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English Dialogue With SO And NEITHER: My Back Is Sore

I t's Saturday evening. Jim and Betty have been working in the garden all day. They're sitting in the living room after dinner. Jim...

June 29, 2020

English Dialogue With SO And NEITHER: My Back Is Sore

t's Saturday evening. Jim and Betty have been working in the garden all day. They're sitting in the living room after dinner.
Jim:I've worked so hard today, Betty!
Betty:So have I, Jim! I haven't even read this morning's paper.
Jim:Neither have I! Where is it?
Betty:Oh, I think it's on top of refrigerator in the kitchen. Would you mind getting it, Jim? I'm too tired to move.
Jim:I don't really want to read it.
Betty:Well, neither do I. You know, my back is quite sore.
Jim:So is mine. I planted a lot of young plants this afternoon.
Betty:I didn't stop working all the afternoon.
Jim:Neither did I. And by three o'clock my back was aching!
Betty:So was mine. I wasn't able to stand up straight for quite a while afterwards.
Jim:Neither was I. My whole body feels sore.
Betty:So does mine. I shan't plant any more young plants for a while.
Jim:Neither shall I. I'd like to rest for hours now.
Betty:Jim, you shouldn't work so hard in the garden in future.
Jim:Neither should you. But we both like to have flowers in the house. At any rate, I like to see flowers in the house.
Betty:Oh, so do I, Jim. But we can't afford to buy flowers all the time. ... Oh, well, perhaps we'll feel better tomorrow.
Jim:Perhaps! What are we going to do tomorrow, Betty?
Betty:If it's fine, I wouldn't mind going for a drive in the car.
Jim:Neither would I. Let's ask Hadi and Yati to go for a drive with us. Hadi likes going for a drive.
Betty:So does Yati. She'll enjoy a drive in the country.
Jim:They're both fond of the country.
Betty:We can take a picnic lunch, and perhaps we could go to National Park. I'd like that.
Jim:So would I. Hadi has been there, hasn't he?
Betty:Yes, and so has Yati. But I don't mind how often I go there.
Jim:Neither do I. It's a very pleasant place, with all those lovely trees.
Betty:Oh, I'm looking forward to it! My back feels better already.
Jim:So does mine. I'll go and phone Hadi immediately.
Betty:And when you've phoned Hadi, I'll phone Yati. Tell Hadi we'll call for him at half past nine tomorrow morning.
Jim:All right, Betty.
Betty:I'll get the newspaper. I'll need it while you're talking to Hadi.
A. Answer the following questions.
English Dialogue With SO And NEITHER
  1. Have Jim and Betty worked hard today, or have they been idle?
  2. Have they read the newspaper?
  3. Where is the newspaper?
  4. Why wouldn't Jim or Betty get the newspaper?
  5. How did their back feel?
  6. What did they do in the garden?
  7. What are they going to do tomorrow?
  8. Who is Jim going to call?
  9. Who is Betty going to call?
  10. Do Hadi and Yati like going for a drive?
  11. Where will they go?
  12. Are they going to eat in a restaurant or are they going to take a picnic lunch?
  13. What time will Jim and Betty pick Hadi up tomorrow morning?
  14. What will Betty do while Jim is talking to Hadi?
  15. Please copy the dialogue and underline all the phrases/sentences with "so" and "neither".
B. Complete the following sentences using "so" or "neither".
  1. Adi: I like mangoes.
    Jaka: ... do I.
  2. Hendra: Santi doesn't live near here.
    Udin: ... does Tari.
  3. Kiki: I haven't had lunch. I'm so hungry.
    Ovin: ... have I.
  4. Tasya: I didn't understand what he was saying.
    Dena: ... did I. I think he spoke too fast.
  5. Rio: My office has applied new policies as a response to Covid-19 outbreak.
    Lily: ... has mine.
  6. Yudi: I couldn't go out of town due to the travel restriction.
    Gita: ... I.
  7. Maya: My father works in a private company.
    Elsa: ... my father. He often has to work on Sundays.
  8. Dea: Ahmad didn't attend the meeting yesterday.
    Joni: ... did Hans, his supervisor.
  9. Umi: Many students aren't prepared for online learning during the pandemic.
    Tika: ... are teachers. Most of them are still adapting to new technologies.
  10. Yana: Eating nutritious food is very important in maintaining our health.
    Sita: ... is having regular exercise. A little exercise every day can help us stay healthy.
BSE SMK, 061811 10:34 AM, 2438

June 15, 2020

English Dialogue With Passive Voice: A Trip to Indonesia

Hadi is sitting and drinking a cup of coffee when he sees Margaret.
Hadi:Hello, Margaret!
Margaret:Oh, hello, Hadi.
Hadi:Won't you sit down here?
What are you doing?
Hadi:Just drinking coffee and thinking.
Margaret:Well, now you can drink coffee and talk! I want to be told all the news!
Hadi:News! What news!
Margaret:About Jim and Betty's friends, the Fosters - Tom and Nancy. They've just come back from Indonesia, haven't they?
Hadi:Oh, yes, they arrived home last week. I was invited to Jim and Betty's place a few days ago, and Tom and Nancy were there too.
Margaret:And did they tell you all about their trip? What did they do? Where did they go?What interested them the most? Did they enjoy themselves?
Hadi:Yes, I think they enjoyed their holiday very much. They went to Jakarta first - by plane from Sydney. They have some friends in Jakarta, and so they were invited to a lot of places, and they were taken on several visits.
Margaret:Lucky people!
Hadi:After they'd been in Jakarta for a few days, a visit to Bandung was arranged for them. They were taken there by car. They were delighted by the scenery in Bandung.
Margaret:Yes, it must be a beautiful place.
Hadi:Ah, you'll go there one day, Margaret!
Margaret:Mm! Did Nancy and Tom speak Indonesian while they were there?
Hadi:A little. They knew only a few words of Indonesian - but they practiced them whenever possible! They met some Indonesian people who could speak English to them.
Hadi:Yes, English is spoken by quite a lot of people in Indonesia now! One day Nancy and Tom were invited to a meeting of a Youth Club. They were asked to give a speech.
Margaret:In English?
Hadi:Yes. And after the speech had been given, they were asked a lot of questions about Australia. They found it very interesting.
Hadi:Another day, they went to Borobudur.
Hadi:Borobudur. Haven't you heard of it?
Margaret:I'm not sure, Hadi. Where is it?
Hadi:It's in Central Java. It's an old Buddhist temple. It was built - oh, a long time ago.
Margaret:How long ago?
Hadi:I don't know, Margaret - I'm not a history student!
Margaret:Neither am I.
Hadi:I don't think the date is known exactly, but it must have been built - oh, between the eighth and ninth centuries. It was designed very beautifully.
Margaret:And it's a tourist attraction, is it?
Hadi:Yes. If you come to the party next week, you'll be shown some pictures of it. Tom and Nancy are bringing some photos that were taken in Indonesia.
Margaret:Good! I love being shown photos! What else did Tom and Nancy do?
Hadi:Well, they didn't have much time to go to a lot of places - it was only a very short holiday - but they had a quick visit to Bali. Then they came back to Jakarta, and caught the plane home to Sydney.
Margaret:And they were met at the airport by Betty and Jim.
Hadi:Yes. And when Betty and Jim heard all about their holiday, they decided that they must go to Indonesia for a holiday themselves!
Answer the following questions.
  1. Where does the above conversation probably take place?
    English Dialogue With Passive Voice
  2. Who are they talking about?
  3. Where have the Fosters been?
  4. When did they arrive?
  5. What places did they visit during their trip?
  6. How long did they stay in Jakarta?
  7. Where did they go after visiting Jakarta?
  8. Did Nancy and Tom speak Indonesian language during their trip?
  9. where did Nancy and Tom give a speech?
  10. What happened after the speech?
  11. Does Margaret know much about Borobudur temple?
  12. What does Hadi know about Borobudur?
  13. Where will Margaret be shown the photos of the trip?
  14. Was it a long holiday, or was it a short one?
  15. What did Betty and Jim decide to do after hearing about the Fosters' holiday?
BML 062611 1159 AM 2420

May 02, 2020

6 Kesalahan Berbahasa Inggris Dalam Materi Asking And Giving Opinions

aat mempelajari materi "Asking and Giving Opinions" dalam mata pelajaran bahasa Inggris, seringkali siswa harus melakukan unjuk kerja seperti membuat dialog bahasa Inggris dan mempraktekkannya di depan kelas. Meskipun telah mendapat pembekalan berupa ungkapan-ungkapan untuk menanyakan atau meminta pendapat (asking for opinions), mengeluarkan pendapat (giving opinions), serta menyetujui dan tidak menyetujui pendapat (agreeing and disagreeing with opinions), siswa masih sering membuat kesalahan dalam menggunakan ungkapan-ungkapan tersebut.

Berikut ini beberapa macam kesalahan yang sangat sering dilakukan siswa dalam mempraktekkan materi "Asking And Giving Opinions".

  1. Menggunakan frase "according to me" atau "according to my opinion" untuk mengungkapkan pendapat pribadi.

    Dalam bahasa Indonesia, frase "menurut saya" dan "menurut pendapat saya" adalah ungkapan yang umum digunakan untuk mengutarakan pendapat. Akan tetapi, jika frase tersebut diterjemahkan secara serampangan tanpa memperhatikan kaidah penggunaan kata dalam bahasa Inggris, terjemahan yang didapat seringkali adalah "according to me", atau "according to my opinion".

    Padahal penggunaan "according to me" untuk mengutarakan pendapat pribadi adalah kurang tepat, karena penggunaan "according to ..." yang benar adalah untuk mengutip pendapat, kondisi, atau pernyataan orang lain, atau mengutip suatu peraturan tertentu, dan bukan pendapat pribadi orang yang berbicara. Contoh-contoh kalimat dengan penggunaan "according to me" yang benar adalah:

    • According to the travel agency, the bus will arrive at the destination on 8 P.M. this evening.
      As stated by the travel agency, the bus will arrive at the destination on 8 P.M. this evening.
    • According to the new regulation, legal requirements will be required for exports of wood products.
      In conformity with the new regulations, legal requirements will be required for exports of wood products.
    • Everyone worked hard according to their ability.
      Everyone worked hard depending on their ability.

    Untuk mengutarakan pendapat, terjemahan bahasa Inggris yang tepat untuk frase "menurut saya" atau "menurut pendapat saya" adalah in my opinion, in my point of view, as for me. (Lihat materi "Asking And Giving Opinions").

  2. Menggunakan kalimat "I am agree", atau "I am not agree" untuk mengungkapkan setuju atau tidak setuju.

    Agree adalah termasuk kata kerja yang berkaitan dengan aktifitas mental dan harus menggunakan bentuk simple, bukan bentuk continuous. Penggunaannya tidak membutuhkan auxiliary verb "be" atau "to be", seperti "am", "is", atau "are". Jadi cukup kata kerja "agree" dalam bentuk simple saja. (Lihat materi Simple Present Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, & Latihan Soal)

    Karena itu, kalimat yang tepat seharusnya adalah, "I agree" untuk mengungkapan kesetujuan, atau "I don't agree" untuk mengungkapkan ketidaksetujuan terhadap suatu pendapat.

  3. Menggunakan kalimat "I am believe", atau "I am not believe" untuk mengungkapkan keyakinan atau ketidakyakinan terhadap suatu pendapat.

    Sama dengan penjelasan nomer 2, believe adalah termasuk kata kerja yang berkaitan dengan aktifitas mental dan tidak membutuhkan auxiliary verb "be" atau "to be".

    Karena itu, kalimat yang tepat seharusnya adalah, "I believe" untuk mengungkapan keyakinan, atau "I don't believe" untuk mengungkapkan ketidakyakinan.

  4. Menggunakan kalimat "Are you agree?", "Are you believe that ...?", atau "What are you thinking about ...?" untuk menanyakan pendapat.

    Masih sama dengan penjelasan nomer 2, agree, believe, dan think jika bermakna memiliki pendapat tidak membutuhkan auxiliary verb "be" atau "to be", seperti "am", "is", atau "are". Jadi cukup kata kerja dalam bentuk simple.

    Karena itu, kalimat yang tepat untuk menanyakan pendapat seharusnya adalah, "Do you agree", "Do you believe", dan "What do you think about ...?".

    Di sini, penggunaan kata kerja "think" berarti "berpendapat", bukan "sedang memikirkan". Jika "think" bermakna "sedang memikirkan", maka penggunaan kalimat "What are you thinking about?" sudah tepat, yang berarti "Apa yang sedang kamu pikirkan?

  5. Menggunakan kalimat "I couldn't agree more" atau "I can't agree more" untuk menyatakan tidak setuju.

    Makna yang tepat dari kalimat "I couldn't agree more" atau "I can't agree more" adalah "saya (sangat) setuju". Jelas bahwa penggunaannya adalah untuk mengungkapkan kesetujuan terhadap suatu pendapat, bukan ketidaksetujuan.

    Kesalahan Berbahasa Inggris Dalam Materi Asking And Giving Opinions
  6. Menggunakan kalimat "I agree to you" untuk menyatakan setuju terhadap pendapat seseorang.
    Makna yang sebenarnya dari frase "agree to" adalah "memberikan persetujuan terhadap sesuatu" atau "setuju untuk melakukan sesuatu". Contoh:
    • The principal has agreed to our proposed plans.
    • He agreed to consult his doctor for the symptoms.
    Jika maksudnya adalah untuk mengungkapkan kesetujuan terhadap pendapat seseorang, maka frase yang lebih tepat digunakan adalah "agree with". Jadi kalimat yang benar seharusnya "I agree with you".
Itulah 6 daftar kesalahan berbahasa Inggris yang sering terjadi dalam pembelajaran materi "Asking And Giving Opinions". Untuk lebih jauh mempelajari materi "Asking And Giving Opinions", baca juga beberapa materi pada tautan di bawah ini. Semoga bermanfaat.

April 26, 2020

Asking And Giving Opinions

hat is an opinion? An opinion is a view or judgment formed about something, which is not necessarily based on fact or knowledge. In our daily life, especially in our interactions with other people, there are times when we have to talk about opinions, that is to tell, ask, agree, or disagree with other people's opinions.

Asking And Giving Opinions

Do you understand what expressions are commonly used in sharing opinions? Well, in this material, we are going to learn some of the most common English expressions used in giving, asking, agreeing, and disagreeing with an opinion.

I. Asking and giving opinions
Expressions used in asking and giving opinions
Asking about OpinionsGiving Opinions
What do you think of ...?I think / feel (that) ....
What is your opinion on/about ...?I strongly believe (that) ....
How do you feel about ...?Well, as far as I’m concerned ....
What are your feelings about ...?I’m convinced / sure / positive that ....
What do you like from ...?In my opinion ....
Tell me what you think of ....It seems to me that ....
How do you like ...?Well, to my mind ....
What’s your idea about ...?In my point of view, ....
Why do you say that?Well, if you ask me, ....
Do you agree with / that ...?I have no doubt that ....
II. Agreeing and disagreeing with opinions
Expressions used in agreeing and disagreeing with opinions
Exactly / certainly.I disagree / don’t agree (with you).
I think / suppose so.I see your point, but ....
I agree (with you).Do you think so?
You’re (absolutely) right.I don’t think / suppose so.
That’s true.You must be mistaken.
That’s exactly what I think.Oh, surely not. It's not the same thing at all.
I’m with you.It’s not right. / It’s wrong.
I'm on your side.Yes, but on the other hand, ....
I'll give you that.As for me, I would rather ....
I can’t / couldn’t agree more.We must agree to disagree.
III. Sample dialogues about asking and giving opinions
A. Dialogue 1: Talking about a talented person
Rena:Did you see Ali's performance last night?
Udin:Yes, I did. What do you think of it?
Rena:It was fabulous! I never thought he has such a great talent in music.
Udin:I agree with you. It was one his best performance.
Rena:I'm sure that if he keeps practicing and practicing, he will be a great musician some day.
Udin:That's exactly what I think, Rena.
B. Dialogue 2: Talking about health
Santi:Have you heard the news? The government has urged members of the public to wear a mask to prevent Covid-19 infection.
Julia:Yes, I've heard about that. What's your opinion? Should we really wear a mask?
Santi:Well, there are controversies about it. But , I would rather wear one than wear nothing.
Julia:Well, let's think about it. I'm sure that if everyone starts wearing masks it will create a shortage of masks for health care workers who need masks more desperately than we do.
Santi:I see your point, but we don't have to wear a clinical mask, do we? We can wear a cloth mask for protection, instead.
Julia:I agree with you on this. Clinical masks should be worn only when someone has flu or cough, or they are exposed directly to sick persons.
Santi:That's what I wear when I go out. Cloth mask will do for protection.
Julia:By the way, I have another question. Do you think wearing a mask is really effective in protecting us from Covid-19 infection?
Santi:Well, that's still debatable. As for me, wearing a protection is much better and safer than wearing nothing at all, especially in the midst of this outbreak.
C. Dialogue 3: Talking about clothes
Raisa:What do you think I should wear to Dea's birthday party?
Ima:In my opinion, any dress will do. I know you have quite a lot of party dresses.
Ima:Yes, but I don't want to be seen wearing the same dress in a party.
Ima:I see, but Dea and her friends have never seen all of your dresses, right?
Raisa:You're right. Then, I'll wear the green dress that I wore in my cousin's engagement party.
Ima:That'll be fine. I don't think you can afford buying a new dress every time you are invited to a party.
Santi:That's true, Ima.
A. Do you know what these sentences imply?
The sentences below are taken from the sample dialogues above. Identify their meaning by choosing the correct options; A, B, C, or D.
  1. What do you think of it?
    1. Asking for an opinion
    2. Giving an opinion
    3. Agreeing with an opinion
    4. Disagreeing with an opinion
  2. I agree with you. It was one his best performance.
    1. Asking for an opinion
    2. Giving an opinion
    3. Agreeing with an opinion
    4. Disagreeing with an opinion
  3. I'm sure that if he keeps practicing and practicing, he will be a great musician some day.
    1. Asking for an opinion
    2. Giving an opinion
    3. Agreeing with an opinion
    4. Disagreeing with an opinion
  4. That's exactly what I think.
    1. Asking for an opinion
    2. Giving an opinion
    3. Agreeing with an opinion
    4. Disagreeing with an opinion
  5. What's your opinion? Should we really wear a mask?
    1. Asking for an opinion
    2. Giving an opinion
    3. Agreeing with an opinion
    4. Disagreeing with an opinion
  6. But personally, I would rather wear one than wear nothing.
    1. Asking for an opinion
    2. Giving an opinion
    3. Agreeing with an opinion
    4. Disagreeing with an opinion
  7. I see your point, but we don't have to wear a clinical mask, do we?
    1. Asking for an opinion
    2. Giving an opinion
    3. Agreeing with an opinion
    4. Disagreeing with an opinion
  8. As for me, wearing a protection is much better and safer than wearing nothing at all, especially in the midst of this outbreak.
    1. Asking for an opinion
    2. Giving an opinion
    3. Agreeing with an opinion
    4. Disagreeing with an opinion
  9. What do you think I should wear to Dea's birthday party?
    1. Asking for an opinion
    2. Giving an opinion
    3. Agreeing with an opinion
    4. Disagreeing with an opinion
  10. I see, but Dea and her friends have never seen all of your dresses, right?
    1. Asking for an opinion
    2. Giving an opinion
    3. Agreeing with an opinion
    4. Disagreeing with an opinion
B. Complete these dialogues.
Complete the dialogues below by filling each blank underlined space with the best phrase or sentence on the right.
Dialogue 1
Yana:...(1)... about Indonesian movies?In my opinion
Maya:...(2)..., some of them are good, but some are not worth-seeing.I see
Yana:...(3)...?What do you mean
Maya:Some films are made seriously by reputable and experienced producers, while some are made just to be a flash in the pan.What do you think
Yana:...(4).... What kind of films do you like?
Maya:Thrillers and dramas. I like the film that bases its story line on common people's every day life, yet emotionally capturing or thrilling.
Dialogue 2
Cita:Look! Our school walls have been repainted. It looks fresh now. ...(5)...?We must agree to disagree
Rika:...(6)... that the old color is nicer.I disagree with you
Cita:Are you kidding? The newly painted wall and the flowers look wonderful together.What do you think
Rika:...(7).... To me, it’s the worst color combination our school has ever had.It seems to me
Cita:...(8)... this time.
Dialogue 3
Nadia:Dina, that's a red rose, isn't it?I can't agree more
Dina:Yes, it is. And look at that yellow one. Isn't that magnificent?as for me
Nadia:Well, ...(9)..., I would rather have the red one. I'm not really keen on yellow roses. Do you have a garden, Dina?
Dina:Yes, I do. It's small, but it's fun to take care of flowers in our spare time.
Nadia:...(10).... Flowers can be very refreshing.
C. What is your opinion on these issues?
Do you agree with the following issues, or do you disagree? Write your opinion and reason(s).
  1. Members of the public must wear masks in order to prevent and stop the spread of Covid-19.
  2. Strict lockdown such as in India should be applied to stop the spread of Covid-19.
  3. Clinical masks should be worn only by health workers and sick people.
  4. People always want something more or something different, and are never satisfied with what they have.
  5. Students should not bring mobile phones to school.
  6. National Test (UN) is important as a benchmark of national education.
  7. Students playing Tik-Tok during school hours must be punished.
  8. Social media profiles should be considered in new workers recruitment.
  9. School education must be free of charge.
  10. School uniform should be deleted.

Questions? Just drop a few lines in the comment section below.
For another example of a dialogue about feelings and opinions, just click the link below. Mo051611 1132 AM 140

April 23, 2020

Bentuk, Penggunaan, & Latihan Soal Present Continuous Tense

Latihan soal Present Continuous Tense
resent continuous tense atau present progressive tense adalah salah satu bentuk waktu (tense) yang sering digunakan dalam bahasa Inggris. Present continuous tense berbeda dengan simple present tense, baik dalam penggunaannya maupun struktur dan bentuk kata kerjanya. Dalam materi kali ini, kita akan membahas struktur, bentuk, dan penggunaan present continuous tense secara lengkap, lalu diikuti dengan latihan soal untuk memastikan pemahaman kalian tentang present continuous tense.
I. Bagaimana struktur & bentuk Present Continuous tense?
Struktur dan bentuk Present Continuous tense adalah sbb:
(+) Subject + auxiliary verb (be) + main verb (verb + ing)
(?) Auxiliary verb (be) + subject + main verb (verb + ing)?
(-) Subject + auxiliary verb (be) not + main verb (verb + ing)

Lihatlah contoh-contoh kalimat Present continuous tense di bawah ini:
Contoh kalimat positif dalam Present Continuous tense
Subject auxiliary verb (be)main verb
(verb + ing)
Iamworkingwith a laptop.
Aniisreadinga magazine.
The studentsaredoinga test.
Contoh kalimat tanya dalam Present Continuous tense
Auxiliary verb (be)Subjectmain verb
(verb + ing)
AmIworkingwith a laptop?
IsAnireadinga magazine?
Arethe studentsdoinga test?
Contoh kalimat negatif dalam Present Continuous tense
Subject auxiliary verb
(be) + not
main verb
(verb + ing)
Iam notworkingwith a laptop.
Youare notstudyingEnglish.
Aniis notreadinga magazine.
The studentsare notdoinga test.
II. Bagaimana penggunaan Present Continuous Tense?
Present Continuous Tense digunakan untuk:
  • Membicarakan kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung atau sedang dilakukan sekarang / pada saat ini juga, biasanya dengan keterangan waktu; now, at the moment, at present. Contoh:
    • You are studying how to use the present continuous tense.
    • Right now you are looking at this screen.
    • You are reading these example sentences.
  • Membicarakan kegiatan di masa sekarang yang bersifat sementara, bukan merupakan kebiasaan dan tidak bersifat permanen, biasanya dengan keterangan waktu; at this time, temporarily, for the time being. Contoh:
    • The government is trying to stop the spread of Covid-19.
    • Experts are working hard to develop a vaccine for Covid-19.
    • He is living with his sister until he finds a boarding house.
  • Membicarakan kegiatan yang sudah direncanakan / dipersiapkan dan akan segera dilakukan di waktu yang akan datang, dan harus disertai dengan keterangan waktu (adverbs of time), seperti; this evening, tomorrow, next week, in July, atau paling tidak waktu kegiatan sudah dipahami / diketahui. Contoh:
    • We are leaving at 8 this evening. We have booked the train tickets.
    • I am seeing my dentist tomorrow. We have made an appointment.
    • We are going to the beach this weekend.
  • Digunakan dengan always, umumnya dalam kalimat positif, untuk membicarakan suatu kebiasaan, disengaja atau tidak disengaja, yang dianggap mengganggu dan menjengkelkan karena terjadi berulang kali. Contoh:
    • She is always asking me questions.
    • Rama is always complaining about his job.
    • Oh no. You are always losing your keys.
    Dalam penggunaan ini, always + present continuous tense berbeda dengan always + simple present tense yang membicarakan rutinitas biasa.
III. Bagaimana penulisan ejaan dalam Present Continuous tense?
Present Continuous tense disusun dengan menggunakan kata kerja bentuk "ing" (verb -ing), caranya dengan menambahkan akhiran "ing" pada kata kerja dasar. Ada beberapa aturan dalam pembentukan verb-ing, sebagai berikut:
  • Tidak ada perubahan pada kata kerja dasar jika huruf terakhir berupa konsonan yang pengucapannya tidak mendapat penekanan.
    Contoh: walk > walking, work > working, stand > standing, blow > blowing, rain > raining, steer > steering, play > playing, open > opening, dll.
  • Menggandakan huruf terakhir jika huruf terakhir berupa konsonan yang pengucapannya mendapat penekanan.
    Contoh: stop > stopping, run > running, begin > beginning, drop > dropping, bid > bidding, get > getting, dll.
  • Jika kata kerja dasar berakhiran "ie", gantilah "ie" dengan "y".
    Contoh: lie > lying, die > dying, tie > tying, dll.
  • Jika kata kerja dasar berakhiran dengan huruf vokal (vowel) "e", hilangkan "e".
    Contoh: come > coming, make > making, take > taking, choose > choosing, give > giving, write > writing, dll.
Latihan Soal
Task 1.
Ubahlah kata kerja berikut ini ke dalam bentuk "verb-ing".
stay = ....
hire = ....
delete = ....
tap = ....
move = ....
shine = ....
kick = ....
win = ....
send = ....
wave = ....
boil = ....
listen = ....
leave = ....
practice = ....
erase = ....
fly = ....
cut = ....
use = ....
Task 2.
Tambahkanlah "be" dan ubahlah kata kerja dalam kurung ke dalam bentuk "-ing" sehingga menjadi kalimat dalam bentuk Present Continuous tense yang benar. Lihat contoh pada nomer 1.
  1. We (eat) in a restaurant tonight.
    Jawaban: We are eating in a restaurant tonight.
  2. They (not work) tomorrow.
  3. When ... you (start) your new job?
  4. ... they (wait) for the bus?
  5. Look! That man (climb) the coconut tree.
  6. What ... you (do)?
  7. Rinda (type) the letter now.
  8. She (not use) the washing machine right now.
  9. Hendra (learn) to drive.
  10. My friends (come) to see me this evening.
Task 3.
Lengkapilah kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini dengan memberikan kata kerja yang sesuai dalam bentuk Present Continuous tense. Setiap kalimat bisa memiliki lebih dari 1 (satu) jawaban benar.
buy - play - cook - listen to - read - do - water - drink - watch - sleep

  1. My grandma ... the flowers in our garden.
  2. Tono and his brother ... a kite in the yard now.
  3. The cat ... on the sofa.
  4. My mother ... dinner in the kitchen.
  5. Andi ... not ... music right now.
  6. My father ... today's newspaper in the living room.
  7. ... she ... TV at the moment?
  8. The animals ... water from the pond.
  9. ... you ... this bed sheet? It's expensive.
  10. What ... they ... in the garage?
060711 0915PM 1408

April 20, 2020

Simple Past Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, dan Latihan Soal

Simple Past Tense
imple Past tense adalah bentuk kata kerja yang digunakan untuk membicarakan kegiatan atau kejadian di waktu lampau. Ada beberapa tenses yang bisa digunakan untuk membicarakan sesuatu yang terjadi di masa lampau, akan tetapi simple past tense inilah yang paling sering digunakan. Dalam materi ini, kita akan mempelajari bentuk atau struktur serta penggunaan Simple Past tense melalui contoh-contoh kalimat dan latihan soal untuk membantu kalian dalam belajar.
1. Bagaimana struktur kalimat dan bentuk kata kerja Simple Past tense?
Untuk membuat kalimat dalam Simple Past tense, kita menggunakan;
kata kerja bentuk lampau (Verb 2)
auxiliary (did) + kata kerja dasar (verb 1)

Struktur kalimat positif, kalimat tanya, dan kalimat negatif dalam Simple Past tense secara lengkap adalah sebagai berikut:
(+) Subject + verb 2
(?)Did + subject + verb 1?
(-) Subject + did not (didn't) + verb 1

Lihatlah contoh-contoh kalimat dalam Simple Past tense berikut ini.
Contoh kalimat positif dalam Simple Past tense
SubjectPast verb (verb 2)
Isentthe email yesterday.
Hecleanedthe windows this morning.
Alyaplanteda flower in the garden.
Contoh kalimat tanya dalam Simple Past tense
Didsubjectverb 1
Didyousendthe email yesterday?
Didhecleanthe windows this morning?
DidAlyaplanta flower in the garden?
Contoh kalimat negatif dalam Simple Past tense
Subjectdid not (didn't)verb 1
Idid not (didn't)sendthe email yesterday.
Hedid not (didn't)cleanthe windows this morning.
Alyadid not (didn't)planta flower in the garden.
Di bawah ini adalah contoh beberapa kata kerja dasar (verb 1), baik regular maupun irregular verbs, dengan perubahannya dalam bentuk Simple Past (verb 2).
Regular verbsIrregular verbs
Verb 1Verb 2Verb 1Verb 2
Untuk daftar irregular verbs yang lebih lengkap, bisa dilihat dan diunduh di halaman Daftar Irregular Verbs Lengkap Dengan Artinya.
2. Bagaimana dengan kata kerja "to be" dalam Simple Past tense?
Penting diketahui bahwa kata kerja "to be" tidak menggunakan struktur kalimat past tense seperti di atas. Kata kerja "to be" (was, were) tidak membutuhkan auxiliary pada kalimat negatif dan kalimat tanya. Subyek I/he/she/it membutuhkan bentuk "to be" was, sedangkan we/you/they membutuhkan bentuk "to be" were. Perhatikan struktur kalimat Simple Past tense dengan kata kerja "to be" berikut ini:
Struktur kalimat Simple Past tense dengan kata kerja "to be"
Subjectto be
here yesterday.
here yesterday.
here yesterday.
here yesterday?
here yesterday?
here yesterday?
was not (wasn't)
was not (wasn't)
were not (weren't)
here yesterday.
here yesterday.
here yesterday.
3. Bagaimana dan kapan kita menggunakan Simple Past tense?

Seperti yang telah disebutkan di atas, Simple Past tense adalah bentuk kata kerja yang digunakan untuk kegiatan atau kejadian di waktu lampau. Karena itu, Simple Past tense hampir selalu digunakan dalam teks recount tentang pengalaman seseorang atau biografi seorang tokoh, narrative, seperti dongeng, legenda, dan cerita rakyat, serta teks berita (news item).

Secara lebih spesifik, Simple Past tense digunakan untuk:

  • Membicarakan suatu keadaan, kejadian atau kegiatan di waktu lampau dan waktu kejadiannya disebutkan atau sudah diketahui. Contoh:
    • The coronavirus first surfaced in a Chinese seafood and poultry market in Wuhan at the end of 2019.
    • On January 11 2020, Chinese state media reported the first known death from an illness caused by the virus.
    • Wage Rudolf Supratman, the writer of "Indonesia Raya" national anthem, was born on March 9, 1903 in Somongari, Purworejo, Central Java.
  • Membicarakan suatu keadaan, kejadian atau kegiatan yang sudah jelas terjadi di waktu lampau meskipun waktu kejadian tidak disebutkan secara spesifik. Contoh:
    • I graduated from a vocational high school in Probolinggo.
    • She worked in that factory for two years. (but she does not work there now.)
    • I bought this book in a book market in Malang.
  • Membicarakan suatu keadaan, kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi di suatu periode waktu lampau yang tidak mungkin akan terjadi lagi. Contoh:
    • Ismail Marzuki wrote at least 22 songs in his life.
    • My father took me to the zoo twice when I was a child.
    • It rained three times last week.
    Di sinilah letak perbedaan Simple Past dengan Present Perfect tense.

    Peristiwa-peristiwa lampau dalam kalimat contoh di atas tidak mungkin akan terjadi lagi karena jangka waktunya sudah berakhir. Jika jangka waktu masih belum berakhir dan masih ada kemungkinan untuk terjadi lagi, kita harus menggunakan bentuk Present Perfect tense.

  • Menanyakan kapan waktu terjadinya suatu keadaan, kejadian, atau kegiatan di waktu lampau. Contoh:
    • When did you arrive from Surabaya?
    • When did you meet her?
    • What time did you leave the office last night?
  • Dengan adverbs of frequency seperti always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, rarely, never, Simple Past digunakan untuk membicarakan kebiasaan di masa lampau, sama seperti penggunaan used to untuk membicarakan kebiasaan lampau. Contoh:
    • My father always picked me up from school.
    • They never came late.
    • He was always busy in the morning.
  • Membuat kalimat conditional (conditional sentence) type 2. Contoh:
    • If you took a closer look, you would be able to see the difference between these two pictures.
    • If they weren't so noisy, we would be able to concentrate.
    • It would not be so cold if you closed that window.

A. Lengkapilah kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini dengan bentuk Simple Past (verb 2) dari kata kerja yang sesuai.

borrow - drive - give - watch - be - eat - spend - teach - decide - play

  1. He ... his childhood in a small village in East Java.
  2. I ... a good movie last night.
  3. We ... a very satisfying dinner last night.
  4. Before moving here, we always ... an hour to work every day.
  5. Lusi often ... tennis on weekends.
  6. The Japanese teacher ... our class last semester.
  7. She ... absent from school yesterday.
  8. We ... to work until late last night in order to meet the deadline.
  9. My Mom ... me a wonderful present on my last birthday.
  10. He ... my dictionary a few days ago.
B. Lengkapilah kalimat-kalimat berikut dengan mengubah kata kerja di dalam kurung ke dalam Simple Past tense. Lakukan perubahan susunan kalimat jika diperlukan.
  • She (make) this delicious cake this morning.
    Answer: She made this delicious cake this morning.
  • How you (get) your present job?
    Answer: How did you get your present job?
  1. My grandmother once (live) in Jember, East Java.
  2. She (work) in a foreign company for 3 years.
  3. They (buy) the car from a showroom last month.
  4. She (go) to the movie last night?
  5. I am sorry. I (not hear) the telephone.
  6. When you (send) the email?
  7. She (be) late because of the traffic jam.
  8. On 17 August 1945, Soekarno and Hatta (proclaim) the independence of Indonesia.
  9. They (not celebrate) the event because of Covid-19 outbreak.
  10. You (enjoy) your holiday?
C. Lengkapilah kalimat-kalimat berikut dengan mengubah kata kerja di dalam kurung ke dalam Simple Past tense. Pilihlah antara kalimat positif dan negatif sesuai dengan makna kalimat.
  • It was hot in the room, so we ... the windows. (open)
    Answer: It was hot in the room, so we opened the windows.
  • It was cold outside, so we ... the windows. (open)
    Answer: It was cold outside, so we didn't open the windows.
  1. It was very crowded, so we ... the concert. (enjoy)
  2. It was very cloudy this morning, so I ... my umbrella. (bring)
  3. I was very tired, but I ... very well. The bed was uncomfortable. (sleep)
  4. Atri ... to work yesterday because he was sick. (go)
  5. I have submitted the documents they need. I ... it by email about an hour ago. (send)
  • Azar B.S. Understanding and Using English Grammar (2nd Ed). NJ: Prentice-Hall. Inc, 1989.
  • Thomson & Martinet (1986). A Practical English Grammar (4th Ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
BSESD Cls 3 081310 0751 AM 1273

Daftar Irregular Verbs Lengkap Dengan Artinya

Daftar Irregular Verbs Lengkap

alam bahasa Inggris, irregular verb adalah kata kerja yang bentuk lampaunya (past tense) tidak dibentuk dengan cara biasa yaitu menambahkan akhiran -ed. Jadi untuk bentuk Past Simple (verb 2) dan Past Participle (verb 3), irregular verb tidak harus selalu berakhiran -d, -ed, atau -ied, karena itu disebut Irregular verb, atau kata kerja tidak beraturan.

Pengetahuan tentang irregular verb atau kata kerja tidak beraturan dalam bahasa Inggris sangatlah penting jika kita ingin mengikuti aturan tata bahasa Inggris secara benar terutama saat kita berbicara tentang masa lampau (past tense), menggunakan kalimat pasif (passive voice), atau kalimat conditional. Apalagi beberapa kata kerja bahasa Inggris yang paling sering digunakan kebetulan adalah irregular verbs, seperti; come, do, go, get, make, say, see, think, take, know.

Berikut ini daftar Irregular Verbs (kata kerja tak beraturan) dalam bahasa Inggris lengkap dengan artinya. Tautan (link) untuk mengunduh ada di bawah daftar ini.

Irregular Verbs (Kata Kerja Tidak Beraturan) dalam Bahasa Inggris
(Verb 1)
(Verb 2)
(Verb 3)
abideabode, abidedabode, abidedpatuh, bertahan
arisearosearisentimbul, muncul
awakeawokeawaked, awokenterbangun, sadar
bewas, werebeen
beatbeatbeatenmemukul, mengalahkan
bereavebereaved, bereftbereaved, bereftkehilangan
betbet, bettedbet, bettedbertaruh
bidbade, bidbidden, bidmenawar
blendblended, blentblended, blentmencampur
broadcastbroadcasted, broadcastbroadcasted, broadcastmenyiarkan
cleaveclove, cleftcloven, cleftmembelah
clotheclothed, cladclothed, cladmenutupi
crowcrowed, crewcrowedberkokok
divedived, dove (US)divedmenyelam
dreamdreamed, dreamtdreamed, dreamtbermimpi
feedfedfedmemberi makan
fleefledfledmelarikan diri
forbearforboreforbornemenahan diri
getgotgot, gotten (US)menjadi, mendapat
hanghanged, hunghanged, hungmenggantung
heaveheaved, hoveheaved, hovemengangkat beban berat
holdheldheldmemegang, memeluk
hurthurthurtmenyakiti, sakit
inlayinlaidinlaidmenempelkan hiasan
keepkeptkeptmenjaga, tetap
knitknitted, knitknitted, knitmerajut
leanleaned, leantleaned, leantmenyandarkan
leapleaped, leaptleaped, leaptmeloncat
learnlearned, learntlearned, learntbelajar
lightlighted, litlighted, litmenyala
loselostlostkehilangan, kalah
meltmeltedmelted, moltenmencair
misunderstandmisunderstoodmisunderstoodsalah paham
mowmowedmown, mowed (US)memotong rumput
outbidoutbidoutbidkalah menawar
proveprovedproved, provenmembuktikan
quitquitted, quitquitted, quitkeluar
ridridded, ridridded, ridmembersihkan
riseroserisennaik, terbit
sawsawedsawed, sawnmenggergaji
sewsewedsewed, sewnmenjahit
showshowedshowed, shownmenunjukkan
shrinkshrank, shrunkshrunk, shrunkenmenyusut
smellsmeltsmeltberbau, membaui
smitesmotesmittenmemukul keras
sowsowedsowed, sownmenanam benih
spellspelled, speltspelled, speltmengeja
spillspilled, spiltspilled, spiltmenumpahkan
spoilspoiled, spoiltspoiled, spoiltmerusak
stavestaved, stovestaved, stovemendobrak
stinktank, stunkstunkberbau busuk
stridestrodestriddenmelangkah tegap
strikestruckstruck, strickenmenghantam
swellswelledswelled, swollenmembengkak
thrivethrived, throvethrived, throveberkembang, maju
withdrawwithdrewwithdrawnmenarik mundur
Kata kerja tak beraturan (Irregular verb) yang anda cari tidak ditemukan? Unduh Daftar Irregular Verbs yang lebih lengkap beserta artinya melalui tautan di bawah ini. Reference:
  • Hornby A. S. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1974.
  • Azar B.S. Understanding and Using English Grammar (2nd Ed). NJ: Prentice-Hall. Inc, 1989.
Th061710 1129PM 113

April 16, 2020

Soal Olimpiade Bahasa Inggris Elementary SD - SMP Paket Soal 2C

  1. Mr. Eka: What are you doing, Adi?
    Adi: I ... my school assignment, Dad.
    1. do
    2. did
    3. am doing
    4. am
  2. Rama: Where does your father work?
    Tina: He works in an office. He is a ....
    1. lawyer
    2. blacksmith
    3. mechanic
    4. gardener
  3. Yoni: ... bicycle is that?
    Tria: Oh, it is my brother's.
    1. What
    2. Who
    3. Which
    4. Whose
  4. Olimpiade Bahasa Inggris Elementary SD
    Sam: Look at those people! What are they doing?
    Tami: They are .... They are reporting news items on the radio.
    1. singers
    2. entertainers
    3. broadcasters
    4. readers
  5. Ulfa: What is your hobby?
    Edo: Photography. I like taking ... of people and nature.
    1. cameras
    2. pictures
    3. paintings
    4. drawings
  6. Ria: ... a shopping center near your house?
    Ida: Yes, there is. There's a modern shopping center just a few blocks from us.
    1. There is
    2. Is there
    3. There are
    4. Are there
  7. Ria: ... does the shopping in your family?
    Ida: My mother does. She does the grocery shopping on weekends.
    1. What
    2. How
    3. Whom
    4. Who
  8. Akiko is Japanese. She ... from Japan.
    1. comes
    2. is coming
    3. come
    4. coming
  9. Hanis: How did you go to Mount Bromo?
    Reza: We went there ....
    Olimpiade Bahasa Inggris Elementary SD
    1. with car
    2. on the car
    3. in the car
    4. by car
  10. Fahri: Do you know Danau Toba?"
    Udin: Yes, it's a ... in Sumatra.
    1. hill
    2. lake
    3. river
    4. island
  11. Heri: Is that your dictionary?
    Refa: No, that isn’t. It ... to Dewa, my brother.
    1. belong
    2. belonged
    3. belongs
    4. belonging
  12. Yana: I'm so tired.
    Tita: You work very hard. You should ....
    1. take some medicine
    2. eat much
    3. take some rest
    4. do some sports
  13. Kiki: What is your hobby, Yoko?
    Yoko: I like music. My hobby is playing the guitar.
    Kiki: ... do you practice music?
    Yoko: Usually twice a week.
    1. When
    2. How many
    3. How
    4. How often
  14. Mom: Where's your little sister, Ika?
    Ika: She's playing with ... dolls in the living-room, Mom.
    1. its
    2. hers
    3. her
    4. his
  15. Mia: ... I borrow your dictionary? I'm doing an English assignment.
    Yoyo: Please do. I'm not using it.
    1. Will
    2. Would
    3. May
    4. Must
The following text is for questions number 16 to 22.
Dody gets up at 5 0'clock every morning. He has breakfast at 6 o'clock, and he leaves for school at 6.30. He gets out of school at 3.30 in the afternoon. He gets home at about 4 o'clock every afternoon. He has dinner at 6 o'clock. He does his school assignment after dinner. After he does his assignment, he watches TV. He goes to bed at 9.30.
  1. What is the text about?
    1. Dody's daily activities
    2. Dody's favorite activities
    3. Dody's hobbies
    4. Daily study schedule
  2. What time does Dody go to school?
    1. Half past five
    2. Six o'clock
    3. Half past six
    4. Half past three
  3. What time is Dody's school over?
    1. Half past six
    2. Half past two
    3. Half past three
    4. Half past four
  4. What time does he arrive home?
    1. Half past three
    2. Four o'clock
    3. Half past four
    4. Six o'clock
  5. What does he do at six p.m.?
    1. He does his assignment.
    2. He goes to bed.
    3. He watches TV.
    4. He has dinner.
  6. Dody usually ... before he watches TV.
    1. does his assignment
    2. goes to bed
    3. makes the bed
    4. prepares dinner
  7. From the text, we know that Dody's evening activities are ....
    1. having dinner, making the bed, doing school assignments
    2. preparing dinner, watching TV, doing school assignments
    3. having dinner, watching TV, doing school assignments
    4. having dinner, watching movies, doing school assignments

The following text is for questions number 23 to 28.

My name is Sonia. I live at Jalan Kenanga no. 433. My house is not too big but it is beautiful. I live with my parents and my brother.

In the living-room, there is a set of red sofa with six cushions. There is a vase of flowers on the table. You can see some pictures of our family on the wall.

There are three bedrooms in my house. My bedroom is my favorite place. I spend a lot of time studying and listening to music in my room. I sleep with my dolls, blanket, pillows and bolsters.

In the kitchen, there are many utensils for cooking. Kitchen is my mother’s favorite place. She spends most of her time here cooking delicious food. But don’t make it dirty, or she will be angry.

In the dining-room, there is a round dining table and four chairs around it. We always have meals there. There are some pictures of flowers and a clock on the wall.

  1. What does the text talk about?
    1. Sonia's favorite places
    2. Sonia's family
    3. Sonia's house
    4. Sonia's home activities
  2. How many rooms does Sonia mention in the text?
    1. Four
    2. Five
    3. Six
    4. Seven
  3. Based on the text, we know that Sonia likes ....
    1. sleeping
    2. music
    3. cooking
    4. eating
  4. Based on the text, we know that Sonia's mother likes ....
    1. kitchen utensils
    2. being angry
    3. eating
    4. cooking
  5. Which of the following is NOT TRUE?
    1. You can find pictures of flowers in the kitchen.
    2. There are utensils for cooking in the kitchen.
    3. There are pictures of our family in the living-room.
    4. Sonia's house has three bedrooms.
  6. "But don’t make it dirty, ...." (paragraph 4)
    The underlined word "it" means ....
    1. delicious food
    2. Sonia's mother
    3. her time
    4. the kitchen

  7. Rearrange the following words into the correct sentence.
    timeyouWhatevery daytodoschoolgo
    1. 3 - 1 - 6 - 2 - 8 - 5 - 7 - 4
    2. 3 - 7 - 6 - 2 - 8 - 5 - 4 - 1
    3. 3 - 6 - 2 - 8 - 5 - 7 - 4 - 1
    4. 3 - 1 - 6 - 2 - 8 - 4 - 5 - 7
  8. Rearrange the following words into the correct sentence.
    becausemusthomeisstudyCovid-19 outbreakWethereat
    1. 7 - 2 - 5 - 6 - 1 - 8 - 4 - 9 - 2
    2. 6 - 4 - 9 - 3 - 1 - 7 - 2 - 5 - 8
    3. 7 - 2 - 5 - 9 - 3 - 1 - 8 - 4 - 6
    4. 7 - 5 - 9 - 3 - 1 - 8 - 4 - 2 - 6
BSESMK 052211 1253PM 2736

April 12, 2020

The White Dragon's Egg: The Legend Of Lok Si Naga

Narrative Text-The White Dragon's Egg

long time ago, there lived a humble fisherman's family near a big river in South Kalimantan. They were very hard-working. Every day, they would go to the river to catch fish using a big rattan scoop called "tangguk" and sold the fish they had caught in a nearby market. Every time they went fishing to the river, they would leave their only son at home as he was still too young to be taken to the big river.

One day, as usual, the fisherman and his wife were fishing in the river. They had been fishing for hours but unfortunately, they were hardly able to catch any fish. Time and time again, they lifted the tangguk only to find to their disappointment that the tangguk was still empty. The fisherman sighed and almost gave up in despair, "What's happening? Where are the fish?" "If we don't catch enough fish, what should we eat?" said his wife. The fisherman didn't say anything but kept on working with the tangguk.

Suddenly, he felt his bucket was much heavier. "Aha!" He shouted with delight, feeling sure that he had caught a very big fish, and quickly lifted the trap out of the water. His heart jumped when he saw what was inside the scoop. It was a huge egg instead of a fish! "What on earth is it? An egg?" Feeling scared, he quickly put the tangguk back into the water to return the egg. However, every time he lifted the tangguk out of the water the egg was still there. It seemed that the egg didn’t want to leave the scoop. This happened several times until the fisherman and his wife decided to take the egg home.

Their boy was asleep when they arrived. "I'm hungry, but we caught nothing except the big egg." said the fisherman softly to his wife, not wanting to disturb the little boy's sleep. Having no fish to eat or sell, they decided to boil the egg they had found in the river. They both ate it and spared some for their son to eat when he woke up.

However, as soon as they had finished eating the egg, they felt something strange. Their skin became scaly and their body grew longer and longer. Now they realized that they had been cursed by the white dragon, an evil dragon living in the big river. But it was too late! They had turned into two big dragons!

When the boy woke up, he was very frightened of what he saw. Much to his horror, two big dragons were lying next to him. He screamed and cried for help, "Daaad ... help!" The two dragons soon tried to soothe him. They convinced him that they were his parents. They hugged their beloved son and told him how they turned into dragons. They reminded him not to eat the egg on the dining table as it was cursed by the white dragon. Whoever ate the white dragon's egg, they would change into a dragon.

They told their son that they had to find the white dragon and kill him to stop the curse. Before disappearing into the river, the two dragons told him that when he saw red blood on the surface of the river, it would mean that they had lost the fight, whereas white blood would be a sign of the white dragon's defeat. The sign would appear on a rainy day with an arch of a rainbow in the sky.

From then on, the boy would go to the riverbank every day, and sat there looking at the surface of the water for hours, worrying about his parents. And so it happened that, one day, after a slight rain on a sunny day and a rainbow appeared in the sky, he saw milky white blood on the surface of the water. It was the sign of the white dragon's defeat! Feeling certain that the two dragons had won the fight, he waited for them to return, but they never did. Nevertheless, he kept waiting patiently his entire life, by the river which the locals call "Lok Si Naga" or "Lok Lua", the River of the Dragons.

This narrative text is a folktale from South Kalimantan, retold in English by Mister Guru.

What is a narrative text?
A narrative text is a genre of writing which aims to entertain its readers by telling a story with the text type that includes adventures, fairy tales, fantasies, historical fictions, mysteries, personal narratives, realistic fictions, and science fictions.

What is the purpose of a narrative text?
A narrative text serves the purpose of amusing, entertaining and dealing with actual or vicarious experience, or problematic events leading to a crisis or turning point which in turn often finds a resolution.

What is the generic structure of a narrative text like?
A narrative text mostly consists of:

  • The orientation, which is a setting of the scene to introduce the participants, the time and place the story happened (who/what, when, and where).
  • The complication, which talks about a crisis or problem(s) that occurred.
  • The resolution, which mostly talks about how the crisis is resolved, for better or worse.
  • The re-orientation (optional), which ends the story

What are the lexicogrammatical features of a narrative text?
A narrative text mostly;

  • focuses on specific and usually individualized participants,
  • uses verbs showing us what happened/happens,
  • uses verbs of relational and mental processes,
  • uses temporal conjunctions and circumstances.
  • use verbs in past tense.

Adapted from Kumpulan Cerita Rakyat Nusantara.
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