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January 11, 2022

Comparative Exercises: Comparing Things in English

B
efore doing the exercises below, you may want to review what we have learned about comparisons in "Degrees of Comparison: Positive, Comparative, Superlative, dan Parallel Increase". As a reminder, here is how to compare things using adjectives.
A. Using Positive Degree:
To show that two things or people are similar in some way, we can use "as + adjective + as". Example sentences:
  • The tiger is as dangerous as the lion.
  • For me, the rose is as beautiful as the sunflower.
B. Using Comparative degree:
To compare two things which are not similar, we can use "comparative adjectives + than". Comparatives can be "adjective + er + than" or "more + adjective + than". To learn more about comparative adjectives, read THIS.
  • Apples are smaller than coconuts.
  • This motorcycle is more expensive than that one.
C. Using Superlative degree:
To compare three or more things, one of which is superior or inferior to the others, we use a "the superlative". The superlative can be formed with "the + adjective + est" or "the most + adjective".
  • John is the tallest boy in his class.
  • The rose is the most beautiful flower in my garden.
EXERCISES
I. Write the comparative of the adjectives below.
Example:
  • big: bigger.
    1. pretty: ....
    2. interesting: ....
    3. strong: ....
    4. serious: ....
    5. happy: ....
    6. good: ....
    7. bad: ....
    8. delicious: ....
    9. loud: ....
    10. heavy: ....
    II. Multiple choice quiz.
    III. Look at the pictures below and complete each sentence using the given adjectives.
    Comparative
    1. A is ...(big)... B.
    2. A is ...(big)... C.
    3. C is ...(small)... A.
    4. C is ...(small)... box.
    5. C is not ...(big)... B.
    6. B is ...(big)... than C.
    7. Comparing Things
    8. The red motorcycle is ...(fast)... the green one.
    9. The blue motorcycle is ...(slow)... the yellow one.
    10. The blue motorcycle is ...(fast)... the red one.
    11. The yellow motorcycle is ...(fast)... of all.
    12. The blue motorcycle is not ...(fast)... the yellow one.
    13. The green motorcycle is much ...(slow)... the yellow one.
    14. The green motorcycle is ...(slow)... of all.
    15. The yellow motorcycle is much ...(fast)... the green one.
    16. The green motorcycle is ...(fast)... the yellow one.
    III. Complete each of the below sentences using a comparative.
    Example:
  • Her car isn't very big. She wants a bigger one.
  • Her car is old. She wants a newer one.
    1. My job isn't very interesting. I want to do something ....
    2. He is not very tall. His brother is ....
    3. My car is old. I want to buy a ... one.
    4. These flowers aren't very nice. The blue ones are ....
    5. My chair is not comfortable. Yours is ....
    6. This car is too expensive. I want to buy a ... one.
    7. The food here isn't very good. I know a place that serves ... food.
    8. Tom doesn't work very hard. Jim works ....
    9. This knife isn't very sharp. Have you got a ... one?
    10. Our team didn't play well. The opponent played ....
    11. This beach isn't very beautiful. Mandalika beach is ....
    12. People today aren't very polite. In the past they were ....
    13. This table is too big. Let's find a ... one.
    14. Lombok is too far. I think we'll visit a ... place.
    15. The exercise is too difficult for them. They need something ....
    Prev: BSE SMK/MAK XII 62711 753PM PV5098

    January 01, 2022

    Report Text With Exercises For Elementary - Intermediate Learners

    R
    ead the text below and do the exercises.
    You may look at your dictionary while doing the exercises.

    Things Around Us

    There are many things around us. They can be different in size, shape, color, smell or texture. They can also be made from different materials. Things are different because they have different properties.

    Things are similar in some ways too. Let's take a look at how things can be similar.

    Reading Text For Elementary
    Things have weight
    The weight of a book tells us how heavy that book is. Every thing, be it big or small, has weight. We often use 'heavy' or 'light' to describe the weight of something.

    Some things, such as a pencil or a feather, are light. We can lift them easily. Some things, such as a cupboard or a desk, are heavy. We cannot lift them easily.

    It is easy to lift an empty pail, but when the pail is full of water, it is harder to lift it. This shows that water has weight.

    What about air? Does it have weight? Air, like water, and all the things around us, has weight too.

    Things occupy space
    Cupboard
    Look at this cupboard. Only one shelf is filled with books.

    The books occupy half the space in the cupboard. There is still space for some more books.

    The glass is filled with colored water. The water occupies all the space in the glass. What do you think will happen if you put a few pieces of ice into the glass of water?

    Air occupies space too. When we blow air into a balloon, the air fills the space inside the balloon.

    In science, anything that has weight and occupies space is called matter.

    EXERCISES
    I. Match each word with its synonym.
    II. State whether these sentences are "TRUE" or "FALSE"
    III. Complete this crossword puzzle.

    December 21, 2021

    Asking And Giving Directions

    A. How to Ask for Direction
    • Where is ..., please?
    • How do I get to ...?
    • Can you help me, please? I want to get to ....
    • Can you tell me where ... is?
    • I’m looking for ....
    B. How to Give Direction
    • Go straight ahead. Take the lift / stairs.
    • Turn left / right at the traffic lights.
    • Walk straight.
    • It’s on your left / right.
    • It’s on the second floor.
    • It’s upstairs / downstairs.
    • Take the first right.
    • Take the first exit.
    • Take the ... bus and get off at ....
    • It's next to ....
    • It's opposite ....
    C. Useful Expressions with Illustrations
    Ask And Give Directions
    D. Example Dialogues
    Dialogue 1
    Andy stops a passer-by to ask the way to the city museum.
    Andy:Excuse me, could you tell me where the museum is?
    Passer-by:The museum? It’s just over there, next to the park.
    Andy:Ah yes, thanks very much.
    Passer-by:You're welcome.
    Dialogue 2
    Ann needs to go to an ATM and asks a passer-by.
    Ann:Excuse me. Could you tell me the way to the nearest ATM?
    Passer-by:Well, go straight and turn left at the first junction. Go along the street and you will find a big supermarket. There are ATM booths in front of it.
    Ann:And what’s the supermarket called?
    Passer-by:Matahari. Shall I write it down for you?
    Ann:No, I think I’ve got it. Thanks a lot.
    Passer-by:Bye!
    Dialogue 3
    Lidya wants to go to the art gallery but she doesn't know how to get there.
    Lidya:Excuse me. How could I get to the art gallery?
    Passer-by:The art gallery? Get the 11 bus from the corner here, and get off at the Central park. Then turn left into Bright Avenue, and go on until you get to the gallery. It's on your right.
    Lidya:Could you write it down for me? I might get lost again otherwise.
    Passer-by:Certainly ... [writes it down for Lidya] ... there you are.
    Lidya:Thank you for your help.
    Passer-by:My pleasure. Enjoy the art gallery!
    Lidya:I will. Bye!
    Passer-by:Bye!
    E. Exercises

    December 09, 2021

    How To Express Amazement, Admiration, or Surprise in English

    A. TELLING SURPRISING NEWS
    • Guess what!
    • Surprise!
    • I’ve got news for you!
    • Do you know what!
    • Are you sitting down?
    • You’d better sit down!
    • You won’t believe this, but...
    B. EXPRESSING AMAZEMENT / ADMIRATION

    That’s + adjective!

    That’s
    amazing!
    incredible!
    terrific!

    That’s + noun phrase!

    That’s
    a beautiful goal!
    a brilliant maneuver!
    a nice dress!

    What + noun phrase!

    What
    a wonderful voice she has!
    a brilliant maneuver!
    a nice dress!

    How + adjective / adverb!

    How
    stunning she looks!
    gently she walks!
    clever!
    C. EXPRESSING SURPRISE
    Amazement, Admiration, Surprise
    • I’m really surprised at ....
    • Oh no! It can’t be (true)!
    • My goodness!
    • What a surprise!
    • What on earth is that thing?
    • I was shocked by ....
    • It’s too good to be true!
    • It’s unbelievable!
    • I can’t believe it!
    • Incredible!
    • It’s really beyond belief!
    D. EXERCISES
    I. Match each incomplete sentence into the correct word, "How" or "What".
    II. Arrange these jumbled sentences
    1. experience – what – had – unforgettable – an – we
    2. was – fascinating – sunset – how – the
    3. actress – a – beautiful – what – is – she
    4. a – family – our – dinner – had – what – fantastic
    5. the – next – how – girl – is – adorable – door
    6. succeed – she – how – to – hard – tried
    7. perfect – by – what – Ronaldo – ball – a – long
    8. it – astonishing – was – sight – a – how
    9. hall – a – conference – large – what – is – it
    10. for – what – the – team – a – new – year – successful
    III. Complete the following dialogues using your own words.
    Dialogue 1
    Didy:Look. Messy has just scored another goal.
    Danny:Wow! ....
    Didy:....
    Dialogue 2
    Bob:What are you reading?
    Paul:Sport news as usual.
    Bob:What's new today?
    Paul:My favorite team won once again. So far, it is the only club that has won each of its five three league matches.
    Bob:Really? ....
    Paul:Furthermore, so far it has scored 11 goals and allowed none. Isn’t it amazing?
    Bob:Indeed. ....
    Dialogue 3
    Yoyo:Can we go to the movie this evening?
    Nike:I’d love to, but I’m sorry I’m tied up till 8 p.m. I’m going to have a meeting at 4 p.m. and it may last until 6. Then I still have to finish a report tonight in order to meet the deadline.
    Yoyo:....
    Nike:I wish I could go with you. What about Friday evening?
    Yoyo:....

    December 04, 2021

    A Lot Of, Many, Or Much?

    A Lot Of, Many, Or Much
    I. "A lot of"
    "A lot of" is used for all types of sentences, affirmative (positive), interrogative (questions), or negative sentences, for both countable and uncountable nouns.
    1. Example sentences with "a lot of" + countable nouns:
      • I have a lot of books.
      • Bob doesn't have a lot of clothes.
      • Do you have a lot of friends?
    2. Example sentences with "a lot of" + uncountable nouns:
      • I have a lot of work to do.
      • Ali doesn't have a lot of money.
      • Do you have a lot of spare time?
    Note: "Much" is never used in affirmative / positive sentences, while "many" can sometimes be used at the beginning of an affirmative / positive sentence, especially when the meaning is negative.
    II. "Many" and "much"
    "Many" and "much" are used in interrogative (questions) and negative sentences. "Many" is used for both countable nouns, whereas "much" is for uncountable nouns.
    1. Example of interrogative sentences with "many" + countable nouns:
      • Do you have many books?
      • Does Siti have many clothes?
      • Do you have many photos?
      • I don't have many books.
      • Siti doesn't have many clothes.
      • I don't have many photos.
    2. Example of interrogative sentences with "much" + uncountable nouns:
      • Do you have much paper?
      • Does Ali have much money?
      • Do you have much spare time?
      • I don't have much paper.
      • Ali doesn't have much money.
      • I don't have much spare time.
    III. "A lot", "many" and "much" without a noun
    "A lot", "many" and "much" can also be used without a noun.
    Example sentences:
    • I have some money but not much.
    • I took some pictures but not many.
    • She spoke to me but she didn't say much.
    • Do you watch TV much? ~ No, not much.
    • We like films, so we go to the cinema a lot.
    • I don't like him very much.
    IV. Exercises
    A. Interactive Quiz
    Complete each sentence by filling in the blank spaces with the correct answer, "a lot of", "many", or "much".
    B. Writing Exercise
    Rewrite the following sentences into the interrogative (questions).
    1. He has a lot of friends.
    2. Bill takes a lot of medicine.
    3. This hotel has a lot of rooms.
    4. There are a lot of bananas on the table.
    5. They drink a lot of tea.
    Rewrite the following sentences into the negative.
    1. He is saving a lot of money.
    2. There are a lot of kangaroos in the country.
    3. There are a lot of people in front of the building.
    4. She eats a lot of biscuits.
    5. There is a lot of traffic in the streets during rush hours.
    Complete the following sentences using "a lot of", "many", or "much". Sometimes, more than one answer may be possible.
    1. Ali has ... spare time.
    2. Indonesia has ... beautiful beaches.
    3. Does Brisbane have ... bridges?
    4. Do you eat ... rice?
    5. We don't have ... bread.
    6. Do they have ... different customs?
    7. Barbara has ... flowers in her garden.
    8. We usually have ... rain from October to April.
    9. There are ... islands in Indonesia.
    10. Do they grow ... rice?
    11. How ... money have you got?
    12. How ... photographs did you take?
    13. How ... is this book?
    14. How ... does the ticket cost?
    15. Did they ask you ... questions?

    November 26, 2021

    Participial Adjectives (Participle sebagai Adjective)

    Participial Adjectives
    A
    pakah yang dimaksud dengan PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVE? Participial adjective adalah bentuk participle, yang berfungsi sebagai ajektiva. Ajektiva (adjective), atau seringkali disebut sebagai kata sifat, memiliki fungsi untuk menjelaskan kata benda (nouns).

    Participle itu sendiri sebenarnya adalah turunan dari kata kerja (verb). Ada 2 (dua) jenis participle, yaitu;

    1. Present participle, yang dikenal sebagai kata kerja (verb) berakhiran -ing, contoh; interesting, drawing, amazing, shocking, dsb.
    2. Past participle, atau dikenal sebagai kata kerja ke-3 (verb 3), contoh; interested, drawn, amazed, shocked, dsb.
    A. Perbedaan antara Present Participle dengan Past Participle

    Sebagai kata sifat, kedua jenis participle ini memberikan makna yang berbeda terhadap kata benda yang dibicarakan. Lihat contoh kalimat yang menggunakan participle di bawah ini:

    1. Winning the match was an exciting experience for the players. (Present participle)
    2. The excited players were celebrating the victory. (Past participle)
    Penjelasan:

    Present participle pada contoh no. 1 memiliki makna aktif, yaitu menyebabkan atau melakukan sesuatu. Kata benda (noun) ‘experience’ menyebabkan sesuatu hal, sehingga disebut sebagai ‘exciting experience'.

    Sedangkan, past participle memiliki makna pasif. Kata benda (noun) yang dimaksud menjadi obyek dan terdampak oleh berbagai situasi. Pada contoh no. 2, kata benda "players" menjadi obyek dari sesuatu, sehingga disebut sebagai ‘excited players’.

    B. Daftar Participial Adjective
    Kenalilah beberapa participial adjective yang ada di dalam daftar berikut dan cobalah memahami maknanya. Lengkapilah daftar ini dengan participial adjective yang kalian ketahui.
    VerbPresent ParticiplePast Participle
    boreboringbored
    exciteexcitingexcited
    confuseconfusingconfused
    sortsortingsorted
    surprisesurprisingsurprised
    encloseenclosingenclosed
    includeincludingincluded
    amazeamazingamazed
    astonishastonishingastonished
    terrifyterrifyingterrified
    disappointdisappointingdisappointed
    breakbreakingbroken
    writewritingwritten
    interestinterestinginterested
    threatenthreateningthreatened
    EXERCISES
    A. Horse Race Game
    To win the horse race. Choose the correct answer for each of the following sentences. Only the fastest answer can get the full score and all others get only half a point. Now, let's get the race started.

    B. Sentence Completion Exercise
    Do the following exercise. Use either present participle or past participle of the verbs in the brackets.
    1. The ... announcement has raised questions among the students. (confuse)
    2. The ... students did not know what uniform to wear on the following day. (confuse)
    3. The ... film caused me to fall asleep. (bore)
    4. The ... audience fell asleep during the speech. (bore)
    5. The ... brochure provides tourists with the information they need. (enclose)
    6. The team were ... when they heard about the approval. (excite).
    7. I was very ... to see what was happening at that time. (shock)
    8. This is one of the most ... books I’ve ever read. (interest)
    9. The children soon fell asleep after the ... journey. (tire)
    10. Our vacation was ruined by the ... experience. (frighten)
    11. Aceh was completely destroyed by a ... tsunami on December 26, 2004. (devastate)
    12. The process of repairing ... buildings and streets took years to complete. (damage)
    13. The snake is still a ... sight for most women. (terrify)
    14. The ... workers sat down to rest under the shade of a tree. (exhaust)
    15. His experiences in Jakarta were rather .... (depress)
    16. The woman was trying to comfort the ... child when a policeman came. (cry)
    17. Lapindo tragedy clearly wiped out many ... business opportunities in the area. (promise)
    18. To anticipate the ... volume of air passengers in the holiday season, the airline has added more than 40,000 seats to 14 routes. (increase)
    19. The new ... system is equipped with an advanced protection system. (operate)
    20. A month after the theft, the ... jewelry was recovered. (steal)
    Prev: BSE SMP Cls IX 072311 0343PM PV 5113

    November 19, 2021

    The Simple Future Tense (Will + Infinitive)

    I. Positive and negative statement with "Will + Infinitive"
    SubjectAuxiliary Verb (Will)Main Verb (Infinitive)
    I / We / You / They / He / She / It / David / The studentswill ('ll)
    will not (won't)
    buy
    practice
    work
    leave
    wait
    II. Interrogative statement (Question) with "Will + Infinitive"
    Auxiliary Verb (Will)SubjectMain Verb (Infinitive)
    WillI / We / You / They / He / She / It / David / The studentsbuy?
    practice?
    work?
    leave?
    wait?
    III. Usage of future tense with "Will" and example sentences
    1. We use "will" for the future (tomorrow / next week / next month, etc.). E.g.:
      • Sue travels a lot. Today she is in Madrid. Tomorrow, she'll be in Rome. Next week she'll be in Tokyo.
      • Leave the old bread in the garden. The birds will eat it.
      • Don't drink coffee before you go to bed. You won't sleep.
      • She will not be at school tomorrow.
    2. We use "will" for unplanned future actions, which are done spontaneously at the time of speaking. E.g.:
      • Hold on. I'll get a pen.
      • We will see what we can do to help you.
      • Maybe we'll stay in and watch television tonight.
      For things we have arranged or planned to do, "be going to + infinitive" is commonly used.
      Learn more about Contrasting Future Forms "Be Going To" VS "Will" HERE.
    3. We often use the simple future tense (will + infinitive) after "I think ...."E.g.:
      • I think I'll talk to him about it.
      • I think I will see her after work.
      • I don't think I will do that.
    4. We use the simple future tense (will + infinitive) to make a prediction about what we think will happen in the future. E.g.:
      • The weather forecast says that it will rain tomorrow.
      • Things will get better soon.
      • Thousands of people will come to the new circuit to watch the first race.
      Learn more about Talking about Future Plans and Predictions in English HERE
      Learn more about Making Predictions with Future Continuous Tense HERE.
    5. "Will you ...?" are usually used in polite requests. To make requests sound even more polite, "please" can be used at the end of the sentence.E.g.:
      • Will you talk to him about it?
      • Will you sign here, please?
      • Will you be quiet, please? I'm trying to concentrate.
      Learn more about Imperative Sentences and Polite Requests in English HERE
    IV. EXERCISES
    1. Write affirmative (positive), interrogative (question), and negative sentences with "will ...". Number 1 has been done as an example.
      1. They - build a new office.
        +: They will build a new office.
        ?: Will they build a new office?
        -: They won't build a new office.
      2. Ria - get the job.
      3. We - be away for a week.
      4. It - take a long time.
      5. She - be at work tomorrow.
      6. The committee - postpone the meeting.
    2. In this interactive exercise, choose the correct answer for each question, "will" or "won't".
    3. Helen is travelling in Europe. By referring to the picture below, complete the sentences with "she's", "she was", or "she'll be".
        Simple Future Tense
      1. Yesterday, ... in Paris.
      2. Tomorrow, ... in Amsterdam.
      3. Last week, ... in Barcelona.
      4. Next week, ... in London.
      5. At the moment, ... in Brussels.
      6. Three days ago, ... in Munich.
      7. At the end of her trip, ... very tired.
    4. Write sentences beginning with "I think ..." or "I don't think ...". Number 1 and 2 have been done as an example.
      1. Diana will pass the exam.
        Answer: I think Diana will pass the exam.
      2. John won't pass the exam.
        Answer: I don't think John will pass the exam.
      3. We'll win the game.
      4. I won't be here tomorrow
      5. Sue will like her present.
      6. They won't get married.
      7. You won't enjoy the film.
      8. We will finish the project in time.
      9. We will not leave yet.
      10. The train will arrive on time.
    5. Change the following commands into polite requests using "Will you ...? Number 1 has been done as an example.
      1. Sign this form, please.
        Answer: Will you sign this form, please?
      2. Leave your bags here.
      3. Speak loudly, please.
      4. Say that again.
      5. Come with me.
      6. Make some coffee, please.
    Reference:
  • Murphy, Raymond Essential Grammar In Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • 6610-0124PM-940.

    November 13, 2021

    Cause and Effect, Opposition, and Condition Words

    I
    n this post, we are going to learn adverb clause words, transitions, conjunctions, and prepositions which express cause and effect, opposition, and condition. To make it easier for you to understand the subject, there are example sentences as well as an interactive exercise where you can practice and test your uderstanding. Happy learning.
    A. CAUSE & EFFECT, OPPOSITION, CONDITION WORDS / PHRASES
    ADVERB CLAUSE WORDSTRANSITIONSCONJUNCTIONSPREPOSITIONS
    CAUSE & EFFECTbecause
    since
    now that
    as
    as/so long as
    inasmuch as
    so (that)
    therefore
    consequently
    so
    for
    because of
    due to
    OPPOSITION / CONTRASTeven though
    although / though
    whereas
    while
    nevertheless
    nonetheless
    however
    on the other hand
    but (... anyway)
    yet (... still)
    despite
    in spite of
    CONDITIONif
    unless
    only if / even if
    whether or not
    provided (that)
    providing (that)
    in case (that)
    in the event (that)
    otherwiseor (else)in case of
    or (else)
    B. EXAMPLE SENTENCES OF CAUSE & EFFECT, OPPOSITION, CONDITION

    1. Adverb clauses
    1. He went to bed because he was sleepy. (Cause and effect)
    2. Gold is expensive, whereas copper is cheap. (Opposition)
    3. I’m going to the movie this evening whether or not it rains. (Condition)
    2. Transitions:
    1. It was hot. Therefore, he turned on the air condition. (Cause and effect)
    2. It was raining. Nevertheless, he went out. (Opposition)
    3. You’d better wear a jacket. Otherwise, you’ll catch cold. (Condition)
    3. Conjunctions:
    1. It was getting late, so we decided to go home. (Cause and effect)
    2. It was getting late, yet we still continued working. (Opposition)
    3. You should leave now, or (else) you’ll be late for school. (Condition)
    4. Prepositions:
    1. The flight was canceled due to the heavy fog. (Cause and effect)
    2. They went out despite the bad weather. (Opposition)
    3. In case of fire, call 911 immediately. (Condition)
    C. MULTIPLE CHOICE INTERACTIVE EXERCISE


    D. SENTENCE COMPLETION EXERCISE

    Do this exercise. Complete the sentences using one of the words listed in the above table.
    Cause and Effect, Opposition, and Condition Words
    1. Dina lives in the city, ... Rinda lives in the country.
    2. The meeting was postponed ... the heavy rain.
    3. ... I had a cold, I decided to go to school.
    4. You’d better prepare for the test, ... you will fail again.
    5. You forget the meaning of these words ... you never practice it.
    6. Mastering English is just a matter of practice. ... you must practice a lot.
    7. She kept riding her motorcycle ... the flat back tire.
    8. I’m going to take my TV set ... it hasn’t been repaired.
    9. Her father has told her to study. ... she is going to the movie.
    10. Parents should supervise their children when watching TV. ... they may watch inappropriate programs.
    11. He didn't get the job ... he didn't have enough experience.
    12. He got the job ... he didn't have enough experience.
    13. I'll lend you some money ... you really need it.
    14. The music was loud ... you could hear it from miles away.
    15. I couldn't sleep ... I was very tired.
    16. ... it rained a lot, we enjoyed our vacation.
    17. We went out ... the rain.
    18. He passed the exam ... he was well-prepared.
    19. I didn't get the job ... I had all the necessary qualifications.
    20. ... fire, please leave the building as quickly as possible.

    October 11, 2021

    Making And Handling Telephone Calls

    A. Useful Expressions
    Receiving a call
    • Hello / good morning / good afternoon.
    • Good morning, ...(your institution)....
    • Hello. Dea speaking.
    • Yes, can I help you?
    • Oh, hi! It's been a long time. How are you?
    Starting a call (caller)
    • Hello / good morning / good afternoon.
    • May I speak to ...(someone)..., please?
    • Could I speak to ...(someone)..., please?
    • I'd like to speak to ...(someone)....
    Telling identity
    • This is ...(your name)... speaking.
    • ...(your name)... speaking.
    • I'm calling on behalf of ...(company)....
    • ...(someone)... told me to contact you.
    Asking identity
    • Who's calling, please?
    • Who's speaking?
    • May I have your name?
    • Who am I speaking to?
    • Is that ...(someone)...?
    • Can I ask who’s calling?
    Note:
    We don’t use "Are you ...?"to find out who is on the other end of the phone.
    We can ask "Is that Anne?", not "Are you Anne?"

    Asking to wait
    • Hold the line, please.
    • Could you hold on?
    • Just a moment, please.
    • Please wait a minute.
    Connecting
    • The line is free now. I'll put you through.
    • Thank you for holding.
    Giving information
    • I'm sorry. He/she is not available at the moment.
    • I'm afraid the line is engaged. Could you call back later?
    • I'm afraid he's still in a meeting.
    • I'm sorry. He's out of the office today.
    • I'm sorry. There's nobody here by that name.
    • Sorry. I think you have dialled the wrong number.
    Leaving a message
    • I'd like to leave a message.
    • Please tell him that I will meet him next week.
    • Please tell him that I called.
    • That's alright. I'll call back later.
    • Yes. Please tell him to contact me.
    Taking a message
    • Would you like to leave a message?
    • Do you have a message?
    • May I take a message?
    • May I have your number?
    • Let me repeat your message. ...(repeat the message and confirm the details, e.g. place, time, telephone number, etc.)
    Asking to repeat
    • I'm sorry. Could you speak up, please?
    • Could you repeat that, please?
    • I'm afraid I can't hear you.
    • I'm sorry. I didn't catch that. Come again?
    • I beg your pardon. The line is very bad.
    Closing a call
    • Thank you. Bye.
    B. Example Dialogues
    Dialogue 1
    Dave phones Vicki’s number to see if Nigel’s there.
    DAVE: Hello, could I speak to Vicki?
    VICKI: Speaking.
    DAVE: Oh, hello Vicki – I didn’t recognise your voice. It’s Dave.
    VICKI: Hi, Dave. How’s things?
    DAVE: Not bad, thanks. Listen, I don’t suppose Nigel’s there, is he?
    VICKI: No – but I’m expecting him round later on.
    DAVE: OK – could you get him to ring me back?
    VICKI: Of course. Can you give me your number?
    DAVE: I think he’s got it, but let me give you it now just in case.
    VICKI: Hang on – let me get a pen . . . OK.
    DAVE: Six-seven-nine-oh-four-oh-four. Got that?
    VICKI: Got it!

    Dialogue 2
    Handling Telephone Calls
    Julie’s phone rings, and she answers.
    JULIE: 247649.
    TERRY: Ah, hello. Could I speak to Jim, please?
    JULIE: Jim?
    TERRY: Yes, Jim Fife. Is he there?
    JULIE: I’m afraid there isn’t anyone here by that name. Who am I speaking to?
    TERRY: This is Terry Smith. Isn’t that Marilyn’s house?
    JULIE: No – you’ve got the wrong number.
    TERRY: Ah – I’m sorry.
    JULIE: Quite all right.

    Dialogue 3
    Cynthia phones to speak to Bob at work. But she gets through to his secretary.
    CYNTHIA: Hello, it’s Cynthia Palmer here. Can I speak to Bob Watford please?
    SECRETARY: Hold on, I’ll see if he’s available .... Hello? I’m afraid Mr Watford’s in a meeting at the moment. Would you like to leave a message?
    CYNTHIA: Yes – could you ask him to get back to me as soon as possible?
    SECRETARY: Yes – has he got your number?
    CYNTHIA: Yes, he has.
    SECRETARY: Fine – I’ll make sure he calls you as soon as he gets out of the meeting.
    CYNTHIA: Thanks.

    Source: Colloquial English: A Course for Non-Native Speakers by Gareth King

    September 09, 2021

    Exercises: The Simple Past VS Present Perfect Tense (Intermediate)

    Simple Past VS Present Perfect
    I
    n this post, we are going to do some exercises on contrasting the Simple Past with the Present Perfect tense. To learn about the differences between the Simple Past and the Present Perfect tense, read "Contrasting The Simple Past VS The Present Perfect Simple".

    To learn more about both tenses separately, read "Simple Past Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, dan Latihan Soal" and "Present Perfect Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, dan Latihan Soal".

    A. Use the words in brackets to answer the questions.
    Example:
    Man: "Has the package arrived?"
    Woman: "Yes, ...(a few hours ago)...."
    Answer: "Yes, it arrived a few hours ago."
    1. Man: "Have you seen Bob?"
      Woman: "Yes, ...(a few minutes ago)...."
    2. Woman: "Have you started your new job?"
      Man: "Yes, ...(last week)...."
    3. Man: "Have you had lunch?"
      Woman: "Yes, ...(an hour ago)...."
    4. Man: "Have you submitted the report?"
      Woman: "...(yesterday)...."
    5. Man: "Have they contacted you?"
      Woman: "...(on Monday)...."
    B. Right or wrong? Correct the underlined verbs if they are wrong.
    Example:
    • I've lost my key. I can't find it.
      Answer: RIGHT
    • Have you seen Bob yesterday?
      Answer: WRONG: Did you see Bob yesterday?
    1. I've finished my work at 2 o'clock.
    2. I'm ready now. I've finished my work at 2 o'clock.
    3. What time have you finished your work?
    4. Sue isn't here. She's gone out.
    5. Jim's grandfather has died in 2009.
    6. Where have you been last night?
    7. I have started my carreer as a teacher in 2002.
    8. I have worked as a teacher for more than 20 years.
    9. Laila left a few minutes ago.
    10. The letter hasn't arrived yesterday.
    C. Put the verbs in the simple past or present perfect.
    Example:
    • I ...(lose)... my key. I can't find it.
      Answer: I've lost my key. I can't find it.
    • We ...(not have)... a holiday last year.
      Answer: We didn't have a holiday last year.
    1. My friend is a writer. He ...(write)... many books.
    2. I ...(play)... tennis yesterday afternoon.
    3. What time ...(you/go)... to bed last night?
    4. ...(you/ever/meet)... a famous person?
    5. The weather ...(not/be)... very good yesterday.
    6. My hair is wet. I ...(just wash)... it.
    7. I ...(wash)... my hair before breakfast this morning.
    8. Kathy travels a lot. She ...(visit)... many countries.
    9. Sonia isn't here. She ...(not/come)... yet.
    10. We ...(live)... in Malang for two years but now we live in Jember.
    11. Man: "Have you ever been to Bali?"
      Woman: "Yes, we ...(go)... there on holiday last year.
    12. Man: "Where's Tika?"
      Woman: "I don't know. I ...(not see)... her.
    13. Lia works in an office. She ...(work)... there for almost two years.
    14. I ...(meet)... your sister at a party last week. She's very nice.
    15. I ...(wait)... here since seven o'clock and she ...(not come)... yet.
    16. I ...(look)... at this picture for five minutes, but I can't see you in it.
    17. COVID-19 outbreak ...(start)... in early 2020.
    18. Since then, the government ...(take)... various measures to stop the spread of the virus.
    19. The World Health Organization ...(declare)... COVID-19 a pandemic in March 2020.
    20. ...(you/see)... a good movie lately?
    Want to practice more? Try to do another exercise on contrasting the Simple Past with the Present Perfect tense HERE.