyingEnglish?
    IsAnireadinga magazine?
    Arethe studentsdoinga test?
    Contoh kalimat negatif dalam Present Continuous tense
    Subject auxiliary verb
    (be) + not
    main verb
    (verb + ing)
    Iam notworkingwith a laptop.
    Youare notstudyingEnglish.
    Aniis notreadinga magazine.
    The studentsare notdoinga test.
    II. Bagaimana penggunaan Present Continuous Tense?
    Present Continuous Tense digunakan untuk:
    • Membicarakan kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung atau sedang dilakukan sekarang / pada saat ini juga, biasanya dengan keterangan waktu; now, at the moment, at present. Contoh:
      • You are studying how to use the present continuous tense.
      • Right now you are looking at this screen.
      • You are reading these example sentences.
    • Membicarakan kegiatan di masa sekarang yang bersifat sementara, bukan merupakan kebiasaan dan tidak bersifat permanen, biasanya dengan keterangan waktu; at this time, temporarily, for the time being. Contoh:
      • The government is trying to stop the spread of Covid-19.
      • Experts are working hard to develop a vaccine for Covid-19.
      • He is living with his sister until he finds a boarding house.
    • Membicarakan kegiatan yang sudah direncanakan / dipersiapkan dan akan segera dilakukan di waktu yang akan datang, dan harus disertai dengan keterangan waktu (adverbs of time), seperti; this evening, tomorrow, next week, in July, atau paling tidak waktu kegiatan sudah dipahami / diketahui. Contoh:
      • We are leaving at 8 this evening. We have booked the train tickets.
      • I am seeing my dentist tomorrow. We have made an appointment.
      • We are going to the beach this weekend.
    • Digunakan dengan always, umumnya dalam kalimat positif, untuk membicarakan suatu kebiasaan, disengaja atau tidak disengaja, yang dianggap mengganggu dan menjengkelkan karena terjadi berulang kali. Contoh:
      • She is always asking me questions.
      • Rama is always complaining about his job.
      • Oh no. You are always losing your keys.
      Dalam penggunaan ini, always + present continuous tense berbeda dengan always + simple present tense yang membicarakan rutinitas biasa.
    III. Bagaimana penulisan ejaan dalam Present Continuous tense?
    Present Continuous tense disusun dengan menggunakan kata kerja bentuk "ing" (verb -ing), caranya dengan menambahkan akhiran "ing" pada kata kerja dasar. Ada beberapa aturan dalam pembentukan verb-ing, sebagai berikut:
    • Tidak ada perubahan pada kata kerja dasar jika huruf terakhir berupa konsonan yang pengucapannya tidak mendapat penekanan.
      Contoh: walk > walking, work > working, stand > standing, blow > blowing, rain > raining, steer > steering, play > playing, open > opening, dll.
    • Menggandakan huruf terakhir jika huruf terakhir berupa konsonan yang pengucapannya mendapat penekanan.
      Contoh: stop > stopping, run > running, begin > beginning, drop > dropping, bid > bidding, get > getting, dll.
    • Jika kata kerja dasar berakhiran "ie", gantilah "ie" dengan "y".
      Contoh: lie > lying, die > dying, tie > tying, dll.
    • Jika kata kerja dasar berakhiran dengan huruf vokal (vowel) "e", hilangkan "e".
      Contoh: come > coming, make > making, take > taking, choose > choosing, give > giving, write > writing, dll.
    Latihan Soal
    Task 1.
    Ubahlah kata kerja berikut ini ke dalam bentuk "verb-ing".
    stay = ....
    hire = ....
    delete = ....
    tap = ....
    move = ....
    shine = ....
    kick = ....
    win = ....
    send = ....
    wave = ....
    boil = ....
    listen = ....
    leave = ....
    practice = ....
    erase = ....
    fly = ....
    cut = ....
    use = ....
    Task 2.
    Tambahkanlah "be" dan ubahlah kata kerja dalam kurung ke dalam bentuk "-ing" sehingga menjadi kalimat dalam bentuk Present Continuous tense yang benar. Lihat contoh pada nomer 1.
    1. We (eat) in a restaurant tonight.
      Jawaban: We are eating in a restaurant tonight.
    2. They (not work) tomorrow.
    3. When ... you (start) your new job?
    4. ... they (wait) for the bus?
    5. Look! That man (climb) the coconut tree.
    6. What ... you (do)?
    7. Rinda (type) the letter now.
    8. She (not use) the washing machine right now.
    9. Hendra (learn) to drive.
    10. My friends (come) to see me this evening.
    Task 3.
    Lengkapilah kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini dengan memberikan kata kerja yang sesuai dalam bentuk Present Continuous tense. Setiap kalimat bisa memiliki lebih dari 1 (satu) jawaban benar.
    buy - play - cook - listen to - read - do - water - drink - watch - sleep

    1. My grandma ... the flowers in our garden.
    2. Tono and his brother ... a kite in the yard now.
    3. The cat ... on the sofa.
    4. My mother ... dinner in the kitchen.
    5. Andi ... not ... music right now.
    6. My father ... today's newspaper in the living room.
    7. ... she ... TV at the moment?
    8. The animals ... water from the pond.
    9. ... you ... this bed sheet? It's expensive.
    10. What ... they ... in the garage?
    060711 0915PM 1408

    April 20, 2020

    Simple Past Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, dan Latihan Soal

    KOMPETENSI DASAR
    3.6Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait keadaan / tindakan / kegiatan / kejadian yang dilakukan/terjadi di waktu lampau yang merujuk waktu terjadinya dan kesudahannya, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya. (Perhatikan unsur kebahasaan simple past tense vs present perfect tense)
    4.6Menyusun teks interaksi transaksional, lisan dan tulis, pendek dan sederhana, yang melibatkan tindakan unsur dan meminta informasi terkait keadaan/tindakan/kegiatan/kejadian yang dilakukan/terjadi di waktu lampau yang merujuk waktu terjadinya dan kesudahannya, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai konteks.

    Simple Past Tense
    S
    imple Past tense adalah bentuk kata kerja yang digunakan untuk membicarakan kegiatan atau kejadian di waktu lampau. Ada beberapa tenses yang bisa digunakan untuk membicarakan sesuatu yang terjadi di masa lampau, akan tetapi simple past tense inilah yang paling sering digunakan. Dalam materi ini, kita akan mempelajari bentuk atau struktur serta penggunaan Simple Past tense melalui contoh-contoh kalimat dan latihan soal untuk membantu kalian dalam belajar.
    1. Bagaimana struktur kalimat dan bentuk kata kerja Simple Past tense?
    Untuk membuat kalimat dalam Simple Past tense, kita menggunakan;
    kata kerja bentuk lampau (Verb 2)
    atau
    auxiliary (did) + kata kerja dasar (verb 1)

    Struktur kalimat positif, kalimat tanya, dan kalimat negatif dalam Simple Past tense secara lengkap adalah sebagai berikut:
    (+) Subject + verb 2
    (?)Did + subject + verb 1?
    (-) Subject + did not (didn't) + verb 1

    Lihatlah contoh-contoh kalimat dalam Simple Past tense berikut ini.
    Contoh kalimat positif dalam Simple Past tense
    SubjectPast verb (verb 2)
    Isentthe email yesterday.
    Hecleanedthe windows this morning.
    Alyaplanteda flower in the garden.
    Contoh kalimat tanya dalam Simple Past tense
    Didsubjectverb 1
    Didyousendthe email yesterday?
    Didhecleanthe windows this morning?
    DidAlyaplanta flower in the garden?
    Contoh kalimat negatif dalam Simple Past tense
    Subjectdid not (didn't)verb 1
    Idid not (didn't)sendthe email yesterday.
    Hedid not (didn't)cleanthe windows this morning.
    Alyadid not (didn't)planta flower in the garden.
    Di bawah ini adalah contoh beberapa kata kerja dasar (verb 1), baik regular maupun irregular verbs, dengan perubahannya dalam bentuk Simple Past (verb 2).
    Regular verbsIrregular verbs
    Verb 1Verb 2Verb 1Verb 2
    basebasedblowblew
    workworkedgowent
    wantwantedcomecame
    likelikedseesaw
    visitvisitedreadread
    playplayedwritewrote
    Untuk daftar irregular verbs yang lebih lengkap, bisa dilihat dan diunduh di halaman Daftar Irregular Verbs Lengkap Dengan Artinya.
    2. Bagaimana dengan kata kerja "to be" dalam Simple Past tense?
    Penting diketahui bahwa kata kerja "to be" tidak menggunakan struktur kalimat past tense seperti di atas. Kata kerja "to be" (was, were) tidak membutuhkan auxiliary pada kalimat negatif dan kalimat tanya. Subyek I/he/she/it membutuhkan bentuk "to be" was, sedangkan we/you/they membutuhkan bentuk "to be" were. Perhatikan struktur kalimat Simple Past tense dengan kata kerja "to be" berikut ini:
    Struktur kalimat Simple Past tense dengan kata kerja "to be"
    Subjectto be
    (+)I
    He
    They
    was
    was
    were
    here yesterday.
    here yesterday.
    here yesterday.
    (?)Were
    Was
    Were
    you
    he
    they
    here yesterday?
    here yesterday?
    here yesterday?
    (-)I
    He
    They
    was not (wasn't)
    was not (wasn't)
    were not (weren't)
    here yesterday.
    here yesterday.
    here yesterday.
    3. Bagaimana dan kapan kita menggunakan Simple Past tense?

    Seperti yang telah disebutkan di atas, Simple Past tense adalah bentuk kata kerja yang digunakan untuk kegiatan atau kejadian di waktu lampau. Karena itu, Simple Past tense hampir selalu digunakan dalam teks recount tentang pengalaman seseorang atau biografi seorang tokoh, narrative, seperti dongeng, legenda, dan cerita rakyat, serta teks berita (news item).

    Secara lebih spesifik, Simple Past tense digunakan untuk:

    • Membicarakan suatu keadaan, kejadian atau kegiatan di waktu lampau dan waktu kejadiannya disebutkan atau sudah diketahui. Contoh:
      • The coronavirus first surfaced in a Chinese seafood and poultry market in Wuhan at the end of 2019.
      • On January 11 2020, Chinese state media reported the first known death from an illness caused by the virus.
      • Wage Rudolf Supratman, the writer of "Indonesia Raya" national anthem, was born on March 9, 1903 in Somongari, Purworejo, Central Java.
    • Membicarakan suatu keadaan, kejadian atau kegiatan yang sudah jelas terjadi di waktu lampau meskipun waktu kejadian tidak disebutkan secara spesifik. Contoh:
      • I graduated from a vocational high school in Probolinggo.
      • She worked in that factory for two years. (but she does not work there now.)
      • I bought this book in a book market in Malang.
    • Membicarakan suatu keadaan, kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi di suatu periode waktu lampau yang tidak mungkin akan terjadi lagi. Contoh:
      • Ismail Marzuki wrote at least 22 songs in his life.
      • My father took me to the zoo twice when I was a child.
      • It rained three times last week.
      Di sinilah letak perbedaan Simple Past dengan Present Perfect tense.

      Peristiwa-peristiwa lampau dalam kalimat contoh di atas tidak mungkin akan terjadi lagi karena jangka waktunya sudah berakhir. Jika jangka waktu masih belum berakhir dan masih ada kemungkinan untuk terjadi lagi, kita harus menggunakan bentuk Present Perfect tense.

    • Menanyakan kapan waktu terjadinya suatu keadaan, kejadian, atau kegiatan di waktu lampau. Contoh:
      • When did you arrive from Surabaya?
      • When did you meet her?
      • What time did you leave the office last night?
    • Dengan adverbs of frequency seperti always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, rarely, never, Simple Past digunakan untuk membicarakan kebiasaan di masa lampau, sama seperti penggunaan used to untuk membicarakan kebiasaan lampau. Contoh:
      • My father always picked me up from school.
      • They never came late.
      • He was always busy in the morning.
    • Membuat kalimat conditional (conditional sentence) type 2. Contoh:
      • If you took a closer look, you would be able to see the difference between these two pictures.
      • If they weren't so noisy, we would be able to concentrate.
      • It would not be so cold if you closed that window.
    EXERCISE
    A. Lengkapilah kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini dengan bentuk Simple Past (verb 2) dari kata kerja yang sesuai.

    borrow - drive - give - watch - be - eat - spend - teach - decide - play

    1. He ... his childhood in a small village in East Java.
    2. I ... a good movie last night.
    3. We ... a very satisfying dinner last night.
    4. Before moving here, we always ... an hour to work every day.
    5. Lusi often ... tennis on weekends.
    6. The Japanese teacher ... our class last semester.
    7. She ... absent from school yesterday.
    8. We ... to work until late last night in order to meet the deadline.
    9. My Mom ... me a wonderful present on my last birthday.
    10. He ... my dictionary a few days ago.
    B. Lengkapilah kalimat-kalimat berikut dengan mengubah kata kerja di dalam kurung ke dalam Simple Past tense. Lakukan perubahan susunan kalimat jika diperlukan.
    Example:
    • She (make) this delicious cake this morning.
      Answer: She made this delicious cake this morning.
    • How you (get) your present job?
      Answer: How did you get your present job?
    1. My grandmother once (live) in Jember, East Java.
    2. She (work) in a foreign company for 3 years.
    3. They (buy) the car from a showroom last month.
    4. She (go) to the movie last night?
    5. I am sorry. I (not hear) the telephone.
    6. When you (send) the email?
    7. She (be) late because of the traffic jam.
    8. On 17 August 1945, Soekarno and Hatta (proclaim) the independence of Indonesia.
    9. They (not celebrate) the event because of Covid-19 outbreak.
    10. You (enjoy) your holiday?
    C. Lengkapilah kalimat-kalimat berikut dengan mengubah kata kerja di dalam kurung ke dalam Simple Past tense. Pilihlah antara kalimat positif dan negatif sesuai dengan makna kalimat.
    Example:
    • It was hot in the room, so we ... the windows. (open)
      Answer: It was hot in the room, so we opened the windows.
    • It was cold outside, so we ... the windows. (open)
      Answer: It was cold outside, so we didn't open the windows.
    1. It was very crowded, so we ... the concert. (enjoy)
    2. It was very cloudy this morning, so I ... my umbrella. (bring)
    3. I was very tired, but I ... very well. The bed was uncomfortable. (sleep)
    4. Atri ... to work yesterday because he was sick. (go)
    5. I have submitted the documents they need. I ... it by email about an hour ago. (send)
    Reference:
    • Azar B.S. Understanding and Using English Grammar (2nd Ed). NJ: Prentice-Hall. Inc, 1989.
    • Thomson and Martinet (1986). A Practical English Grammar (4th Ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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