Check Our Latest Update

Giving And Asking For Permission, And Making And Responding To Preventions In English

W riting this material reminds me of one of the most amusing experiences that I have had during my long years of being an English teacher. T...

Home All posts

March 05, 2022

News Item Texts: Function, Structure, Features, and Exercises

News Texts
W
hen you hear the word "news", what do you have in mind? Yes, I bet the word "news" is very familiar to all of us today. We watch news on the television, read it on printed media be it online on the internet or offline such as in newspapers. It usually refers to a particular piece of news, usually from a journalistic source, dealing with a particular story.
I. Definition and function of news items
What is a news item? A news item is a text that informs readers about events of the day. They give important information about newsworthy or important events that happen today, or have happened recently.
II. Generic structure of news items
A news item usually consists of:
  1. Main / newsworthy Event(s): recounts the event in the form of summary
  2. Background Events: elaborate what happened, to whom, in what circumstances.
  3. Sources: comments by participants in, witnesses to and/or authorities expert on the event.
III. Lexicogrammatical features of news items
A news item usually has the following features:
  • Short, telegraphic information about the story captured in headline.
  • Use of material processes to retell the event.
    Material processes (usually action verbs) show that some entity physically does something to some other entity. It gives information about the process of doing something. E.g. killed, searched, crashed, rescued, etc.
  • Use of projecting verbal processes in sources stage.
    Verbal processes represent process of ‘saying’. E.g. said, told, explained, informed, etc.
  • Focus on Circumstances (e.g. mostly within Qualifiers).
IV. Examples of news items
News Text 1
East Java flash Floods Kill At Least EightTitle / Headline
Rescuers scrambled Friday to find survivors under mud-swamped hillsides after flash floods in East Java killed at least eight people, the disaster agency said. Torrential rains on Thursday unleashed flash floods in Malang and the highland city of Batu, inundating houses with mud and debris, while a wall of water destroyed local bridges. Six people were pulled from the detritus alive, while rescuers found a half dozen bodies in Batu and two more victims in Malang.Summary/recount of the newsworthy event
On Friday, teams raced to find several more people unaccounted for in Batu, according to the National Disaster Mitigation Agency, as the dead were placed in body bags.Elaboration (background events)
"Until now, we are still trying to find three people still missing," the agency's chairman Abdul Muhari said in a statement. Fatal landslides and flash floods are common across Indonesia during the rainy season, which started in September.Comments by participants, witnesses, experts. and/or authorities
The disasters are often caused by deforestation and poor mitigation planning, according to environmentalists. Seven people were killed in a landslide triggered by torrential storms in Sumatra last month. In April, more than 200 people were killed in a cluster of far-eastern islands in Indonesia and neighbouring Timor Leste as Tropical Cyclone Seroja turned small communities into wastelands of mud and uprooted trees.Summary/recount of similar events
News Text 2
BMKG: Severe Weather Forecasted This Week for Parts of IndonesiaTitle / Headline
TEMPO.CO, Jakarta - The Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics Agency (BMKG) is warning that potentially extreme weather, such as moderate to heavy rain accompanied by lightning and strong winds, as well as high waves, is possible this week, February 17-23, in some parts of Indonesia.Summary/recount of the newsworthy event
“The public is advised to stay vigilant and cautious about potential extreme weather and its possible impact of hydrometeorological disasters, such as floods, landslides, flash floods, puddles, fallen trees, and others,” said the Meteorology Unit Deputy Guswanto in a statement received in Jakarta, Wednesday, Feb. 16.

Guswanto explained that the potential for extreme weather was based on the latest analysis on atmospheric dynamics.
Comments by participants, witnesses, experts. and/or authorities
The BMKG reiterated that the phenomenon is triggered by phase-3 Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) around the Indian Ocean which significantly contributes to the growth of rain clouds in several Indonesian regions. It is also strengthened by atmospheric waves, viz. equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves in a number of regions.

The potential for moderate to heavy rain is predicted to occur in Aceh, North Sumatra, Riau, Jambi, Bengkulu, South Sumatra, Lampung, Banten, Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, Yogyakarta, East Java, Bali, West Nusa Tenggara, West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, North Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, Gorontalo, Central Sulawesi, West Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi, North Maluku. Maluku, West Papua, and Papua.
Elaboration (background events)
V. EXERCISES
A. Identify the parts of the following news texts.
News Text 3
Study: Climate change is making typhoons more dangerous for Asia, and their ‘destructive power’ will double by the end of the century...
The “destructive power” of tropical storms in the Pacific Ocean, known locally as typhoons, could double by the end of the century, according to a new study. The average typhoon could last around five hours longer, with average wind speed at landfall increased by 6 percent, and it would travel 50 percent further inland, according to the projections of researchers from the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area Weather Research Centre for Monitoring Warning and Forecasting in Shenzhen....
These changes would collectively make typhoons twice as damaging — and they already are well underway. Between 1979 and 2016, typhoons increased in duration by two to nine hours and penetrated 30 to 190 kilometers farther inland, the researchers found. The study was published in the journal Frontiers in Earth Science. Its findings are based on a scenario in which average global temperatures reach 3.7 degrees Celsius higher than pre-industrial levels by 2100, which is a likely outcome if greenhouse gas emissions remain high, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. So far, temperatures have risen by 1.2 degrees Celsius from that baseline....
The effects of these stronger storms are visible in recent Asian cyclones such as Typhoon Rai, which hit the Philippines on Dec. 16. On Monday, the Philippine government raised the number of confirmed deaths from Rai to 388. There are an additional 60 people still missing and an estimated 500,000 left homeless after winds or flooding damaged or destroyed 482,000 houses....
Previous studies have found that higher average global temperatures, due to emissions of greenhouse gasses, are causing more intense storms, because warmer weather causes more evaporation. Other studies have concluded that storms from warmer seawater temperatures ramp up quicker....
“More Asian inland regions may be exposed to further severe typhoon-related hazards in the future as a result of climate change,” the lead author of the study, Francis Tam Chi-yung, a professor of Earth System Science at Chinese University of Hong Kong, told the South China Morning Post. The most affected areas will include major cities such as Hong Kong and Vietnam’s capital, Hanoi....
Hong Kong was hit by super-typhoons in 2017 and 2018, causing widespread damage from flooding and the impact of heavy wind, such as trees being toppled.
...
News Text 4
School Attendance Increases Omicron Cases among Children: Pediatric Association....
TEMPO.CO, Jakarta - The Indonesian Pediatric Association (IDAI) chairman, Piprim Basarah Yanuarso, said that Covid-19 cases among children showed a significant rise in the past month. The figures went up following on-site learning activities, known as PTM 100%, at schools earlier this January.....
"Fellow pediatricians reported that the case has now increased tenfold when compared to January. The surge is egregious," he said during the launching of Covid-19 Guidelines Book 4th edition in Jakarta, February 9.....
According to Yanuarso, the surging trend of Covid cases on children began on January 24 with 646 patients. It rose to 2,775 on January 31 and it became 7,190 on February 7. "It rose by 300%."....
The case surge among pupils and teachers has resulted in the issuance of a back-to-school policy at 50% capacity by the Education Ministry. IDAI appreciated the government's effort that also offers parents to choose a safe environment for their children to study.....
Yanuarso believed the decision can reduce the number of children infected with Coronavirus. "Do not underestimate mild symptoms. Even reports of severe cases on children have started to show," he said.....
IDAI calls on parents to ensure the health protocols of their children, particularly for those above 2 years old. If they show symptoms such as cough and cold, immediately contact a doctor, as it could be an Omicron infection.....
B. Comprehension Exercise.
Choose whether each of the following sentences is TRUE or FALSE based on the relevant text.
  1. These sentences refer to news text 1.
    1. The text is about a natural disaster.
    2. The flash flood killed eight people.
    3. When the news was published, six people were still missing.
    4. The flash floods happened in Malang and Batu following severe and heavy rains.
    5. Deforestation and poor mitigation planning may cause landslides and flash floods.
  2. These sentences refer to news text 2.
    1. The text talks about a warning of potential extreme weather in Indonesia.
    2. The public is expected to prevent the possible impact of hydrometeorological disasters.
    3. The impact of hydrometeorological disasters includes floods, landslides, flash floods, forest fires, fallen trees, and others.
    4. The warning was based on the latest analysis on atmospheric dynamics.
    5. Kelvin and Rossby are experts in meteorology, climatology, and geophysics.
  3. These sentences refer to news text 3.
    1. The news talks about the causes of climate change in Asia.
    2. A new study suggests that tropical storms in the Pacific Ocean could be much more destructive by the end of the century.
    3. Between 1979 and 2016, typhoons remained the same in duration and size of areas.
    4. According to studies, global warming, due to emissions of greenhouse gases, is the cause of extreme weather phenomena.
    5. Typhoon Rai hitting the Philippines on Dec. 16 killed at least 388 people and damaged more than 400,000 houses.
  4. These sentences refer to news text 4.
    1. The news mainly talks about the increase of Omicron cases among the members of Pediatric Association.
    2. Based on the text, we can conclude that on-site learning activities, known as PTM 100%, contributed to the increase of Covid-19 cases among children.
    3. Covid cases on children increased by 300% during the month of January.
    4. The Education Ministry has applied back-to-school policy at 50% capacity as a response to the increasing Covid cases.
    5. IDAI makes phone calls to parents to interview them about the health protocols of their children.
News source:
  • https://www.thejakartapost.com/indonesia/2021/11/05/east-java-flash-floods-kill-at-least-eight-.html
  • https://en.tempo.co/read/1561699/bmkg-severe-weather-forecasted-this-week-for-parts-of-indonesia
  • https://www.yahoo.com/news/study-climate-change-is-making-typhoons-more-dangerous-for-asia-and-their-destructive-power-will-double-by-the-end-of-the-century-100038238.html
  • https://en.tempo.co/read/1559378/school-attendance-increases-omicron-cases-among-children-pediatric-association

February 27, 2022

Kisi–Kisi Soal Ujian Sekolah Bahasa Inggris Kelas XII SMK - SMA 2022

Kisi–Kisi Soal Ujian Sekolah Bahasa Inggris Kelas XII SMK - SMA
Nama Sekolah :
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Kelas : XII
Semester : Genap
Tahun Pelajaran : 2021 – 2022
Jumlah Soal : 40
Bentuk Soal : Pilihan Ganda (PG)
No. SoalKompetensi DasarMateriIndikator SoalLevel KognitifBentuk Soal
1Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks news item lisan dan tulis dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait berita sederhana dari koran/radio/TV sesuai konteks penggunaan.News Item (Pelajari di SINI. Lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks news item tertulis, siswa dapat menentukan pikiran pokok dari teks tersebut dengan benar.Menganalisis (C4)PG (Multiple Choice)
2Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks news item lisan dan tulis dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait berita sederhana dari koran/radio/TV sesuai konteks penggunaan.News Item (Pelajari di SINI. Lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks news item tertulis, siswa dapat melengkapi kalimat rumpang berisi informasi tersurat dari teks tersebut dengan benar.Menyimpulkan (C2)PG
3Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks news item lisan dan tulis dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait berita sederhana dari koran/radio/TV sesuai konteks penggunaan.News Item (Pelajari di SINI. Lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks news item tertulis, siswa dapat menentukan jawaban terhadap pertanyaan tentang informasi tersurat di dalam teks tersebut dengan benar.Menyimpulkan (C2)PG
4Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks news item lisan dan tulis dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait berita sederhana dari koran/radio/TV sesuai konteks penggunaan.News Item (Pelajari di SINI. Lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks news item tertulis, siswa dapat memilih pernyataan yang tidak sesuai dengan informasi tersurat dan tersirat di dalam teks tersebut dengan benarMengevaluasi (C5)PG
5Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks khusus berbentuk surat lamaran kerja dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait jati diri, latar belakang pendidikan / pengalaman kerja, sesuai konteks penggunaanJob Application Letter (lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks surat lamaran pekerjaan tertulis, siswa dapat menganalisis informasi tersirat dari teks tersebut dengan benarMenganalisis (C4)PG
6Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks khusus berbentuk surat lamaran kerja dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait jati diri, latar belakang pendidikan / pengalaman kerja, sesuai konteks penggunaanJob Application Letter (lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks surat lamaran pekerjaan tertulis, siswa dapat menyimpulkan informasi tertentu di dalam teks tersebut dengan benarMenyimpulkan (C2)PG
7Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks khusus berbentuk surat lamaran kerja dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait jati diri, latar belakang pendidikan / pengalaman kerja, sesuai konteks penggunaanJob Application Letter (lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks surat lamaran pekerjaan tertulis, siswa dapat menentukan persamaan / sinonim sebuah kata di dalam teks tersebut dengan benarMenyimpulkan (C2)PG
8Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi tentang petunjuk arah (direction) sesuai konteks dunia kerjaAsking for direction (pelajari di SINI) Disajikan dialog rumpang tertulis berisi informasi petunjuk arah, siswa dapat melengkapi dialog tersebut dengan benarMenganalisis (C4)PG
9Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait pendapat dan pikiran, sesuai konteks.Expressing thoughts/ opinions (pelajari di SINI)Disajikan dialog rumpang tertulis tentang pemikiran/ pendapat, siswa dapat melengkapi dialog tersebut dengan benarMenganalisis (C4)PG
10Menerapkan fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait pesan sederhana lewat telephone (taking simple phone message) sesuai konteks dunia kerjaHandling/ making telephone calls (pelajari di SINI)Disajikan dialog tertulis berisi percakapan telepon, siswa dapat menentukan konteks percakapan yang tersirat dari dialog tersebut dengan benarMenganalisis (C4)PG
11Menerapkan fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait pesan sederhana lewat telephone (taking simple phone message) sesuai konteks dunia kerjaHandling/ making telephone calls (pelajari di SINI)Disajikan dialog tertulis berisi percakapan telepon, siswa dapat menentukan informasi tersirat di dalam dialog tersebut dengan benarMenyimpulkan (C2)PG
12Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks prosedur lisan dan tulis dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait manual penggunaan teknologi dan kiat-kiat (tips), pendek dan sederhana, sesuai bidang keahlian dan konteks penggunaanProcedural text (pelajari di SINI)Disajikan teks prosedural tertulis, siswa dapat menentukan informasi tersirat di dalam teks tersebut dengan benarMenganalisis (C4)PG
13Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks prosedur lisan dan tulis dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait manual penggunaan teknologi dan kiat-kiat (tips), pendek dan sederhana, sesuai bidang keahlian dan konteks penggunaanProcedural text (pelajari di SINI)Disajikan teks prosedural tertulis, siswa dapat mengidentifikasi informasi tersurat di dalam teks tersebut dengan benarMenyimpulkan (C2)PG
14Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks prosedur lisan dan tulis dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait manual penggunaan teknologi dan kiat-kiat (tips), pendek dan sederhana, sesuai bidang keahlian dan konteks penggunaanProcedural text (pelajari di SINI)Disajikan teks prosedural tertulis, siswa dapat menentukan persamaan kata / sinonim dari sebuah kata di dalam teks tersebut dengan benarMenyimpulkan (C2)PG
15Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait pengandaian diikuti oleh perintah / saran, sesuai bidang keahlian dan konteks penggunaanConditional IF + imperative (pelajari di SINI)Disajikan dialog rumpang tertulis berisi kalimat Conditional, siswa dapat melengkapi dialog tersebut dengan kalimat perintah yang benarMenganalisis (C4)PG
16Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi interpersonal lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan menawarkan jasa serta menanggapinya sesuai konteks penggunaanOffering a service (pelajari di SINI dan di SINI)Disajikan dialog rumpang tertulis berisi penawaran jasa, siswa dapat melengkapi dialog tersebut dengan benarMenganalisis (C4)PG
17Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait hubungan sebab akibat sesuai konteksCause and Effect (pelajari di SINI) Disajikan dialog rumpang tertulis, siswa dapat menganalisis hubungan sebab/akibat untuk melengkapi dialog tersebut dengan benarMenganalisis (C4)PG
18Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks khusus berbentuk memo, menu, schedule dan signs dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait kegiatan sekolah atau tempat kerja sesuai konteks penggunaan dunia kerjaTravel schedule / checklist (lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks pesan / memo tertulis, siswa dapat menganalisis konteks dan tujuan dari teks tersebut dengan benarMenganalisis (C4)PG
19Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks khusus berbentuk memo, menu, schedule dan signs dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait kegiatan sekolah atau tempat kerja sesuai konteks penggunaan dunia kerjaTravel schedule / checklist (lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks pesan/ memo tertulis, siswa dapat menyeleksi informasi yang tidak disebutkan di dalam teks tersebut dengan benarMengevaluasi (C5)PG
20Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks prosedur lisan dan tulis dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait manual penggunaan teknologi dan kiat-kiat (tips), pendek dan sederhana, sesuai bidang keahlian dan konteks penggunaanProcedural text (pelajari di SINI)Disajikan teks prosedural tertulis, siswa dapat menganalisis konteks dan tujuan dari teks tersebut dengan benarMenganalisis (C4)PG
21Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks prosedur lisan dan tulis dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait manual penggunaan teknologi dan kiat-kiat (tips), pendek dan sederhana, sesuai bidang keahlian dan konteks penggunaanProcedural text (pelajari di SINI)Disajikan teks prosedural tertulis, siswa dapat menentukan urutan langkah di dalam teks tersebut dengan benarMenganalisis (C4)PG
22Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks prosedur lisan dan tulis dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait manual penggunaan teknologi dan kiat-kiat (tips), pendek dan sederhana, sesuai bidang keahlian dan konteks penggunaanProcedural text (pelajari di SINI)Disajikan teks prosedural tertulis, siswa dapat menyeleksi informasi yang tidak sesuai dengan isi teks tersebut dengan benarMengevaluasi (C5)PG
23Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan untuk menyatakan dan menanyakan tentang pengandaian jika terjadi suatu keadaan / kejadian / peristiwa di waktu yang akan datang sesuai konteks penggunaanConditional sentence (pelajari di SINI dan di SINI)Disajikan dialog tertulis berisi kalimat Conditional rumpang, siswa dapat melengkapi dialog tersebut dengan benarMenganalisis (C4)PG
24Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait pendapat dan pikiran sesuai konteksExpressing thoughts / opinions (pelajari di SINI)Disajikan dialog tertulis berisi pemikiran / pendapat, siswa dapat menentukan paraphrase yang sesuai dengan isi dialog tersebut dengan benarMemahami (C2)PG
25Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks khusus berbentuk memo, menu, schedule dan signs dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait kegiatan sekolah atau tempat kerja sesuai konteks penggunaan dunia kerjaMemo (lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks memo tertulis, siswa dapat menentukan tujuan teks tersebut dengan benarMenganalisis (C4)PG
26Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks khusus berbentuk memo, menu, schedule dan signs dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait kegiatan sekolah atau tempat kerja sesuai konteks penggunaan dunia kerjaMemo (lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks memo tertulis, siswa dapat mengidentifikasi penerima teks tersebut dengan benarMemahami (C2)PG
27Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks khusus berbentuk memo, menu, schedule dan signs dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait kegiatan sekolah atau tempat kerja sesuai konteks penggunaan dunia kerjaMemo (lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks memo tertulis, siswa dapat menyimpulkan tujuan teks tersebut dengan benarMemahami (C2)PG
28Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks khusus berbentuk memo, menu, schedule dan signs dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait kegiatan sekolah atau tempat kerja sesuai konteks penggunaan dunia kerjaMemo (lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks memo tertulis, siswa dapat menentukan persamaan / sinonim dari sebuah kata di dalam teks tersebut dengan benarMemahami (C2)PG
29Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks biografi tokoh sesuai konteks penggunaanBiography (lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks biografi tokoh tertulis, siswa dapat menentukan tujuan teks tersebut dengan benarMenganalisis (C4)PG
30Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks biografi tokoh sesuai konteks penggunaanBiography (lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks biografi tokoh tertulis, siswa dapat menentukan informasi tersirat dari teks tersebut dengan benarMenganalisis (C4)PG
31Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks biografi tokoh sesuai konteks penggunaanBiography (lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks biografi tokoh tertulis, siswa dapat menyeleksi informasi yang sesuai dengan isi teks tersebut dengan benarMengevaluasi (C5)PG
32Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks biografi tokoh sesuai konteks penggunaanBiography (lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks biografi tokoh tertulis, siswa dapat menentukan rujukan sebuah kata di dalam teks tersebut dengan benarMemahami (C2)PG
33Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan beberapa teks eksposisi analitis lisan dan tulis dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait isu aktual sesuai konteks penggunaanAnalytical Exposition (lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks eksposisi analitis tertulis, siswa dapat menentukan tujuan teks tersebut dengan benarMenganalisis (C4)PG
34Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan beberapa teks eksposisi analitis lisan dan tulis dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait isu aktual sesuai konteks penggunaanAnalytical Exposition (lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks eksposisi analitis tertulis, siswa dapat memilih informasi yang tidak sesuai dengan isi teks tersebut dengan benarMengevaluasi (C5)PG
35Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan beberapa teks eksposisi analitis lisan dan tulis dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait isu aktual sesuai konteks penggunaanAnalytical Exposition (lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks eksposisi analitis tertulis, siswa dapat memilih rujukan sebuah kata di dalam teks tersebut dengan benarMemahami (C2)PG
36Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan beberapa teks eksposisi analitis lisan dan tulis dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait isu aktual sesuai konteks penggunaanAnalytical Exposition (lihat contoh soal di SINI)Disajikan teks eksposisi analitis tertulis, siswa dapat memilih persamaan /sinonim sebuah kata di dalam teks tersebut dengan benarMemahami (C2)PG
37Menganalisis struktur, unsur kebahasaan, dan fungsi sosial teks factual report dengan menyatakan dan menanyakan tentang teks ilmiah faktual sederhana sesuai konteks pembelajaranFactual report (pelajari di SINI)Disajikan teks factual report tertulis, siswa dapat menentukan tema / pikiran pokok dari teks tersebut dengan benarMenganalisis (C4)PG
38Menganalisis struktur, unsur kebahasaan dan fungsi sosial teks factual report dengan menyatakan dan menanyakan tentang teks ilmiah faktual sederhana sesuai konteks pembelajaranFactual report (pelajari di SINI)Disajikan teks factual report tertulis, siswa dapat menyeleksi informasi yang tidak terkandung di dalam teks tersebut dengan benarMengevaluasi (C5)PG
39Menganalisis struktur, unsur kebahasaan dan fungsi sosial teks factual report dengan menyatakan dan menanyakan tentang teks ilmiah faktual sederhana sesuai konteks pembelajaranFactual report (pelajari di SINI)Disajikan teks factual report tertulis, siswa dapat menyimpulkan isi paragraf di dalam teks tersebut dengan benarMemahami (C2)PG
40Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi interpersonal lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan ucapan selamat bersayap (extended), dan responnya sesuai konteksCongratulating someone (pelajari di SINI) Disajikan dialog rumpang tertulis berisi ucapan selamat bersayap, siswa dapat melengkapi dialog tersebut dengan benarMemahami (C2)PG

February 14, 2022

Past Continuous Tense: Struktur, Penggunaan, & Latihan Soal

Past Continuous Tense
J
ika sebelumnya kita sudah belajar tentang Simple Past tense dan Present Continuous tense, pada materi ini kita akan membahas tentang bentuk waktu lain yang juga sangat penting untuk dipelajari dalam bahasa Inggris, yaitu "Past Continuous tense".

Past continuous tense adalah bentuk waktu yang digunakan saat kita membicarakan suatu aktifitas atau peristiwa yang sedang dilakukan atau sedang terjadi pada saat tertentu di masa lampau.

Sebagai ilustrasi, lihatlah gambar di atas dan perhatikan bentuk kata kerja (verbs) pada kalimat-kalimat dalam paragraf singkat berikut ini:

At ten o'clock, Nancy was working out. She wasn't cooking. Now she is cooking and preparing lunch. She is not working out.

Perhatikan kalimat dengan kata kerja (verbs) dicetak tebal, yaitu:
  • At ten o'clock, Nancy was working out.
  • She wasn't cooking.

Kata-kata yang dicetak tebal pada kedua kalimat di atas inilah contoh kata kerja dalam bentuk Continuous tense.

I. Bentuk dan Struktur Past Continuous tense
A. Kalimat Afirmatif / positif.
Subject + was / were + verb-ing
SubjectAuxiliary verb BEMain verb (verb-ing)
Iwasworking.
We
She and I
My friends and I
were
were
were
working.
working.
working.
Youwereworking.
They
The men
My friends
were
were
were
working.
working.
working.
He
She
It
Nancy
The man
was
was
was
was
was
working.
working.
working.
working.
working.
B. Kalimat Interogatif / tanya.
Was / Were + subject + verb-ing?
Auxiliary verb BESubjectMain verb (verb-ing)?
WasIworking?
Were
Were
Were
we
she and I
my friends and I
working?
working?
working?
Wereyouworking?
Were
Were
Were
they
the men
my friends
working?
working?
working?
Was
Was
Was
Was
Was
he
she
it
Nancy
the man
working?
working?
working?
working?
working?
C. Kalimat Negatif / penyangkalan.
Subject + was not (wasn't) / were not (weren't) + verb-ing
SubjectAuxiliary verb BE + NOTMain verb (verb-ing)
Iwas not (wasn't)working.
We
She and I
My friends and I
were not (weren't)
were not (weren't)
were not (weren't)
working.
working.
working.
Youwere not (weren't)working.
They
The men
My friends
were not (weren't)
were not (weren't)
were not (weren't)
working.
working.
working.
He
She
It
Nancy
The man
was not (wasn't)
was not (wasn't)
was not (wasn't)
was not (wasn't)
was not (wasn't)
working.
working.
working.
working.
working.
II. Penggunaan Past Continuous tense.
Past Continuous tense pada umumnya digunakan untuk tujuan-tujuan berikut ini:
  1. Membicarakan kegiatan / peristiwa yang sedang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau. Kegiatan / peristiwa tersebut dimulai sebelum waktu itu, dan saat itu masih sedang terjadi dan belum berakhir.
    Contoh kalimat:
    • At ten o'clock, Nancy was working out. She wasn't cooking. She started cooking at nine, and finished at eleven.
    • Yesterday I watched a movie on the internet. The movie started at 7 pm and finished at 9 pm. At 8 pm yesterday, I was watching the movie.
    Past Continuous tense illustration
  2. Dalam bercerita, past continuous tense umumnya digunakan untuk menggambarkan situasi yang menjadi latar belakang sebuah adegan. Cerita tersebut seringkali dimulai dengan past continuous tense untuk menggambarkan peristiwa yang menjadi latar belakang, lalu dilanjutkan dengan kalimat dalam simple past tense untuk menceritakan adegan yang terjadi.
    Contoh:
    "The farmer and his wife were working in their farm. The sun was shining. The wind was blowing gently. The birds were chirping on the trees around the farm. Suddenly, they heard a loud explosion from the barn."
  3. Past continuous tense sering digunakan bersama simple past tense dengan kata penghubung "when" atau "while" untuk 2 (dua) peristiwa/kegiatan yang terjadi pada waktu yang bersamaan di masa lampau. Past continuous tense digunakan untuk peristiwa/kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung saat peristiwa/kegiatan lainnya terjadi (biasanya menggunakan bentuk simple past tense). Jadi past continuous membicarakan peristiwa/kegiatan yang lebih lama, sedangkan simple past tense membicarakan peristiwa yang tiba-tiba terjadi pada saat itu.

    Pada contoh kalimat di bawah ini, ada 2 (dua) peristiwa/kegiatan yang sedang dibicarakan.

    1. Kegiatan yang lebih lama (she was watching a movie at 8 pm), menggunakan bentuk past continuous tense.
    2. Peristiwa yang tiba-tiba terjadi (the door opened), menggunakan bentuk simple past tense.
    Kedua peristiwa/kegiatan tersebut bisa diungkapkan dalam satu kalimat dengan menggunakan kata hubung "when" (untuk peristiwa yang tiba-tiba terjadi) atau "while" (untuk kegiatan yang lebih lama). Contoh-contoh kalimat di bawah ini menggunakan 4 (empat) kombinasi yang berbeda:
    • She was watching a movie when the door opened.
    • When the door opened, she was watching a movie.
    • While she was watching a movie, the door opened.
    • The door opened while she was watching a movie.
    Catat bahwa "when the door opened" juga merupakan keterangan waktu.
  4. Past Continuous juga sering digunakan dengan "while" untuk membicarakan dua kegiatan / peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung secara bersamaan di waktu lampau. Kedua kegiatan / peristiwa tersebut berlangsung selama beberapa lama, dan keduanya menggunakan bentuk Past Continuous tense. Contoh:
    • While I was sunbathing, my friends were playing beach volleyball.
    • He was playing a video game while his sister was watching a movie.
    • The mechanic was repairing the car while Andy was curiously watching him.
  5. Past continuous seringkali digunakan bersama frase "I was wondering if you could/would…….., I was hoping, and I was thinking". Di sini, past continuous digunakan agar permintaan atau saran terdengar lebih halus dan sopan. Contoh:
    • I was wondering if you’d like to go out with me for dinner one evening.
    • I was hoping you would be able to come to my party.
  6. Past continuous digunakan untuk menggambarkan situasi yang sedang berubah. Contoh:
    • It was getting darker. The wind was rising.
    • Despite the headwinds created by the COVID-19, the economy was recovering.
  7. Pada kalimat tak langsung (indirect speech), past continuous digunakan untuk mengganti kata kerja berbentuk present continuous. Contoh:
    • Ann said, "I am still working."
      Ann said that she was still working.
  8. Sama halnya dengan present continuous, ada beberapa kata kerja (verbs) yang tidak biasa digunakan dalam bentuk past continuous.
  • Lihat How to Use Past Continuous Tense untuk mempelajari penggunaan Past Continuous Tense dalam versi bahasa Inggris.
  • Bagaimana membedakan penggunaan Simple Past Tense dengan Past Continuous tense? Pelajari selengkapnya DI SINI.
III. LATIHAN SOAL

A. Ubahlah kata kerja di dalam kurung ke dalam bentuk Past Continuous tense yang benar.
  1. John (work) in his office at 10 am this morning.
  2. When I walked past his house, he (mow) the lawn.
  3. The sun (shine) while the afternoon breeze (blow).
  4. The teacher (explain) his lesson when the fire alarm went off.
  5. Jane (practice) the piano at 8 pm last night.
  6. He (not joke) when he told the news.
  7. The children (not play) football at 4 pm this afternoon.
  8. What you (do) at 7 pm last night?
  9. What he (do) when you entered the room?
  10. Mom (cook) when Dad called her.
  11. We (work) in the garden when it started to rain.
  12. She left early because it (snow).
  13. They (visit) the museum at 10 am this morning.
  14. At 8 am yesterday morning, the students (do) their test.
  15. At that time, the moon (hide) behind the cloud.
B. Ubahlah kata kerja di dalam kurung ke dalam bentuk Past Continuous tense atau Simple Past tense.
  1. When the principal (appear) at the classroom door, some students (make) a presentation. They (talk) about cyberbullying while others (listen) attentively.
  2. At 8 am this morning, they (clean) the room. They (start) working at 7 and (finish) at about 10.
  3. The boys (practice) when David (call). He (say) that he was still at work.
Dapatkan soal latihan lebih lengkap lagi di Exercise: Contrasting The Simple Past With The Past Continuous
081211 0248PM PV1107

January 11, 2022

Comparative Exercises: Comparing Things in English

B
efore doing the exercises below, you may want to review what we have learned about comparisons in "Degrees of Comparison: Positive, Comparative, Superlative, dan Parallel Increase". As a reminder, here is how to compare things using adjectives.
A. Using Positive Degree:
To show that two things or people are similar in some way, we can use "as + adjective + as". Example sentences:
  • The tiger is as dangerous as the lion.
  • For me, the rose is as beautiful as the sunflower.
B. Using Comparative degree:
To compare two things which are not similar, we can use "comparative adjectives + than". Comparatives can be "adjective + er + than" or "more + adjective + than". To learn more about comparative adjectives, read THIS.
  • Apples are smaller than coconuts.
  • This motorcycle is more expensive than that one.
C. Using Superlative degree:
To compare three or more things, one of which is superior or inferior to the others, we use a "the superlative". The superlative can be formed with "the + adjective + est" or "the most + adjective".
  • John is the tallest boy in his class.
  • The rose is the most beautiful flower in my garden.
EXERCISES
I. Write the comparative of the adjectives below.
Example:
  • big: bigger.
    1. pretty: ....
    2. interesting: ....
    3. strong: ....
    4. serious: ....
    5. happy: ....
    6. good: ....
    7. bad: ....
    8. delicious: ....
    9. loud: ....
    10. heavy: ....
    II. Multiple choice quiz.
    III. Look at the pictures below and complete each sentence using the given adjectives.
    Comparative
    1. A is ...(big)... B.
    2. A is ...(big)... C.
    3. C is ...(small)... A.
    4. C is ...(small)... box.
    5. C is not ...(big)... B.
    6. B is ...(big)... than C.
    7. Comparing Things
    8. The red motorcycle is ...(fast)... the green one.
    9. The blue motorcycle is ...(slow)... the yellow one.
    10. The blue motorcycle is ...(fast)... the red one.
    11. The yellow motorcycle is ...(fast)... of all.
    12. The blue motorcycle is not ...(fast)... the yellow one.
    13. The green motorcycle is much ...(slow)... the yellow one.
    14. The green motorcycle is ...(slow)... of all.
    15. The yellow motorcycle is much ...(fast)... the green one.
    16. The green motorcycle is ...(fast)... the yellow one.
    III. Complete each of the below sentences using a comparative.
    Example:
  • Her car isn't very big. She wants a bigger one.
  • Her car is old. She wants a newer one.
    1. My job isn't very interesting. I want to do something ....
    2. He is not very tall. His brother is ....
    3. My car is old. I want to buy a ... one.
    4. These flowers aren't very nice. The blue ones are ....
    5. My chair is not comfortable. Yours is ....
    6. This car is too expensive. I want to buy a ... one.
    7. The food here isn't very good. I know a place that serves ... food.
    8. Tom doesn't work very hard. Jim works ....
    9. This knife isn't very sharp. Have you got a ... one?
    10. Our team didn't play well. The opponent played ....
    11. This beach isn't very beautiful. Mandalika beach is ....
    12. People today aren't very polite. In the past they were ....
    13. This table is too big. Let's find a ... one.
    14. Lombok is too far. I think we'll visit a ... place.
    15. The exercise is too difficult for them. They need something ....
    Prev: BSE SMK/MAK XII 62711 753PM PV5098

    January 01, 2022

    Report Text With Exercises For Elementary - Intermediate Learners

    R
    ead the text below and do the exercises.
    You may look at your dictionary while doing the exercises.

    Things Around Us

    There are many things around us. They can be different in size, shape, color, smell or texture. They can also be made from different materials. Things are different because they have different properties.

    Things are similar in some ways too. Let's take a look at how things can be similar.

    Reading Text For Elementary
    Things have weight
    The weight of a book tells us how heavy that book is. Every thing, be it big or small, has weight. We often use 'heavy' or 'light' to describe the weight of something.

    Some things, such as a pencil or a feather, are light. We can lift them easily. Some things, such as a cupboard or a desk, are heavy. We cannot lift them easily.

    It is easy to lift an empty pail, but when the pail is full of water, it is harder to lift it. This shows that water has weight.

    What about air? Does it have weight? Air, like water, and all the things around us, has weight too.

    Things occupy space
    Cupboard
    Look at this cupboard. Only one shelf is filled with books.

    The books occupy half the space in the cupboard. There is still space for some more books.

    The glass is filled with colored water. The water occupies all the space in the glass. What do you think will happen if you put a few pieces of ice into the glass of water?

    Air occupies space too. When we blow air into a balloon, the air fills the space inside the balloon.

    In science, anything that has weight and occupies space is called matter.

    EXERCISES
    I. Match each word with its synonym.
    II. State whether these sentences are "TRUE" or "FALSE"
    III. Complete this crossword puzzle.

    December 21, 2021

    Asking And Giving Directions

    A. How to Ask for Direction
    • Where is ..., please?
    • How do I get to ...?
    • Can you help me, please? I want to get to ....
    • Can you tell me where ... is?
    • I’m looking for ....
    B. How to Give Direction
    • Go straight ahead. Take the lift / stairs.
    • Turn left / right at the traffic lights.
    • Walk straight.
    • It’s on your left / right.
    • It’s on the second floor.
    • It’s upstairs / downstairs.
    • Take the first right.
    • Take the first exit.
    • Take the ... bus and get off at ....
    • It's next to ....
    • It's opposite ....
    C. Useful Expressions with Illustrations
    Ask And Give Directions
    D. Example Dialogues
    Dialogue 1
    Andy stops a passer-by to ask the way to the city museum.
    Andy:Excuse me, could you tell me where the museum is?
    Passer-by:The museum? It’s just over there, next to the park.
    Andy:Ah yes, thanks very much.
    Passer-by:You're welcome.
    Dialogue 2
    Ann needs to go to an ATM and asks a passer-by.
    Ann:Excuse me. Could you tell me the way to the nearest ATM?
    Passer-by:Well, go straight and turn left at the first junction. Go along the street and you will find a big supermarket. There are ATM booths in front of it.
    Ann:And what’s the supermarket called?
    Passer-by:Matahari. Shall I write it down for you?
    Ann:No, I think I’ve got it. Thanks a lot.
    Passer-by:Bye!
    Dialogue 3
    Lidya wants to go to the art gallery but she doesn't know how to get there.
    Lidya:Excuse me. How could I get to the art gallery?
    Passer-by:The art gallery? Get the 11 bus from the corner here, and get off at the Central park. Then turn left into Bright Avenue, and go on until you get to the gallery. It's on your right.
    Lidya:Could you write it down for me? I might get lost again otherwise.
    Passer-by:Certainly ... [writes it down for Lidya] ... there you are.
    Lidya:Thank you for your help.
    Passer-by:My pleasure. Enjoy the art gallery!
    Lidya:I will. Bye!
    Passer-by:Bye!
    E. Exercises

    December 09, 2021

    How To Express Amazement, Admiration, or Surprise in English

    A. TELLING SURPRISING NEWS
    • Guess what!
    • Surprise!
    • I’ve got news for you!
    • Do you know what!
    • Are you sitting down?
    • You’d better sit down!
    • You won’t believe this, but...
    B. EXPRESSING AMAZEMENT / ADMIRATION

    That’s + adjective!

    That’s
    amazing!
    incredible!
    terrific!

    That’s + noun phrase!

    That’s
    a beautiful goal!
    a brilliant maneuver!
    a nice dress!

    What + noun phrase!

    What
    a wonderful voice she has!
    a brilliant maneuver!
    a nice dress!

    How + adjective / adverb!

    How
    stunning she looks!
    gently she walks!
    clever!
    C. EXPRESSING SURPRISE
    Amazement, Admiration, Surprise
    • I’m really surprised at ....
    • Oh no! It can’t be (true)!
    • My goodness!
    • What a surprise!
    • What on earth is that thing?
    • I was shocked by ....
    • It’s too good to be true!
    • It’s unbelievable!
    • I can’t believe it!
    • Incredible!
    • It’s really beyond belief!
    D. EXERCISES
    I. Match each incomplete sentence into the correct word, "How" or "What".
    II. Arrange these jumbled sentences
    1. experience – what – had – unforgettable – an – we
    2. was – fascinating – sunset – how – the
    3. actress – a – beautiful – what – is – she
    4. a – family – our – dinner – had – what – fantastic
    5. the – next – how – girl – is – adorable – door
    6. succeed – she – how – to – hard – tried
    7. perfect – by – what – Ronaldo – ball – a – long
    8. the – astonishing – was – sight – how
    9. hall – a – conference – large – what – is – it
    10. for – what – the – team – a – new – year – successful
    III. Complete the following dialogues using your own words.
    Dialogue 1
    Didy:Look. Messy has just scored another goal.
    Danny:Wow! ....
    Didy:....
    Dialogue 2
    Bob:What are you reading?
    Paul:Sport news as usual.
    Bob:What's new today?
    Paul:My favorite team won once again. So far, it is the only club that has won each of its five three league matches.
    Bob:Really? ....
    Paul:Furthermore, so far it has scored 11 goals and allowed none. Isn’t it amazing?
    Bob:Indeed. ....
    Dialogue 3
    Yoyo:Can we go to the movie this evening?
    Nike:I’d love to, but I’m sorry I’m tied up till 8 p.m. I’m going to have a meeting at 4 p.m. and it may last until 6. Then I still have to finish a report tonight in order to meet the deadline.
    Yoyo:....
    Nike:I wish I could go with you. What about Friday evening?
    Yoyo:....

    December 04, 2021

    A Lot Of, Many, Or Much?

    A Lot Of, Many, Or Much
    I. "A lot of"
    "A lot of" is used for all types of sentences, affirmative (positive), interrogative (questions), or negative sentences, for both countable and uncountable nouns.
    1. Example sentences with "a lot of" + countable nouns:
      • I have a lot of books.
      • Bob doesn't have a lot of clothes.
      • Do you have a lot of friends?
    2. Example sentences with "a lot of" + uncountable nouns:
      • I have a lot of work to do.
      • Ali doesn't have a lot of money.
      • Do you have a lot of spare time?
    Note: "Much" is never used in affirmative / positive sentences, while "many" can sometimes be used at the beginning of an affirmative / positive sentence, especially when the meaning is negative.
    II. "Many" and "much"
    "Many" and "much" are used in interrogative (questions) and negative sentences. "Many" is used for both countable nouns, whereas "much" is for uncountable nouns.
    1. Example of interrogative sentences with "many" + countable nouns:
      • Do you have many books?
      • Does Siti have many clothes?
      • Do you have many photos?
      • I don't have many books.
      • Siti doesn't have many clothes.
      • I don't have many photos.
    2. Example of interrogative sentences with "much" + uncountable nouns:
      • Do you have much paper?
      • Does Ali have much money?
      • Do you have much spare time?
      • I don't have much paper.
      • Ali doesn't have much money.
      • I don't have much spare time.
    III. "A lot", "many" and "much" without a noun
    "A lot", "many" and "much" can also be used without a noun.
    Example sentences:
    • I have some money but not much.
    • I took some pictures but not many.
    • She spoke to me but she didn't say much.
    • Do you watch TV much? ~ No, not much.
    • We like films, so we go to the cinema a lot.
    • I don't like him very much.
    IV. Exercises
    A. Interactive Quiz
    Complete each sentence by filling in the blank spaces with the correct answer, "a lot of", "many", or "much".
    B. Writing Exercise
    Rewrite the following sentences into the interrogative (questions).
    1. He has a lot of friends.
    2. Bill takes a lot of medicine.
    3. This hotel has a lot of rooms.
    4. There are a lot of bananas on the table.
    5. They drink a lot of tea.
    Rewrite the following sentences into the negative.
    1. He is saving a lot of money.
    2. There are a lot of kangaroos in the country.
    3. There are a lot of people in front of the building.
    4. She eats a lot of biscuits.
    5. There is a lot of traffic in the streets during rush hours.
    Complete the following sentences using "a lot of", "many", or "much". Sometimes, more than one answer may be possible.
    1. Ali has ... spare time.
    2. Indonesia has ... beautiful beaches.
    3. Does Brisbane have ... bridges?
    4. Do you eat ... rice?
    5. We don't have ... bread.
    6. Do they have ... different customs?
    7. Barbara has ... flowers in her garden.
    8. We usually have ... rain from October to April.
    9. There are ... islands in Indonesia.
    10. Do they grow ... rice?
    11. How ... money have you got?
    12. How ... photographs did you take?
    13. How ... is this book?
    14. How ... does the ticket cost?
    15. Did they ask you ... questions?

    November 26, 2021

    Participial Adjectives (Participle sebagai Adjective)

    Participial Adjectives
    A
    pakah yang dimaksud dengan PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVE? Participial adjective adalah bentuk participle, yang berfungsi sebagai ajektiva. Ajektiva (adjective), atau seringkali disebut sebagai kata sifat, memiliki fungsi untuk menjelaskan kata benda (nouns).

    Participle itu sendiri sebenarnya adalah turunan dari kata kerja (verb). Ada 2 (dua) jenis participle, yaitu;

    1. Present participle, yang dikenal sebagai kata kerja (verb) berakhiran -ing, contoh; interesting, drawing, amazing, shocking, dsb.
    2. Past participle, atau dikenal sebagai kata kerja ke-3 (verb 3), contoh; interested, drawn, amazed, shocked, dsb.
    A. Perbedaan antara Present Participle dengan Past Participle

    Sebagai kata sifat, kedua jenis participle ini memberikan makna yang berbeda terhadap kata benda yang dibicarakan. Lihat contoh kalimat yang menggunakan participle di bawah ini:

    1. Winning the match was an exciting experience for the players. (Present participle)
    2. The excited players were celebrating the victory. (Past participle)
    Penjelasan:

    Present participle pada contoh no. 1 memiliki makna aktif, yaitu menyebabkan atau melakukan sesuatu. Kata benda (noun) ‘experience’ menyebabkan sesuatu hal, sehingga disebut sebagai ‘exciting experience'.

    Sedangkan, past participle memiliki makna pasif. Kata benda (noun) yang dimaksud menjadi obyek dan terdampak oleh berbagai situasi. Pada contoh no. 2, kata benda "players" menjadi obyek dari sesuatu, sehingga disebut sebagai ‘excited players’.

    B. Daftar Participial Adjective
    Kenalilah beberapa participial adjective yang ada di dalam daftar berikut dan cobalah memahami maknanya. Lengkapilah daftar ini dengan participial adjective yang kalian ketahui.
    VerbPresent ParticiplePast Participle
    boreboringbored
    exciteexcitingexcited
    confuseconfusingconfused
    sortsortingsorted
    surprisesurprisingsurprised
    encloseenclosingenclosed
    includeincludingincluded
    amazeamazingamazed
    astonishastonishingastonished
    terrifyterrifyingterrified
    disappointdisappointingdisappointed
    breakbreakingbroken
    writewritingwritten
    interestinterestinginterested
    threatenthreateningthreatened
    EXERCISES
    A. Horse Race Game
    To win the horse race. Choose the correct answer for each of the following sentences. Only the fastest answer can get the full score and all others get only half a point. Now, let's get the race started.

    B. Sentence Completion Exercise
    Do the following exercise. Use either present participle or past participle of the verbs in the brackets.
    1. The ... announcement has raised questions among the students. (confuse)
    2. The ... students did not know what uniform to wear on the following day. (confuse)
    3. The ... film caused me to fall asleep. (bore)
    4. The ... audience fell asleep during the speech. (bore)
    5. The ... brochure provides tourists with the information they need. (enclose)
    6. The team were ... when they heard about the approval. (excite).
    7. I was very ... to see what was happening at that time. (shock)
    8. This is one of the most ... books I’ve ever read. (interest)
    9. The children soon fell asleep after the ... journey. (tire)
    10. Our vacation was ruined by the ... experience. (frighten)
    11. Aceh was completely destroyed by a ... tsunami on December 26, 2004. (devastate)
    12. The process of repairing ... buildings and streets took years to complete. (damage)
    13. The snake is still a ... sight for most women. (terrify)
    14. The ... workers sat down to rest under the shade of a tree. (exhaust)
    15. His experiences in Jakarta were rather .... (depress)
    16. The woman was trying to comfort the ... child when a policeman came. (cry)
    17. Lapindo tragedy clearly wiped out many ... business opportunities in the area. (promise)
    18. To anticipate the ... volume of air passengers in the holiday season, the airline has added more than 40,000 seats to 14 routes. (increase)
    19. The new ... system is equipped with an advanced protection system. (operate)
    20. A month after the theft, the ... jewelry was recovered. (steal)
    Prev: BSE SMP Cls IX 072311 0343PM PV 5113

    November 19, 2021

    The Simple Future Tense (Will + Infinitive)

    I. Positive and negative statement with "Will + Infinitive"
    SubjectAuxiliary Verb (Will)Main Verb (Infinitive)
    I / We / You / They / He / She / It / David / The studentswill ('ll)
    will not (won't)
    buy
    practice
    work
    leave
    wait
    II. Interrogative statement (Question) with "Will + Infinitive"
    Auxiliary Verb (Will)SubjectMain Verb (Infinitive)
    WillI / We / You / They / He / She / It / David / The studentsbuy?
    practice?
    work?
    leave?
    wait?
    III. Usage of future tense with "Will" and example sentences
    1. We use "will" for the future (tomorrow / next week / next month, etc.). E.g.:
      • Sue travels a lot. Today she is in Madrid. Tomorrow, she'll be in Rome. Next week she'll be in Tokyo.
      • Leave the old bread in the garden. The birds will eat it.
      • Don't drink coffee before you go to bed. You won't sleep.
      • She will not be at school tomorrow.
    2. We use "will" for unplanned future actions, which are done spontaneously at the time of speaking. E.g.:
      • Hold on. I'll get a pen.
      • We will see what we can do to help you.
      • Maybe we'll stay in and watch television tonight.
      For things we have arranged or planned to do, "be going to + infinitive" is commonly used.
      Learn more about Contrasting Future Forms "Be Going To" VS "Will" HERE.
    3. We often use the simple future tense (will + infinitive) after "I think ...."E.g.:
      • I think I'll talk to him about it.
      • I think I will see her after work.
      • I don't think I will do that.
    4. We use the simple future tense (will + infinitive) to make a prediction about what we think will happen in the future. E.g.:
      • The weather forecast says that it will rain tomorrow.
      • Things will get better soon.
      • Thousands of people will come to the new circuit to watch the first race.
      Learn more about Talking about Future Plans and Predictions in English HERE
      Learn more about Making Predictions with Future Continuous Tense HERE.
    5. "Will you ...?" are usually used in polite requests. To make requests sound even more polite, "please" can be used at the end of the sentence.E.g.:
      • Will you talk to him about it?
      • Will you sign here, please?
      • Will you be quiet, please? I'm trying to concentrate.
      Learn more about Imperative Sentences and Polite Requests in English HERE
    IV. EXERCISES
    1. Write affirmative (positive), interrogative (question), and negative sentences with "will ...". Number 1 has been done as an example.
      1. They - build a new office.
        +: They will build a new office.
        ?: Will they build a new office?
        -: They won't build a new office.
      2. Ria - get the job.
      3. We - be away for a week.
      4. It - take a long time.
      5. She - be at work tomorrow.
      6. The committee - postpone the meeting.
    2. In this interactive exercise, choose the correct answer for each question, "will" or "won't".
    3. Helen is travelling in Europe. By referring to the picture below, complete the sentences with "she's", "she was", or "she'll be".
        Simple Future Tense
      1. Yesterday, ... in Paris.
      2. Tomorrow, ... in Amsterdam.
      3. Last week, ... in Barcelona.
      4. Next week, ... in London.
      5. At the moment, ... in Brussels.
      6. Three days ago, ... in Munich.
      7. At the end of her trip, ... very tired.
    4. Write sentences beginning with "I think ..." or "I don't think ...". Number 1 and 2 have been done as an example.
      1. Diana will pass the exam.
        Answer: I think Diana will pass the exam.
      2. John won't pass the exam.
        Answer: I don't think John will pass the exam.
      3. We'll win the game.
      4. I won't be here tomorrow
      5. Sue will like her present.
      6. They won't get married.
      7. You won't enjoy the film.
      8. We will finish the project in time.
      9. We will not leave yet.
      10. The train will arrive on time.
    5. Change the following commands into polite requests using "Will you ...? Number 1 has been done as an example.
      1. Sign this form, please.
        Answer: Will you sign this form, please?
      2. Leave your bags here.
      3. Speak loudly, please.
      4. Say that again.
      5. Come with me.
      6. Make some coffee, please.
    Reference:
  • Murphy, Raymond Essential Grammar In Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • 6610-0124PM-940.