Check Our Latest Update

A Lot Of, Many, Or Much?

What's in this post? I. "A lot of" II. "Many" and "much" III. "A lot", "many" and &qu...

December 04, 2021

A Lot Of, Many, Or Much?

A Lot Of, Many, Or Much
I. "A lot of"
"A lot of" is used for all types of sentences, affirmative (positive), interrogative (questions), or negative sentences, for both countable and uncountable nouns.
  1. Example sentences with "a lot of" + countable nouns:
    • I have a lot of books.
    • Bob doesn't have a lot of clothes.
    • Do you have a lot of friends?
  2. Example sentences with "a lot of" + uncountable nouns:
    • I have a lot of work to do.
    • Ali doesn't have a lot of money.
    • Do you have a lot of spare time?
Note: "Much" is never used in affirmative / positive sentences, while "many" can sometimes be used at the beginning of an affirmative / positive sentence, especially when the meaning is negative.
II. "Many" and "much"
"Many" and "much" are used in interrogative (questions) and negative sentences. "Many" is used for both countable nouns, whereas "much" is for uncountable nouns.
  1. Example of interrogative sentences with "many" + countable nouns:
    • Do you have many books?
    • Does Siti have many clothes?
    • Do you have many photos?
    • I don't have many books.
    • Siti doesn't have many clothes.
    • I don't have many photos.
  2. Example of interrogative sentences with "much" + uncountable nouns:
    • Do you have much paper?
    • Does Ali have much money?
    • Do you have much spare time?
    • I don't have much paper.
    • Ali doesn't have much money.
    • I don't have much spare time.
III. "A lot", "many" and "much" without a noun
"A lot", "many" and "much" can also be used without a noun.
Example sentences:
  • I have some money but not much.
  • I took some pictures but not many.
  • She spoke to me but she didn't say much.
  • Do you watch TV much? ~ No, not much.
  • We like films, so we go to the cinema a lot.
  • I don't like him very much.
IV. Exercises
A. Interactive Quiz
Complete each sentence by filling in the blank spaces with the correct answer, "a lot of", "many", or "much".
B. Writing Exercise
Rewrite the following sentences into the interrogative (questions).
  1. He has a lot of friends.
  2. Bill takes a lot of medicine.
  3. This hotel has a lot of rooms.
  4. There are a lot of bananas on the table.
  5. They drink a lot of tea.
Rewrite the following sentences into the negative.
  1. He is saving a lot of money.
  2. There are a lot of kangaroos in the country.
  3. There are a lot of people in front of the building.
  4. She eats a lot of biscuits.
  5. There is a lot of traffic in the streets during rush hours.
Complete the following sentences using "a lot of", "many", or "much". Sometimes, more than one answer may be possible.
  1. Ali has ... spare time.
  2. Indonesia has ... beautiful beaches.
  3. Does Brisbane have ... bridges?
  4. Do you eat ... rice?
  5. We don't have ... bread.
  6. Do they have ... different customs?
  7. Barbara has ... flowers in her garden.
  8. We usually have ... rain from October to April.
  9. There are ... islands in Indonesia.
  10. Do they grow ... rice?
  11. How ... money have you got?
  12. How ... photographs did you take?
  13. How ... is this book?
  14. How ... does the ticket cost?
  15. Did they ask you ... questions?

November 26, 2021

Participial Adjectives (Participle sebagai Adjective)

Participial Adjectives
pakah yang dimaksud dengan PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVE? Participial adjective adalah bentuk participle, yang berfungsi sebagai ajektiva. Ajektiva (adjective), atau seringkali disebut sebagai kata sifat, memiliki fungsi untuk menjelaskan kata benda (nouns).

Participle itu sendiri sebenarnya adalah turunan dari kata kerja (verb). Ada 2 (dua) jenis participle, yaitu;

  1. Present participle, yang dikenal sebagai kata kerja (verb) berakhiran -ing, contoh; interesting, drawing, amazing, shocking, dsb.
  2. Past participle, atau dikenal sebagai kata kerja ke-3 (verb 3), contoh; interested, drawn, amazed, shocked, dsb.
A. Perbedaan antara Present Participle dengan Past Participle

Sebagai kata sifat, kedua jenis participle ini memberikan makna yang berbeda terhadap kata benda yang dibicarakan. Lihat contoh kalimat yang menggunakan participle di bawah ini:

  1. Winning the match was an exciting experience for the players. (Present participle)
  2. The excited players were celebrating the victory. (Past participle)

Present participle pada contoh no. 1 memiliki makna aktif, yaitu menyebabkan atau melakukan sesuatu. Kata benda (noun) ‘experience’ menyebabkan sesuatu hal, sehingga disebut sebagai ‘exciting experience'.

Sedangkan, past participle memiliki makna pasif. Kata benda (noun) yang dimaksud menjadi obyek dan terdampak oleh berbagai situasi. Pada contoh no. 2, kata benda "players" menjadi obyek dari sesuatu, sehingga disebut sebagai ‘excited players’.

B. Daftar Participial Adjective
Kenalilah beberapa participial adjective yang ada di dalam daftar berikut dan cobalah memahami maknanya. Lengkapilah daftar ini dengan participial adjective yang kalian ketahui.
VerbPresent ParticiplePast Participle
A. Horse Race Game
To win the horse race. Choose the correct answer for each of the following sentences. Only the fastest answer can get the full score and all others get only half a point. Now, let's get the race started.

B. Sentence Completion Exercise
Do the following exercise. Use either present participle or past participle of the verbs in the brackets.
  1. The ... announcement has raised questions among the students. (confuse)
  2. The ... students did not know what uniform to wear on the following day. (confuse)
  3. The ... film caused me to fall asleep. (bore)
  4. The ... audience fell asleep during the speech. (bore)
  5. The ... brochure provides tourists with the information they need. (enclose)
  6. The team were ... when they heard about the approval. (excite).
  7. I was very ... to see what was happening at that time. (shock)
  8. This is one of the most ... books I’ve ever read. (interest)
  9. The children soon fell asleep after the ... journey. (tire)
  10. Our vacation was ruined by the ... experience. (frighten)
  11. Aceh was completely destroyed by a ... tsunami on December 26, 2004. (devastate)
  12. The process of repairing ... buildings and streets took years to complete. (damage)
  13. The snake is still a ... sight for most women. (terrify)
  14. The ... workers sat down to rest under the shade of a tree. (exhaust)
  15. His experiences in Jakarta were rather .... (depress)
  16. The woman was trying to comfort the ... child when a policeman came. (cry)
  17. Lapindo tragedy clearly wiped out many ... business opportunities in the area. (promise)
  18. To anticipate the ... volume of air passengers in the holiday season, the airline has added more than 40,000 seats to 14 routes. (increase)
  19. The new ... system is equipped with an advanced protection system. (operate)
  20. A month after the theft, the ... jewelry was recovered. (steal)
Prev: BSE SMP Cls IX 072311 0343PM PV 5113

November 19, 2021

The Simple Future Tense (Will + Infinitive)

I. Positive and negative statement with "Will + Infinitive"
SubjectAuxiliary Verb (Will)Main Verb (Infinitive)
I / We / You / They / He / She / It / David / The studentswill ('ll)
will not (won't)
II. Interrogative statement (Question) with "Will + Infinitive"
Auxiliary Verb (Will)SubjectMain Verb (Infinitive)
WillI / We / You / They / He / She / It / David / The studentsbuy?
III. Usage of future tense with "Will" and example sentences
  1. We use "will" for the future (tomorrow / next week / next month, etc.). E.g.:
    • Sue travels a lot. Today she is in Madrid. Tomorrow, she'll be in Rome. Next week she'll be in Tokyo.
    • Leave the old bread in the garden. The birds will eat it.
    • Don't drink coffee before you go to bed. You won't sleep.
    • She will not be at school tomorrow.
  2. We use "will" for unplanned future actions, which are done spontaneously at the time of speaking. E.g.:
    • Hold on. I'll get a pen.
    • We will see what we can do to help you.
    • Maybe we'll stay in and watch television tonight.
    For things we have arranged or planned to do, "be going to + infinitive" is commonly used.
    Learn more about Contrasting Future Forms "Be Going To" VS "Will" HERE.
  3. We often use the simple future tense (will + infinitive) after "I think ...."E.g.:
    • I think I'll talk to him about it.
    • I think I will see her after work.
    • I don't think I will do that.
  4. We use the simple future tense (will + infinitive) to make a prediction about what we think will happen in the future. E.g.:
    • The weather forecast says that it will rain tomorrow.
    • Things will get better soon.
    • Thousands of people will come to the new circuit to watch the first race.
    Learn more about Talking about Future Plans and Predictions in English HERE
    Learn more about Making Predictions with Future Continuous Tense HERE.
  5. "Will you ...?" are usually used in polite requests. To make requests sound even more polite, "please" can be used at the end of the sentence.E.g.:
    • Will you talk to him about it?
    • Will you sign here, please?
    • Will you be quiet, please? I'm trying to concentrate.
    Learn more about Imperative Sentences and Polite Requests in English HERE
  1. Write affirmative (positive), interrogative (question), and negative sentences with "will ...". Number 1 has been done as an example.
    1. They - build a new office.
      +: They will build a new office.
      ?: Will they build a new office?
      -: They won't build a new office.
    2. Ria - get the job.
    3. We - be away for a week.
    4. It - take a long time.
    5. She - be at work tomorrow.
    6. The committee - postpone the meeting.
  2. In this interactive exercise, choose the correct answer for each question, "will" or "won't".
  3. Helen is travelling in Europe. By referring to the picture below, complete the sentences with "she's", "she was", or "she'll be".
      Simple Future Tense
    1. Yesterday, ... in Paris.
    2. Tomorrow, ... in Amsterdam.
    3. Last week, ... in Barcelona.
    4. Next week, ... in London.
    5. At the moment, ... in Brussels.
    6. Three days ago, ... in Munich.
    7. At the end of her trip, ... very tired.
  4. Write sentences beginning with "I think ..." or "I don't think ...". Number 1 and 2 have been done as an example.
    1. Diana will pass the exam.
      Answer: I think Diana will pass the exam.
    2. John won't pass the exam.
      Answer: I don't think John will pass the exam.
    3. We'll win the game.
    4. I won't be here tomorrow
    5. Sue will like her present.
    6. They won't get married.
    7. You won't enjoy the film.
    8. We will finish the project in time.
    9. We will not leave yet.
    10. The train will arrive on time.
  5. Change the following commands into polite requests using "Will you ...? Number 1 has been done as an example.
    1. Sign this form, please.
      Answer: Will you sign this form, please?
    2. Leave your bags here.
    3. Speak loudly, please.
    4. Say that again.
    5. Come with me.
    6. Make some coffee, please.
  • Murphy, Raymond Essential Grammar In Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • 6610-0124PM-940.

    November 13, 2021

    Cause and Effect, Opposition, and Condition Words

    n this post, we are going to learn adverb clause words, transitions, conjunctions, and prepositions which express cause and effect, opposition, and condition. To make it easier for you to understand the subject, there are example sentences as well as an interactive exercise where you can practice and test your uderstanding. Happy learning.
    CAUSE & EFFECTbecause
    now that
    as/so long as
    inasmuch as
    so (that)
    because of
    due to
    OPPOSITION / CONTRASTeven though
    although / though
    on the other hand
    but (... anyway)
    yet (... still)
    in spite of
    only if / even if
    whether or not
    provided (that)
    providing (that)
    in case (that)
    in the event (that)
    otherwiseor (else)in case of
    or (else)

    1. Adverb clauses
    1. He went to bed because he was sleepy. (Cause and effect)
    2. Gold is expensive, whereas copper is cheap. (Opposition)
    3. I’m going to the movie this evening whether or not it rains. (Condition)
    2. Transitions:
    1. It was hot. Therefore, he turned on the air condition. (Cause and effect)
    2. It was raining. Nevertheless, he went out. (Opposition)
    3. You’d better wear a jacket. Otherwise, you’ll catch cold. (Condition)
    3. Conjunctions:
    1. It was getting late, so we decided to go home. (Cause and effect)
    2. It was getting late, yet we still continued working. (Opposition)
    3. You should leave now, or (else) you’ll be late for school. (Condition)
    4. Prepositions:
    1. The flight was canceled due to the heavy fog. (Cause and effect)
    2. They went out despite the bad weather. (Opposition)
    3. In case of fire, call 911 immediately. (Condition)


    Do this exercise. Complete the sentences using one of the words listed in the above table.
    Cause and Effect, Opposition, and Condition Words
    1. Dina lives in the city, ... Rinda lives in the country.
    2. The meeting was postponed ... the heavy rain.
    3. ... I had a cold, I decided to go to school.
    4. You’d better prepare for the test, ... you will fail again.
    5. You forget the meaning of these words ... you never practice it.
    6. Mastering English is just a matter of practice. ... you must practice a lot.
    7. She kept riding her motorcycle ... the flat back tire.
    8. I’m going to take my TV set ... it hasn’t been repaired.
    9. Her father has told her to study. ... she is going to the movie.
    10. Parents should supervise their children when watching TV. ... they may watch inappropriate programs.
    11. He didn't get the job ... he didn't have enough experience.
    12. He got the job ... he didn't have enough experience.
    13. I'll lend you some money ... you really need it.
    14. The music was loud ... you could hear it from miles away.
    15. I couldn't sleep ... I was very tired.
    16. ... it rained a lot, we enjoyed our vacation.
    17. We went out ... the rain.
    18. He passed the exam ... he was well-prepared.
    19. I didn't get the job ... I had all the necessary qualifications.
    20. ... fire, please leave the building as quickly as possible.

    October 11, 2021

    Making And Handling Telephone Calls

    A. Useful Expressions
    Receiving a call
    • Hello / good morning / good afternoon.
    • Good morning, ...(your institution)....
    • Hello. Dea speaking.
    • Yes, can I help you?
    • Oh, hi! It's been a long time. How are you?
    Starting a call (caller)
    • Hello / good morning / good afternoon.
    • May I speak to ...(someone)..., please?
    • Could I speak to ...(someone)..., please?
    • I'd like to speak to ...(someone)....
    Telling identity
    • This is ...(your name)... speaking.
    • ...(your name)... speaking.
    • I'm calling on behalf of ...(company)....
    • ...(someone)... told me to contact you.
    Asking identity
    • Who's calling, please?
    • Who's speaking?
    • May I have your name?
    • Who am I speaking to?
    • Is that ...(someone)...?
    • Can I ask who’s calling?
    We don’t use "Are you ...?"to find out who is on the other end of the phone.
    We can ask "Is that Anne?", not "Are you Anne?"

    Asking to wait
    • Hold the line, please.
    • Could you hold on?
    • Just a moment, please.
    • Please wait a minute.
    • The line is free now. I'll put you through.
    • Thank you for holding.
    Giving information
    • I'm sorry. He/she is not available at the moment.
    • I'm afraid the line is engaged. Could you call back later?
    • I'm afraid he's still in a meeting.
    • I'm sorry. He's out of the office today.
    • I'm sorry. There's nobody here by that name.
    • Sorry. I think you have dialled the wrong number.
    Leaving a message
    • I'd like to leave a message.
    • Please tell him that I will meet him next week.
    • Please tell him that I called.
    • That's alright. I'll call back later.
    • Yes. Please tell him to contact me.
    Taking a message
    • Would you like to leave a message?
    • Do you have a message?
    • May I take a message?
    • May I have your number?
    • Let me repeat your message. ...(repeat the message and confirm the details, e.g. place, time, telephone number, etc.)
    Asking to repeat
    • I'm sorry. Could you speak up, please?
    • Could you repeat that, please?
    • I'm afraid I can't hear you.
    • I'm sorry. I didn't catch that. Come again?
    • I beg your pardon. The line is very bad.
    Closing a call
    • Thank you. Bye.
    B. Example Dialogues
    Dialogue 1
    Dave phones Vicki’s number to see if Nigel’s there.
    DAVE: Hello, could I speak to Vicki?
    VICKI: Speaking.
    DAVE: Oh, hello Vicki – I didn’t recognise your voice. It’s Dave.
    VICKI: Hi, Dave. How’s things?
    DAVE: Not bad, thanks. Listen, I don’t suppose Nigel’s there, is he?
    VICKI: No – but I’m expecting him round later on.
    DAVE: OK – could you get him to ring me back?
    VICKI: Of course. Can you give me your number?
    DAVE: I think he’s got it, but let me give you it now just in case.
    VICKI: Hang on – let me get a pen . . . OK.
    DAVE: Six-seven-nine-oh-four-oh-four. Got that?
    VICKI: Got it!

    Dialogue 2
    Handling Telephone Calls
    Julie’s phone rings, and she answers.
    JULIE: 247649.
    TERRY: Ah, hello. Could I speak to Jim, please?
    JULIE: Jim?
    TERRY: Yes, Jim Fife. Is he there?
    JULIE: I’m afraid there isn’t anyone here by that name. Who am I speaking to?
    TERRY: This is Terry Smith. Isn’t that Marilyn’s house?
    JULIE: No – you’ve got the wrong number.
    TERRY: Ah – I’m sorry.
    JULIE: Quite all right.

    Dialogue 3
    Cynthia phones to speak to Bob at work. But she gets through to his secretary.
    CYNTHIA: Hello, it’s Cynthia Palmer here. Can I speak to Bob Watford please?
    SECRETARY: Hold on, I’ll see if he’s available .... Hello? I’m afraid Mr Watford’s in a meeting at the moment. Would you like to leave a message?
    CYNTHIA: Yes – could you ask him to get back to me as soon as possible?
    SECRETARY: Yes – has he got your number?
    CYNTHIA: Yes, he has.
    SECRETARY: Fine – I’ll make sure he calls you as soon as he gets out of the meeting.
    CYNTHIA: Thanks.

    Source: Colloquial English: A Course for Non-Native Speakers by Gareth King

    September 09, 2021

    Exercises: The Simple Past VS Present Perfect Tense (Intermediate)

    Simple Past VS Present Perfect
    n this post, we are going to do some exercises on contrasting the Simple Past with the Present Perfect tense. To learn about the differences between the Simple Past and the Present Perfect tense, read "Contrasting The Simple Past VS The Present Perfect Simple".

    To learn more about both tenses separately, read "Simple Past Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, dan Latihan Soal" and "Present Perfect Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, dan Latihan Soal".

    A. Use the words in brackets to answer the questions.
    Man: "Has the package arrived?"
    Woman: "Yes, ...(a few hours ago)...."
    Answer: "Yes, it arrived a few hours ago."
    1. Man: "Have you seen Bob?"
      Woman: "Yes, ...(a few minutes ago)...."
    2. Woman: "Have you started your new job?"
      Man: "Yes, ...(last week)...."
    3. Man: "Have you had lunch?"
      Woman: "Yes, ...(an hour ago)...."
    4. Man: "Have you submitted the report?"
      Woman: "...(yesterday)...."
    5. Man: "Have they contacted you?"
      Woman: "...(on Monday)...."
    B. Right or wrong? Correct the underlined verbs if they are wrong.
    • I've lost my key. I can't find it.
      Answer: RIGHT
    • Have you seen Bob yesterday?
      Answer: WRONG: Did you see Bob yesterday?
    1. I've finished my work at 2 o'clock.
    2. I'm ready now. I've finished my work at 2 o'clock.
    3. What time have you finished your work?
    4. Sue isn't here. She's gone out.
    5. Jim's grandfather has died in 2009.
    6. Where have you been last night?
    7. I have started my carreer as a teacher in 2002.
    8. I have worked as a teacher for more than 20 years.
    9. Laila left a few minutes ago.
    10. The letter hasn't arrived yesterday.
    C. Put the verbs in the simple past or present perfect.
    • I ...(lose)... my key. I can't find it.
      Answer: I've lost my key. I can't find it.
    • We ...(not have)... a holiday last year.
      Answer: We didn't have a holiday last year.
    1. My friend is a writer. He ...(write)... many books.
    2. I ...(play)... tennis yesterday afternoon.
    3. What time ...(you/go)... to bed last night?
    4. ...(you/ever/meet)... a famous person?
    5. The weather ...(not/be)... very good yesterday.
    6. My hair is wet. I ...(just wash)... it.
    7. I ...(wash)... my hair before breakfast this morning.
    8. Kathy travels a lot. She ...(visit)... many countries.
    9. Sonia isn't here. She ...(not/come)... yet.
    10. We ...(live)... in Malang for two years but now we live in Jember.
    11. Man: "Have you ever been to Bali?"
      Woman: "Yes, we ...(go)... there on holiday last year.
    12. Man: "Where's Tika?"
      Woman: "I don't know. I ...(not see)... her.
    13. Lia works in an office. She ...(work)... there for almost two years.
    14. I ...(meet)... your sister at a party last week. She's very nice.
    15. I ...(wait)... here since seven o'clock and she ...(not come)... yet.
    16. I ...(look)... at this picture for five minutes, but I can't see you in it.
    17. COVID-19 outbreak ...(start)... in early 2020.
    18. Since then, the government ...(take)... various measures to stop the spread of the virus.
    19. The World Health Organization ...(declare)... COVID-19 a pandemic in March 2020.
    20. ...(you/see)... a good movie lately?
    Want to practice more? Try to do another exercise on contrasting the Simple Past with the Present Perfect tense HERE.

    August 25, 2021

    Some VS Any: Exercises

    fter studying the difference between "some" and "any" and how to use them HERE, do the following exercises.
    A. Fill in the blanks with "some" or "any".
    Some VS Any
    1. I bought ... cheese but I didn't buy ... bread.
    2. I am going to the shop. We need ... sugar.
    3. There aren't ... shops in this part of town.
    4. Rio and Hannah haven't got ... children.
    5. Have you got ... brothers or sisters?
    6. There are ... beautiful flowers in the garden.
    7. Do you know ... good hotels in Malang?
    8. Would you like ... tea? I've just made ....
    9. When we were on holiday, we visited ... very interesting places.
    10. Don't buy ... rice. We don't need ....
    11. I went out to buy ... milk but they didn't have ... in the shop.
    12. I'm thirsty. Can I have ... water, please?
    13. Can you give ... information about places of interests in the town?
    14. I was too tired to do ... work.
    15. Man: "Have you seen ... good films recently?"
      Woman: "No, I haven't been to the cinema for ages."
    B. Complete the sentences with "some" or "any" + one of these words.
    air   cheese   help   emails   photographs   batteries   friends   languages   milk   shampoo
    1. I want to wash my hair. Is there ...?
    2. We have received ... from buyers complaining about the product.
    3. I haven't got my camera, so I can't take ....
    4. Do you speak ... foreign ...?
    5. Yesterday evening I went to a restaurant with ... of mine.
    6. Can I have ... in my coffee, please?
    7. The flashlight isn't working. There aren't ... in it.
    8. It's hot in this office. I'm going out for ... fresh ....
    9. Man: "Would you like ...?"
      Woman: "No, thank you. I've had enough to eat."
    10. I can do this job alone. I don't need ....
    C. Complete the sentences. Use "some" or "any" and the correct form of the verb in the brackets. Number 1 and 2 has been done as an example.
    1. Ann didn't take any photographs but I took some. (I/take)
    2. Man: "Where's your luggage?"
      Woman: "Oh, I haven't got any/I don't have any." (I/not/have)
    3. Woman: "This coffee is too bitter for me. Can I have some sugar?"
      Man: "Yes, ... in the kitchen. (we/have)
    4. Man: "Do you need any money?"
      Woman: "No, thank you. .... (I/have)
    5. Man: "Can you lend me some money?"
      Woman: "I'm sorry but .... (I/not/have)
    6. The tomatoes in the shop didn't look very good so ....(I/not/buy)
    7. There were some nice oranges in the shop so .... (I/buy)
    Study and review how to use "some" and "any" and the differences HERE Reference:
  • Murphy, Raymond Essential Grammar In Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Prev: How to Educate ESL Students, Tue 04232013 0755PM PV 397

    August 21, 2021

    Some VS Any: What's The Difference?

    Some VS Any
    n this post, you are going to learn how to use "some" and "any" quantifiers and how they are different. Read the dialogue below in which there are sentences with "some" and "any" quantifiers. Pay close attention to how "some" and "any" are used.
    A. Example Dialogue
    Raka is visiting Hadi and his mother, Mrs. Wira, after school. Here's their conversation:
    Mrs. Wira:Do you have any homework today, Hadi?
    Hadi:Oh, I forget. But I think we don't have any homework today. I'm glad. I don't like homework.
    Mrs. Wira:I know you don't like it, but - are you sure you don't have any homework?
    Raka:I think we have some homework, Hadi. Yes! We must write an English exercise!
    Hadi:Oh, Raka!
    Raka:Look - this is the exercise.
    Hadi:Yes. I remember now.
    Mrs. Wira:Well, you'd better start your homework now.
    Hadi:Yes .... Oh, I don't have any paper.
    Mrs. Wira:Here's some paper. Do you have a pen?
    Hadi:Yes. Oh, my pen is out of ink, and I don't have any spare pens.
    Mrs. Wira:Oh, dear! Raka, do you have a spare pen?
    Raka:Yes, Mrs. Wira.
    Mrs. Wira:Good. Please lend it to Hadi.
    Raka:Here you are, Hadi.
    Hadi:Thank you.
    Mrs. Wira:Now, Hadi, you have some paper and a pen. Now you can write that exercise.
    Hadi:There! That's finished now.
    Mrs. Wira:Let me see it, Hadi. Hmmm, you have some mistakes here, I think.
    Hadi:Do I? Where?
    Mrs. Wira:Look at this sentence. That isn't correct. Can you improve it?
    Hadi:Oh, yes! I remember the correct words now. I must change that sentence.
    Mrs. Wira:Let me see your exercise, Raka.
    Raka:Oh, Mrs. Wira, I think I have some mistakes too.
    Mrs. Wira:No, no, Raka. This is very good. You don't have any mistakes in this exercise.
    Hadi:Raka usually doesn't make any mistakes. But I always make some. Please look at this sentence again, Mom. Is it correct now?
    Mrs. Wira:Yes, I think so, Hadi. I don't see any mistakes now.
    Mrs. Wira:Well, would you like something to drink now?
    Hadi and Raka:Yes,please.
    Mrs. Wira:Good. Let's have some lemonade. .... Oh, I don't have any lemonade, but we can have some tea!
    B. Explanation
    1. "Some" is used in positive sentences. Examples:
      1. I'm going to buy some books.
      2. There's some ice in the fridge.
      3. We did some exercises.
    2. "Any" is used in negative sentences. Examples:
      1. I'm not going to buy any books.
      2. There isn't any ice in the fridge.
      3. We didn't do any exercises.
    3. Most questions (but not all) use "any". Examples:
      1. Is there any ice in the fridge?
      2. Do you have any money?
      3. Why didn't you do any exercises?
    4. When we make offers or requests, we normally use "some", not "any". Examples:
      1. Would you like some ice cream?
      2. Can I have some coffee, please?
      3. Can you lend me some money?
    5. We can use "some" and "any" without a noun. Examples:
      1. I didn't take any photographs, but Ann took some. (=some photographs)
      2. I've just made some coffee. Would you like some? (=some coffee)
      3. We don't have any sugar. I'm going to buy some this afternoon. (=some sugar)
    To check your understanding about the difference between "some" and "any", proceed to the exercise page HERE.
  • Murphy, Raymond Essential Grammar In Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • August 16, 2021

    Factual Reports About Covid-19

    Reading text 1

    Covid in Indonesia

    Covid-19 Covid-19 or Coronavirus Disease-2019 is an infectious disease caused by a new virus called SARS-Cov-2. This disease was first identified in Wuhan, China, in the end of 2019. The virus widely spread over many countries and then in March 2020, WHO declared Covid-19 a pandemic.

    This disease attacks respiratory system. Covid-19 also makes infected people experience several symptoms. The common symptoms are fever, dry cough, and tiredness. Some also experience aches, sore throat, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, headache, and loss of taste or smell. More serious symptoms are shortness of breath, chest pain, and loss of speech. However, there are many who do not experience symptoms.

    It takes about 5-6 days for the symptoms to show. However, the incubation period takes 14 days. People who have mild to moderate illness may recover without hospitalization. Meanwhile, those who experience serious symptoms have to seek medical attention. The virus spreads through droplets when infected people sneeze or cough. Therefore, WHO recommends us to prevent infection by wearing a mask, washing hands regularly with soap and water, avoiding touching the face, covering our mouth and nose while sneezing or coughing, staying at home, and practicing physical distancing.

    Questions A:
    1. What does "COVID-19" stand for?
    2. When and where was the disease first identified?
    3. What are the common symptoms of the disease?
    4. What happens in more serious cases?
    5. How long does it take for the symptoms to show?
    6. How long is the common incubation period?
    7. How does the virus spread?
    8. How can we prevent the disease according to WHO?

    Reading text 2


    Covid-19 is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered virus namely SARS-Cov-2. This virus first appeared in Wuhan, China and eventually spread into many countries, including Indonesia.

    In Indonesia, the first case of Covid-19 was reported on March 2, 2020. After WHO declaring Covid-19 a pandemic, activities such as working and studying have been done in homes.

    However, the number of novel coronavirus cases kept growing. By the end of March 2020, the total case of the disease had reached 1528 cases. To respond to this pandemic, UNICEF has been leading efforts with governments, the World Health Organization and other partners.

    The President also issued regulations regarding the pandemic, including Government Regulation No. 21/2020 which regulates a large-scale social restrictions (PSBB, now PPKM) and has been implemented in coordination and collaboration with various parties, in accordance with statutory provisions.

    Questions B:
    1. According to the text, what virus causes Covid-19?
    2. When was the first case of Covid-19 identified in Indonesia?
    3. How many cases had been identified by the end of March 2020?
    4. What did United Nations' organizations do to deal with the pandemic?
    5. What did the President do to respond to the pandemic?
    6. What is Government Regulation No. 21/2020 about?
    Adapted from

    August 03, 2021

    Conditional Sentence Type 0 And Type 1

    Conditional Sentence Type 0 And Type 1
    reviously in our earlier post, we have learned about all types of Conditional sentences, i.e. type 0, 1, 2, 3, and mixed conditionals, including their usage or functions, examples, and exercises as well.

    In this post, we are going to focus and take a closer look at Conditional sentence type 0 and type 1.

    Conditional sentence type 0

  • If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Simple Present)....
  • If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Imperative)....
  • Usage / function:
    • Conditional sentences in "If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Simple Present)..." can be used to express general truths / facts. (see examples a and b below)
    • Conditional sentences in "If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Imperative)...." can be used to express suggestions, instructions, or commands. (see examples c and d below)
    1. If the moon passes between the sun and Earth, a solar eclipse happens.
    2. If we heat water to 100 degrees Celsius, it boils.
    3. If you arrive at the station, call me.
    4. If you want to turn on the device, press this button.

    Conditional sentence type 1

    If ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Simple Future / Modals)....
    Usage / function:
    Conditional sentences in "If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Simple Future / Modals)..." can be used to express;
    • reminders (see examples a and b below)
    • suggestions (see examples c and d below)
    1. If you eat too much, you will get a stomachache.
    2. If you don't shut that window, we will die of cold.
    3. If we want to see the sunrise, we will have to leave very early.
    4. If you want to buy that car, you should provide a bigger garage.
    A. Match the sentences on the left with the ones on the right. Number 1 has been done for you as an example.
    If you need help,somebody will open the door.
    If we keep ice in a hot temperature,they will get wet.
    If you fail the exam,let's go for a swim.
    If you ring the bell,it melts.
    If it rains,consult your advisor.
    If it is fine,you'll need to take a remedial test.
    1. If you need help, consult your advisor.
    2. ....
    3. ....
    4. ....
    5. ....
    6. ....
    B. Write correct conditional sentences by putting the verbs in the bracket into the correct form. In some sentences, conditional sentence type 0 and 1 can be used interchangeably. Number 1 has been done as an example.
    1. If I get a ticket, I (go) to the concert.
      Answer: If I get a ticket, I will go to the concert.
    2. If we have time, we (visit) you.
      Answer: ....
    3. If you don't watch the TV, (turn) it off.
      Answer: ....
    4. If the weather is fine, we (go) to the beach.
      Answer: ....
    5. If you want those pictures, I (send) you the copies.
      Answer: ....
    6. If you don't feel well, (stay) at home.
      Answer: ....
    C. Complete the following conditional sentences using your own ideas and words.
    1. If you pass the exam, ....
    2. If I finish my study, ....
    3. If you want to have it, ....
    4. If you have a question, ....
    5. If the weather is fine this afternoon, ....
    You can also study the lesson about conditional sentences type 0 and type 1 through the slide presentation attached below.