March 26, 2020

Soal Olimpiade Bahasa Inggris Elementary (SD - SMP) Paket Soal 2A

The picture below is for questions number 1 to 3
Gambar 1 Soal Olimpiade Bahasa Inggris
  1. This is Miss Aini, our English teacher. She is ... in the classroom.
    1. walking
    2. teaching
    3. studying
    4. looking
  2. She is ... the lesson.
    1. explaining
    2. talking
    3. studying
    4. keeping
  3. The students are ... to her.
    1. seeing
    2. looking
    3. listening
    4. hearing
The picture below is for questions number 4 to 6
Gambar 2 Soal Olimpiade Bahasa Inggris
  1. The students are reading and studying in the school ....
    1. office
    2. library
    3. bookshelf
    4. bookstore
  2. Some of them are reading and sitting on a ....
    1. chair
    2. wheelchair
    3. table
    4. bench
  3. Two students are taking some books from the ....
    1. bookshelf
    2. table
    3. chair
    4. desk
The picture below is for questions number 7 to 9
Gambar 3 Soal Olimpiade Bahasa Inggris
  1. The students are having a flag ... at the schoolyard.
    1. marching
    2. lesson
    3. practice
    4. ceremony
  2. The flag is ... gently in the sky.
    1. frying
    2. playing
    3. flying
    4. standing
  3. The principal is ... a speech in front of the students.
    1. explaining
    2. giving
    3. gifting
    4. talking
  4. Alfi : What are you doing, Rio?
    Dio : I am ... a book. It’s a book about animals.
    1. read
    2. to read
    3. like reading
    4. reading
  5. Gambar 4 Soal Olimpiade Bahasa Inggris
    Budi: What are the students doing?
    Dea: They are ....
    1. working
    2. exercising
    3. playing
    4. jogging
  6. Adi : ...?
    Rina : Yes, please. I’m not using it.
    1. Can you keep my dictionary?
    2. Are you borrowing my dictionary?
    3. Do you have a dictionary?
    4. May I borrow your dictionary?
  7. Alya is speaking in front of her friends. She is giving a ....
    1. chat
    2. speak
    3. speech
    4. sign
  8. Gambar 4 Soal Olimpiade Bahasa Inggris
    Merry: What are the students doing?
    Ika: They are ....
    1. cleaning the schoolyard
    2. cleaning the hall
    3. having a gathering
    4. doing an exercise
  9. Risa : Do you have a plan for the weekend?
    Lina: Yes. I ... my aunt in Jember.
    1. going to visit
    2. am visited
    3. am going to visit
    4. visiting
  10. This room is dark. ....
    1. Close the door!
    2. Turn on the lights!
    3. Open the drawers!
    4. Shut the lamps!
  11. The scout boys ... a tent.
    1. is built
    2. is building
    3. are built
    4. are building
  12. Ari: ... sports?
    Ifa: Yes, I play badminton in weekends.
    1. Do you make
    2. Do you do
    3. Will you take
    4. Are you like
  13. Roni: ....
    Kiki: Why?
    Roni: The students are having a test.
    1. Keep watching!
    2. Be quiet!
    3. Open your books!
    4. Stand in line!
  14. Dani: ... do you clean your bike?
    Hari: Once a week.
    1. Where
    2. When
    3. How often
    4. How
  15. Rico: How did you go to Surabaya?
    Rahma: I ....
    1. took the train
    2. visited my uncle
    3. went for a week
    4. went there yesterday
  16. Dina: ... are you going to stay in Bandung?
    Nora: About five days.
    1. When
    2. Where
    3. How long
    4. How
Questions number 23 to 30 refer to the following timetable:
TIME TABLE
TIMEMONDAYTUESDAYWEDNESDAY
07.00–07.40Flag ceremonyMathematicsScience
07.40–08.20CivicsMathematicsScience
08.20–09.00CivicsMathematicsScience
09.00–09.301st break1st break1st break
09.30–10.10Indonesian LanguageEnglishNative Language
10.10–10.50Indonesian LanguageEnglishNative Language
10.50–11.202nd break2nd break2nd break
11.20–12.00EnglishArt & CultureReligion
12.00–12.40EnglishArt & CultureReligion
TIMETHURSDAYFRIDAYSATURDAY
07.00–07.40MathematicsPhysical ExerciseScience
07.40–08.20MathematicsPhysical ExerciseScience
08.20–09.00Social SciencePhysical ExerciseEnglish
09.00–09.301st break1st break1st break
09.30–10.10Social ScienceArt & CultureCivics
10.10–10.50Social ScienceArt & CultureCivics
10.50–11.202nd break2nd break2nd break
11.20–12.00Indonesian LanguageComputer ScienceExtracurricular
12.00–12.40Indonesian LanguageComputer ScienceExtracurricular
  1. Every Monday the students finish the flag ceremony at ....
    1. forty minutes to seven
    2. forty minutes to eight
    3. twenty minutes past eight
    4. twenty minutes to eight
  2. The first break ends at ... every day.
    1. nine o’clock
    2. nine thirteen
    3. half past nine
    4. thirty to nine
  3. The second break starts at ... every day.
    1. ten minutes to ten
    2. eleven past ten
    3. ten minutes to eleven
    4. eleven minutes to ten
  4. What time does art and culture lesson start on Tuesdays?
    1. Forty minutes to eleven
    2. Eleven minutes past twenty
    3. Twenty minutes to eleven
    4. Twenty minutes past eleven
  5. What day should the students wear sports uniform to school?
    1. Monday
    2. Tuesday
    3. Wednesday
    4. Friday
  6. Miss Finta is our dance teacher. She teaches us every ....
    1. Monday and Saturday
    2. Wednesday and Friday
    3. Tuesday and Friday
    4. Tuesday and Wednesday
  7. We study a foreign language every ....
    1. Monday and Saturday
    2. Wednesday and Saturday
    3. Monday and Thursday
    4. Friday and Saturday
  8. We study about nature and living things every ....
    1. Monday and Thursday
    2. Tuesday and Thursday
    3. Friday and Saturday
    4. Wednesday and Saturday
  9. Notice Soal Olimpiade Bahasa Inggris
    When you see this sign, you must not ....
    1. clean the area
    2. wash dirty floors
    3. wash your hands
    4. litter in the area
  10. Ali: How do you like to travel?
    Riska: By train. It’s ... than by bus.
    1. faster
    2. more faster
    3. fastest
    4. more than fast
  11. Notice Soal Olimpiade Bahasa Inggris
    The notice says that we must not ... to the animals.
    1. wave our hands
    2. give food
    3. take pictures
    4. stand near
  12. You are buying some stationery. The eraser costs three thousand rupiahs, and the ruler costs fifteen thousand rupiahs. Your money is twenty thousand rupiahs. Your change will be ... rupiahs.
    1. one thousand
    2. two thousand
    3. twelve thousand
    4. eighteen thousand
  13. Ali: What time ... have lunch?
    Roni: Usually at half past one.
    1. are you
    2. do you
    3. do I
    4. does he

BSE SD/MI Kls 4 081410 0417 AM 3384

March 25, 2020

Kalimat Langsung (Direct Speech) & Kalimat Tak Langsung (Indirect Speech / Reported Speech)

Indirect Speech or Reported Speech
I. Apakah "Direct Speech" dan "Indirect Speech / Reported Speech"?
Dalam bahasa Inggris, untuk menceritakan kembali atau mengutip perkataan dan pemikiran seseorang, kita bisa melakukannya dengan 2 (dua) cara, yaitu:
  1. Menggunakan kalimat langsung (direct speech), yaitu dengan mengulang atau menggunakan kata-kata aslinya dengan menggunakan tanda kutip (‘....’ atau “....”) dalam penulisannya. Contoh:
    • He said, “I have seen the movie before”.
    • I thought, “he needs to improve his English."
    • “The mission,” he stated, "will be difficult to accomplish.”
    • “I think so,” replied Tom.
  2. Menggunakan kalimat tak langsung (indirect speech / reported speech), yaitu menyampaikan isi makna atau gagasan secara tepat tanpa menggunakan atau mengutip kata-kata aslinya. Contoh:
    • He said that he had seen the movie before.
    • I thought that he needed to improve his English.
    • The mission,” he stated, "will be difficult to accomplish.”
    Catatan: Kata-kata seperti "yes", "no", "well", serta kata seru dan question-tags, tidak bisa digunakan pada kalimat tak langsung (indirect speech / reported speech). Contoh:
    • “Yes, I think so,” he said. “It’s difficult, isn’t it? (direct speech)
    • He agreed and said that it was difficult. (indirect speech / reported speech)
II. Bagaimana cara mengubah "Direct Speech" menjadi "Indirect Speech / Reported Speech"?
Untuk mengubah "direct speech" menjadi "indirect speech / reported speech", ada beberapa perubahan atau penyesuaian yang harus dilakukan, terutama jika kata kerja untuk melaporkan (reporting verb) ada dalam bentuk lampau (past), contoh; "said", "wondered", "thought", "told", dll). Agar lebih mudah dipelajari, berikut ini contoh-contoh perubahan kalimat langsung (direct speech) menjadi kalimat tak langsung (indirect speech / reported speech) yang disajikan dalam tabel.
A. Kalimat positif (statement / affirmative)
DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT / REPORTED SPEECH
SIMPLE PRESENT
“I never travel by train,” he explained.
SIMPLE PAST
He explained that he never traveled by train.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS
“I’m cleaning my room,” she said.
PAST CONTINUOUS
She said (that) she was cleaning her room.
PRESENT PERFECT
“We have found a key,” they said.
PAST PERFECT
They said (that) they had found a key.
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
He said, “I’ve been working hard.”
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
He said he had been working hard.
SIMPLE PAST
‘I took it home with me,’ she said.
PAST PERFECT
She said she had taken it home with her.
PAST CONTINUOUS
‘When I saw her she was eating,’ he said.


‘I was doing my job,’ he said.
PAST CONTINUOUS
He said (that) when he saw her she was eating.
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
He said (that) he had been doing his job.
FUTURE
She said, ‘I will send it by email.”
CONDITIONAL
She said she would send it by email.
FUTURE CONTINUOUS
‘I’ll be meeting him soon,’ she said.
CONDITIONAL CONTINUOUS
She said she’d be meeting him soon.
CONDITIONAL
I said, ‘I would like to see it.’
CONDITIONAL (No Change)
I said (that) I would like to see it.
B. Kalimat tanya (question / interrogative)
DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT / REPORTED SPEECH
SIMPLE PRESENT
“Where does she live?” he said.
SIMPLE PAST
He asked where she lived.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS
“Where is he going?” she said.
PAST CONTINUOUS
She asked where he was going.
PRESENT PERFECT
“Have you found a flat?” he said.
PAST PERFECT
He asked if/whether I had found a flat.
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
He said, “How long have you been waiting?”
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
He asked how long I had been waiting.
SIMPLE PAST
‘Did you live in a house or a dorm?’ she asked.
PAST PERFECT
She asked whether I’d lived in a house or a dorm.
PAST CONTINUOUS
‘Was she studying or not?’ he asked.


‘Were you joking about the price?’ he said.
PAST CONTINUOUS
He asked whether or not she was studying.
He asked whether she was studying or not.
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
He asked if I had been joking about the price.
FUTURE
He asked, ‘If you pass will you move to Bali?”
CONDITIONAL
He asked whether, if I passed, I’d move to Bali.
FUTURE CONTINUOUS
‘Will you be using it on the 7th?’ she asked.
CONDITIONAL CONTINUOUS
She asked if I would be using it on the 7th.
CONDITIONAL
He said, ‘Would she accept it?’
CONDITIONAL (No Change)
He asked if she would accept it.
C. Kalimat permintaan, penawaran, & saran (request, offer, & suggestion)
DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT / REPORTED SPEECH
Kalimat permintaan (request)
“Will/would you file these letters, please?” I said.I asked/told him to file the letters.
“Could I see her, please?” he said.He asked to see her.
He said, “Lie down, Tom.”He asked Tom to lie down.
“Don’t swim out too far, boys,” I said.I warned/told the boys not to swim out too far.
‘Don’t be late,’ said the teacher.The teacher asked not to be late.
Kalimat penawaran (offer)
“Would you like a lift?” said Ann.Ann offered me a lift.
Nasehat / saran (suggestion / advice)
‘Let’s leave the case here,’ he said.He suggested leaving the case there.
He suggested that they leave the case there. (US)
He suggested that they should leave the case there. (GB)
III. Soal Latihan "Direct Speech" dan "Indirect Speech / Reported Speech"
Ubahlah kalimat-kalimat langsung (direct speech) berikut ini menjadi kalimat tak langsung (indirect speech / reported speech).
  1. He explained, "When I came home, he was fixing the leaking pipe."
  2. "I have finished the report," Jim said.
  3. Mary asked me, "Can you speak Spanish?"
  4. I told him, "Please show me your ID card."
  5. She said, "I am making a new dress."
  6. "Where did you find the information?" I asked her.
  7. He told her, "Please finish the story."
  8. "Can you find the documents?" she asked.
  9. Dad said, "You should knock at the door before coming in."
  10. "Don't shout!" said the teacher.
  11. "Do you remember the number?" the policeman asked.
  12. She said, "Would you like some coffee?"
  13. "Do you play badminton?" he asked her.
  14. He said, "I don't intend to go to town today."
  15. "Don't use too much paint on the front gate," he said.
  16. "Let's wash these clothes," they said.
  17. "Where did the accident happen?" she asked him.
  18. She asked the gardener, "How often do you water the flowers?"
  19. The teacher said, "We will announce the exam result soon."
  20. He explained, "They are going to discuss the proposal at the next meeting."
English Crossword Puzzle, 082011 11.23 PM 5296

March 21, 2020

English Dialogue: Talking About Feelings & Opinions

A. Read and practice this dialogue.
Hadi:Hello, Margaret!
Margaret:Hello, Hadi! You don't seem very happy today. What's the matter?
Hadi:I don't feel very happy.
Margaret:Why don't you feel happy?
Hadi:Because I'm thinking of my exam tomorrow.
Margaret:Oh! Don't you like exams?
Hadi:No, I don't.
Margaret:Do you think you will pass?
Hadi:Well, I want to pass, of course, but I think I will fail.
Margaret:Oh no, Hadi! You always work very hard, and I'm sure you know your work very well.
Hadi:But I don't, Margaret! I don't remember it now!
Margaret:Well, perhaps you will remember it tomorrow.
Hadi:Yes, perhaps.
Margaret:What does your exam consist of, Hadi?
Hadi:It consists of a written paper, and an oral exam.
Margaret:Well, good luck to you!
Hadi:Thank you, Margaret.

The following day, Margaret meets Hadi after his exam.
Margaret:Hello, Hadi!
Hadi:Hello, Margaret!
Margaret:Well! You seem different today. You seem happy again.
Hadi:Oh yes, Margaret. I feel very happy!
Margaret:The exam - ?
Hadi:Oh, I think that perhaps I will pass.
Margaret:That's wonderful, Hadi!
Hadi:Margaret, your exam is this afternoon. How do you feel? Do you feel confident?
Margaret:No, I don't.
Hadi:Oh, I don't believe you, Margaret! I feel that you will pass.
Margaret:I hope so, Hadi.
Hadi:Well, good luck, Margaret!
Margaret:Thank you!
(Adapted from: Radio Australia: English For You, Lesson no. 14)
English Dialogue - Talking About Feelings & Opinions
B. Answer the following questions.
  1. What is the topic of the above conversation?
  2. Where does the conversation probably take place?
  3. What is the most probable relationship between the speakers?
  4. At first, how does Hadi feel about his exam? Why?
  5. What does Margaret say about it? Why?
  6. How does Hadi seem on the following day? Why?
  7. How does Margaret feel about her exam?
  8. What does Hadi say about it?
  9. Please rewrite the sentences that express doubt or uncertainty.
  10. Please rewrite the sentences that express confidence and hope.
  11. In Simple Present Tense: Form, Uses, & Exercise, we have learnt about the verbs that cannot be used in continuous tenses. Can you find them in the above dialogue? Please rewrite them.
072211 06:57 PM 2316

March 20, 2020

Simple Present Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, & Soal Latihan

Simple Present Tense
A. Bagaimana bentuk "Simple Present Tense"?
Ada beberapa hal yang harus diingat tentang kalimat dengan bentuk "Simple Present Tense", apakah itu kalimat dengan kata kerja utama (main verb) atau dengan kata kerja (verb) "be". Untuk lebih jelasnya, perhatikan contoh-contoh kalimat dalam tabel di bawah ini.
Simple Present dengan main verb
AffirmativeNegativeInterrogativeNegative interrogative
I workI do not work
I don't work
do I work?do I not work?
don't I work?
we workwe do not work
we don't work
do we work?do we not work?
don't we work?
you workyou do not work
you don't work
do you work?do you not work?
don't you work?
they workthey do not work
they don't work
do they work?do they not work?
don't they work?
he workshe does not work
he doesn't work
does he work?does he not work?
doesn't he work?
she worksshe does not work
she doesn't work
does she work?does she not work?
doesn't she work?
it worksit does not work
it doesn't work
does it work?does it not work?
doesn't it work?
Simple Present dengan kata kerja (verb) "be"
AffirmativeNegativeInterrogativeNegative interrogative
I am tallI am not tallam I tall?am I not tall?
we are tallwe are not tall
we aren't tall
are we tall?are we not tall?
aren't we tall?
you are tallyou are not tall
you aren't tall
are you tall?are you not tall?
aren't you tall?
they are tallthey are not tall
they aren't tall
are they tall?are they not tall?
aren't they tall?
he is tallhe is not tall
he isn't tall
is he tall?is he not tall?
isn't he tall?
she is tallshe is not tall
she isn't tall
is she tall?is she not tall?
isn't she tall?
it is tallit is not tall
it isn't tall
is it tall?is it not tall?
isn't it tall?
B. Kapan harus menggunakan "Simple Present Tense"?
Penggunaan simple present tense yang paling utama adalah untuk:
  1. Membicarakan rutinitas/kebiasaan di masa sekarang. Karena itu, simple present tense seringkali digunakan bersama kata keterangan (adverbs) atau frasa keterangan (adverb phrase) seperti: always, never, occasionally, often, sometimes, usually, every day, every week, on Mondays, twice a year dll, atau dengan anak kalimat yang berfungsi sebagai keterangan waktu (time clause) biasanya didahului dengan "whenever" atau "when".
    Contoh:
    • Ida practices English every day.
    • He doesn't smoke.
    • She works in a bank.
    • How often do you wash your hair?
    • Whenever it rains the roof leaks.
    Kalimat-kalimat contoh di atas tidak membicarakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan, melainkan hal-hal yang terjadi setiap saat dan menjadi rutinitas / kebiasaan.
  2. Membicarakan fakta atau kejadian yang umum.
    Contoh:
    • Cows eat grass.
    • The sun rises in the east.
    • A day consists of twenty four hours.
    Kalimat-kalimat contoh di atas membicarakan hal-hal yang bersifat umum atau fakta yang diakui kebenarannya oleh semua orang.
  3. Dengan kata kerja (verb) be, simple present tense juga dapat membicarakan keadaan sekarang, maupun kondisi yang umum.
    Contoh:
    • Reza is not at home.
    • You are right.
    • I am happy.
    • Gold is expensive.
    • The ocean is deep.
  4. Dengan kata kerja yang tidak dapat digunakan dalam bentuk continuous, yaitu:
    1. Kata kerja yang berkaitan dengan panca indera, seperti: feel, hear, see, smell, look, taste.
      Contoh:
      • This food tastes delicious.
      • You look gorgeous in that red dress.
      • Do you hear that noise?
    2. Kata kerja tentang perasaan seperti: admire, adore, appreciate, care for, desire, detest, dislike, fear, hate, like, loathe, love, mind, respect, value, want, wish.
      Contoh:
      • I always admire Balinese dances.
      • Do you mind if I use your phone?
      • I don't want to be late for work on my first day at the office.
    3. Kata kerja tentang aktifitas mental, seperti: agree, appreciate, assume, believe, expect, feel, forget, know, mean, perceive, realize, recall, recognize, recollect, remember, suppose, think, trust, understand.
      Contoh:
      • I agree with you.
      • Do you know what I think about this food?
      • I don't understand what you mean with it.
    4. Kata kerja tentang kepemilikan, seperti: belong, owe, own, possess.
      Contoh:
      • How much do I owe you?
      • The book belongs to me. It's mine.
    5. Kata kerja yang berfungsi hampir sama dengan kata kerja bantu (auxilliary), seperti: appear, concern, consist, contain, hold (= contain) keep (= continue), matter, seem, signify, sound.
      Contoh:
      • It doesn't matter to me.
      • That box contains explosives.
Selain penggunaan yang paling umum di atas, simple present tense juga bisa digunakan dalam beberapa kondisi lainnya seperti:
  1. Dengan kata kerja "say", jika kita bertanya atau mengutip dari buku, rambu / tanda, dll.
    Contoh:
    • What does that notice say?
      It says, 'No parking.'
    • What does the manual say?
      It says, 'Follow every steps in assembling the parts.'
    • Soekarno says, 'Give me 10 young men, I will shake the world.'
  2. DIgunakan pada judul surat kabar (headline).
    Contoh:
    • COVID-19: INDONESIA EXPANDS BAN
    • GOVT REMOVES PRICE FLOOR FOR UNSUBSIDIZED FUELS
  3. Dalam narasi drama, komentar olah raga, dll.
    Contoh:
    • When the curtain rises, Juliet is writing at her desk. Suddenly the window opens and a masked man enters.
  4. Untuk rencana / jadwal perjalanan.
    Contoh:
    • We leave Surabaya at 7.00 next Tuesday and arrive in Mataram at 10.00. We spend a night in Mataram and leave for Gili Trawangan at 9.00 on Wednesday.
  5. Dalam conditional sentence type 1.
    Contoh:
    • If I see Udin I'll tell him.
    • If you pull the handbrake the car won't move.
  6. Dengan "why" dalam bentuk negative question untuk memberikan saran.
    Contoh:
    • Why don't we go out?
    • Why don't you talk to him about the problem?
C. Latihan Soal
I. Buatlah kalimat dalam Simple Present Tense bentuk affirmative, negative, dan question menggunakan subyek dan kata kerja yang telah disediakan. Lihatlah tabel Simple Present dengan action verb
  1. He - like - Padang food.
    (+) Affirmative:
    (-) Negative:
    (?) Interrogative:
  2. They - work - in the factory.
    (+) Affirmative:
    (-) Negative:
    (?) Interrogative:
  3. The bus - leave - at seven fifteen.
    (+) Affirmative:
    (-) Negative:
    (?) Interrogative:
  4. She - know - this place well.
    (+) Affirmative:
    (-) Negative:
    (?) Interrogative:
  5. It - say - "No Parking".
    (+) Affirmative:
    (-) Negative:
    (?) Interrogative:
II. Lengkapilah kalimat-kalimat berikut dengan kata kerja di bawah ini. Sesuaikan bentuk kata kerja dengan subyek kalimat. Lihat contoh jawaban pada nomer 1.

cause(s), close(s), earn(s), start(s), go(es), warn(s), live(s), speak(s), take(s), finish(es)

  1. Rani ... Japanese very well.
    Jawaban: Rani speaks Japanese very well.
  2. The museum ... at 4 o’clock on Sundays.
  3. The news program ... at five P.M. every day.
  4. Koko and Adi ... to the same school.
  5. The Olympic Games ... place every four years.
  6. My parents ... in a small town.
  7. They ... working at five PM every day.
  8. Bad driving ... many accidents.
  9. A notice at the end of the road ... people not to go any further.
  10. As soon as he ... any money he will spend it.
III. Ubahlah kata kerja (verb) di dalam kurung ke dalam bentuk yang benar. Lihat contoh jawaban pada nomer 1.
  1. Shella ... (not / drink)... coffee very often.
    Jawaban: Shella doesn’t drink coffee very often.
  2. What time ...(the banks / close)... here?
  3. I have a car, but I ...(not / use)... it much.
  4. Where ...(the new teacher / come)... from?
  5. ‘What ...(you / do)...?’ ~ ‘I’m an electrician.’
  6. Look at this sentence. What ...(this word / mean)...?
  7. David isn’t very fit. He ...(not / do)... any sport.
  8. It ...(take)... me an hour to get to work in the morning. How long ...(it / take)... you?
  9. ...(you / play)... football? ~ Yes, sometimes.
  10. ...(you / work)... at night? ~ No, we ...(not)....
IV. Lengkapi kalimat-kalimat berikut dengan salah satu kata kerja di bawah ini. Bentuklah menjadi kalimat negatif jika perlu. Lihat contoh pada nomer 1 & 2.

believe - eat - flow - go - grow - sell - drive - make - tell - translate

  1. The earth ... round the sun.
    Jawaban: The earth goes round the sun.
  2. Rice ... in cold climates.
    Jawaban: Rice doesn’t grow in cold climates.
  3. Bees ... honey.
  4. Vegetarians ... meat.
  5. An atheist ... in God.
  6. An interpreter ... from one language into another.
  7. Liars are people who ... the truth.
  8. The River Amazon ... into the Atlantic Ocean.
  9. He is a taxi driver. He ... a bus.
  10. The restaurant is one of my favorites. It ... good food.
V. Lengkapilah kalimat-kalimat berikut ini dengan menggunakan kata-kata di bawah ini. Lihat contoh soal nomer 1.

I agree - I apologise - I insist - I promise - I recommend - I suggest

  1. Mr Evans is not in the office today. ... you try calling him tomorrow.
    Mr Evans is not in the office today. I suggest you try calling him tomorrow.
  2. I won’t tell anybody what you said. ....
  3. You must let me enter the room. ....
  4. ... for what I said. I shouldn’t have said it.
  5. The new restaurant in Baker Street is very good. ... it.
  6. I think you’re absolutely right. ... with you.
Reference:
  • Thomson & Martinet. A Practical English Grammar (4th Ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.
  • Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar in Use, Fourth Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
8211 4:46 PM 1471

March 16, 2020

Perbedaan "Used To" Dan "Be Used To"

A. Bentuk
Used to + Infinitive (Verb 1)Be/Get Used to + Noun/Pronoun/Gerund
Kalimat positif/afirmatif:
She used to live in Tokyo.
Kalimat positif/afirmatif:
She is used to living in a big city.
She gets used to living in a big city.
Kalimat negatif:
She did not (didn't) use to live in Tokyo.
atau
She used not (usedn't) to live in Tokyo.
Kalimat negatif:
She is not (isn't) used to living in a big city.
She does not (doesn't) get used to living in a big city.
Kalimat tanya/Interogatif:
Did she use to live in Tokyo?
Used she to live in Tokyo?
Kalimat tanya/Interogatif:
Is she used to living in a big city?
Does she get used to living in a big city?
B. Penggunaan
Used + to Infinitive (Verb 1)Be/Get Used to + Noun/Pronoun/Gerund
"Used to" berfungsi sebagai verb (kata kerja), seperti modals, diikuti oleh Infinitive (verb 1)"Be used to" berfungsi sebagai adjective (kata sifat), didahului oleh "be/get/become", lalu diikuti Noun/Pronoun/Gerund.
  • "Used to" adalah bentuk lampau, tidak memiliki bentuk "present" (sekarang).
  • "Be", "Get", atau "Become" bisa dalam tense (bentuk waktu) apapun, past, present, atau future.
  • "Used to" digunakan untuk membicarakan kebiasaan lampau atau situasi lampau yang sudah tidak dilakukan lagi sekarang, dan berbeda dengan kebiasaan atau kondisi sekarang.
    Contoh:
    • She used to live in Tokyo; now she lives in Osaka.
    • He used to dislike spicy food but he quite likes it now.
  • "Used to" bisa memiliki kesamaan dengan "would", untuk membicarakan kebiasaan/situasi lampau, tanpa membandingkan dengan kebiasaan/kondisi sekarang.
    Contoh kalimat:
    • When I was a little boy, I used to play traditional games with my friends.
    • After school, we used to spend our afternoon playing kites near a rice field.
  • Sebagai kata sifat (adjective), used to bermakna 'terbiasa' atau 'accustomed'.
    Contoh kalimat:
    • I am used to noise.
    • I am used to working in a noisy room.
    • You will soon get used to automatic transmission.
    • You will soon get used to driving with automatic transmission.
    • They soon got used to the traffic regulations.
    • They soon got used to driving on the left.
C. Contoh kalimat yang menggunakan "Used to" dan "Be used to"
Perbedaan Used To dan Be Used To
  • I used to drink a lot of cold drinks; now I prefer warm pure water.
  • Every morning Andi used to say goodbye to his mother before leaving for school.
  • Her mother used to stand at the door and wave goodbye.
  • In the afternoon she used to welcome him home and ask him about his day.
  • I am used to cold weather. I used to live in a snowy country before, so the cold doesn't bother me at all.
  • I'm used to eating rice for my meals, so I find these lunches rather unsatisfying.
  • Sari doesn’t travel much these days. She prefers to stay at home. But she used to travel a lot. She used to go away two or three times a year.
  • I used to play table tennis a lot, but I don’t play very much now.
  • I bought some new shoes..They felt a little strange at first because I wasn’t used to them.
  • I wouldn’t like to share a room. I’m used to living alone.
D. Latihan soal tentang perbedaan "used to" dan "be used to"
I. Lengkapi kalimat-kalimat berikut dengan "used to + verb (kata kerja)" yang sesuai. Lihat contoh nomer 1.
  1. Hari ...(travel)... a lot, but he doesn’t go away much these days.
    Hari used to travel a lot, but he doesn’t go away much these days.
  2. Sophie ...(ride)... a motorbike, but last year she sold it and bought a car.
  3. Our friends moved to Malang a few years ago. They ...(live)... in Probolinggo.
  4. Before the existence of internet, people ...(send)... letters by mail.
  5. I rarely eat ice cream now, but I ...(eat)... it when I was a child.
II. Lengkapi kalimat-kalimat berikut dengan "be/get used to + verb (kata kerja)" yang sesuai. Lihat contoh nomer 1.
  1. I’m not lonely. I don’t need other people. I ...(be)... on my own.
    I’m not lonely. I don’t need other people. I am used to being on my own.
  2. I don’t feel good. I stayed up until 3 am. I ...(not - go)... to bed so late.
  3. If you work as a receptionist, you’ll have to ...(meet)... new people.
  4. My feet hurt. I can’t go any further. I ...(not - walk)... so far.
  5. I like this part of town. I’ve been here a long time, so I ...(be)... here.
III. Pilihlah jawaban yang paling tepat, "used to" atau "be/get used to".
  1. This building is now abandoned. It ... be a cinema.
    1. was used to
    2. used to
  2. I ... living alone. It’s not a problem for me because I’ve lived alone for some time.
    1. am used to
    2. used to
  3. I ... think Mark was unfriendly, but now I realise he’s a very nice person.
    1. used to
    2. was used to
  4. I’ve started drinking coffee recently. I never ... like it before.
    1. got used to
    2. used to
  5. Lisa ... have very long hair when she was a child.
    1. was used to
    2. used to
  6. Susan ... spend a lot of money on clothes. These days she can’t afford it.
    1. was used to
    2. used to
  7. We ... live in a small village, but now we live in a city.
    1. was used to
    2. used to
  8. There ... be four cinemas in the town. Now there is only one.
    1. was used to
    2. used to
  9. Gita: "Do you go to the cinema much?"
    Iva: "Not now, but I ...."
    1. was used to
    2. used to
  10. ... eat a lot of sweets when you were a child?
    1. Did you get used to
    2. Did you use to
IV. Lengkapi kalimat-kalimat berikut dengan bentuk "used to + infinitive" atau "be/get used to + noun/pronoun/gerund"
  1. Our new apartment is on a busy street. It’s very disturbing because we ...(not - live) ... in a noisy environment.
  2. It only takes me about 40 minutes to get to work now that the new highway is open. It ...(take)... more than an hour.
  3. Sarah is a nurse. A year ago she started working nights. At first it was hard for her as she ...(not - work)... nights.
  4. There ...(be)... a hotel near the airport, but it closed a long time ago.
  5. I ...(work)... in a factory. I decided to quit because I wanted to be a teacher.
  6. Lisa comes from the United States. When she first drove a car in Indonesia, driving was a problem for her because she ...(not - drive)... on the left.
  7. Friend: Wouldn’t you prefer to sleep in a bed?
    You: No, it's OK. I ...(sleep)... on the floor. It's my habit.
  8. There was a river near my house where I ...(go)... fishing with my Dad when I was a child.
  9. What games ...(you - play)... when you were a child?
  10. Jack has to drive two hours to work every morning. Many years ago, when he first had to do this, it was hard for him and he didn’t like it because he ...(not - drive)... that long every morning.
  11. In your last job, how many hours a day ...(you - spend)... to work?
  12. Dani moved from a big house to a much smaller one. He found it strange at first. He had to ...(live)... in a much smaller house.
  13. I ...(run)... ten kilometers, but I can’t run that far now.
  14. These days I eat more than before. I ...(not - eat)... much.
  15. Helen has a new job. She has to get up much earlier now than before. She finds this difficult because she ...(not - get)... up so early.
Reference:
  • Raymond Murphy. English Grammar in Use (5th Edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019
  • Thomson & Martinet. A Practical English Grammar (4th Ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986
BSE SMK 6211 4:53 AM 1655

March 13, 2020

Soal Simulasi UNBK Bahasa Inggris SMK 2020

LISTENING SECTION
  1. Simulasi UNBK Bahasa Inggris SMK
    A
    B
    C
    D
  2. Simulasi UNBK Bahasa Inggris SMK
    A
    B
    C
    D
  3. Simulasi UNBK Bahasa Inggris SMK
    A
    B
    C
    D
  4. Choose the best answer
  5. Choose the best answer
  6. Choose the best answer
  7. Choose the best answer
  8. What is the speaker talking about?
    1. The assembly procedure of a motorcycle
    2. The reparation of old motorcycles
    3. The basic functions of a standing fan
    4. The installation of a standing fan
  9. What can you conclude from the conversation?
    1. Rahmat sat beside Saidah
    2. Saidah enjoyed Rahmat’s company
    3. Rahmat became Saidah’s best friend
    4. Rahmat met Saidah for the first time
  10. Who is most likely to be interested in visiting the place?
    1. Everybody who likes water parks
    2. Someone who like snorkeling
    3. Everybody who likes playing in the beach
    4. All people who like snowboarding
  11. What does the student want to be?
    1. He wants to complete his plans
    2. He wants to be a worker
    3. He wants to be a mechanic
    4. He wants to complete his studies
  12. Why did she not enjoy the flight?
    1. She slept during the flight
    2. It was long and uncomfortable
    3. She read a book on the plane
    4. She was traveling alone
  13. What should you do after all the parts are laid on the floor?
    1. Set up the pole on the base of the stand
    2. Install the motor to the pole
    3. Drill the grooves for the screws
    4. Wire the three blades of the fan
  14. What is being discussed?
    1. Someone’s arrangements
    2. Someone’s secret file
    3. A new trip to Manila
    4. An office deadline
  15. What is the speaker talking about?
    1. The assembly procedure of motorcycle
    2. The reparation of old motorcycle
    3. The basic functions of a standing fan
    4. The installation of a standing fan
READING SECTION
Read the following text to answer questions number 16-18
  1. What information do the readers get after reading the text?
    1. The description of an archaeological complex
    2. The explanation of a compound of temples
    3. The manufacture of a religious temple
    4. The story of a sacred historical site
  2. Where is the site of the Paseban of Ratu Boko?
    1. Among the crematorium temple, the pool, and the stone pedestal
    2. Behind the stone pedestal and women’s quarter
    3. Next to the audience hall and the public hall
    4. Between the pendopo and the pool
  3. “... nor building which religious nature but a fortified palace instead ...” (paragraph 2)
    The underlined word in the sentence has the closest meaning to ....
    1. Protected
    2. Exposed
    3. Attacked
    4. Explosive
Read the following invitation to answer questions number 19-21
  1. What position does Mr. Rahmad Riyadi most likely hold?
    1. The principal of a vocational high school
    2. A top manager of the Indonesian Educational Foundation
    3. The head of the Indonesian Educational Foundation
    4. The head of the Financial Department
  2. If he is interested in attending the event, Mr. Rahmad Riyadi most probably will immediately ....
    1. Ask his staff to prepare for his attendance
    2. Contact Edo for confirmation
    3. Prepare charity fund
    4. Wear batik clothes
  3. The word ‘proceeds’ in the above invitation most likely means ....
    1. Charity
    2. Supply
    3. Donation
    4. Contribution
Read the following announcement to answer questions number 22-24
  1. What is the text mainly about?
    1. The flag ceremony in the auditorium
    2. The regulation of Indonesian Independence Day
    3. The staff participation in a stage performance
    4. The cancellation of all public health service
  2. Where can you find the above announcement?
    1. In a government office
    2. In a health insurance office
    3. In a public health center
    4. In a dental clinic
  3. What can we conclude from the text?
    1. If there is an emergency call, the person in charge will handle it.
    2. To perform their talents, the staff should wear Indonesian traditional clothes.
    3. If the staff wear traditional clothes, they can attend the ceremony.
    4. If the events last more than two hours, the public must wait patiently
Read the following text to answer questions number 25-27
  1. What is the role of the writer in the text?
    1. Someone who called the store owner
    2. Someone who pretended to be a ghost
    3. The person who did all the housework
    4. The person who retold someone’s experience
  2. Which of the following can be considered the funny part of the text?
    1. Mrs Richards hid under the stairs.
    2. Mrs Richards dressed up like a ghost.
    3. The man fled and slammed the door.
    4. The man thought that Mrs Richards was a ghost.
  3. “She had told him to come straight in ....” (paragraph 2).
    The underlined word refers to ....
    1. the ghost
    2. the barker
    3. Mrs Richards’ husband
    4. the Electricity Board man
Read the following news item to answer questions number 28-30
  1. What is the text about?
    1. Health crisis in Indonesia
    2. The cause of air pollution
    3. El-Nino weather phenomenon
    4. Smoke disaster triggers health crisis
  2. The main cause of Iqbal's losing his life is ....
    1. Too late to have proper treatment
    2. Difficulties to breathe
    3. Respiratory failure
    4. Plantation fire
  3. What can we conclude from the text?
    1. The affected areas were small Islands.
    2. The cause of health crisis is prolonged dry season.
    3. The effects of a long dry season is dangerous.
    4. The prolonged haze may cause serious health crisis.
Read the following letter to answer questions number 31-33
  1. What is the applicant’s strength to apply for the job?
    1. She had excellent office suite skills.
    2. She can provide exceptional contributions.
    3. She graduated from Banking Management.
    4. She had an internship for a quarter year.
  2. Why did Widayanti apply for the position?
    1. She wants to interview people.
    2. She likes to work under pressure.
    3. She wants to be a front office staff.
    4. She seeks opportunity to study about banking.
  3. “...., majoring in Banking Management, in June 2019.” (paragraph 2)
    The underlined word is synonymous with ....
    1. Studying
    2. Following
    3. Providing
    4. Enclosing
Read the following text to answer questions number 34-36
  1. What does the text tell about?
    1. The function of cameras
    2. The combination of cameras
    3. Information about a camera product
    4. The automation of cameras
  2. What is the second paragraph about?
    1. How a movie camera works
    2. How to record static images
    3. Combining and displaying images
    4. How to use the camera
  3. The images taken by a camera ... be saved locally and sent to another area
    1. may
    2. shall
    3. must
    4. will
Read the following dialogue to answer questions number 37-38
Soni:Where were you yesterday morning? I passed by your house but it was so quiet and the door was locked.
Arini:Oh, we were out. As usual, my family goes jogging on Sunday morning and then we go shopping in the market to buy groceries. After that we go home to do the household chores together. We spend the rest of the day indulging ourselves.
  1. What is mainly discussed between the speakers?
    1. Arini's activity on Sundays
    2. Sunday's household chores
    3. Arini's quiet house on Sundays
    4. Sunday activities of Arini's family
  2. What does Arini do on Sundays?
    1. She does grocery shopping
    2. She locks the doors of her house
    3. She buys the broom in the market
    4. She does the chores in the market
  3. Complete the following dialogue with the most suitable expression.
    Renny:I didn't meet your mother when I was at your house yesterday.
    Donny:... with my little sister. It's a weekly routine to buy our food supply.
    1. She visited our grandmother
    2. She was going to the market
    3. She comes to the botanical garden
    4. She worked at the orchards
  4. Complete the following dialogue with the most suitable expression.
    Ria:I think this spicy beef steak is really tasty.
    Tata:.... It is too hot for me to eat.
    1. No way!
    2. I guess so.
    3. No doubt about it.
    4. I couldn't agree more.
  5. Complete the following dialogue with the most suitable expression.
    Hari:I really want to buy that pretty wallet, but I don't have enough money right now.
    Kayla:....
    Hari:No, thanks. I think it's better for me to start saving my money.
    Kayla:That's very good, then.
    1. Would you like to me to save your money?
    2. Do you mind if I borrow your money?
    3. Do you want to open a saving account?
    4. Would you like me to lend you some?
Read the following dialogue to answer questions number 42-43
Salma:Have you ever imagined working abroad?
Veni:Yes. If my English proficiency improves, I will go to an English speaking country.
Salma:But I think your English is fine. Don't you think so?
Veni:Yes, but I still need higher TOEIC score.
Salma:Oh, okay. The bell's ringing. Let's have a break.
  1. Where does this conversation take place?
    1. At the cafeteria
    2. At the library
    3. At home
    4. At school
  2. What can be concluded from the conversation?
    1. Veni is crazy about living in an English speaking country.
    2. Veni thinks she needs to improve her English proficiency.
    3. Salma plans to travel to some English speaking countries.
    4. Salma needs to study harder to improve her ability.
  3. Complete the following dialogue with the most suitable expression.
    Sarah:What are your plans for the coming holiday?
    Nelly:Well, ..., I'll travel to Lombok with my friends. I really want to see the famous Pink beach
    Sarah:Wow, that sounds great.
    1. If my parents allow me
    2. If I had more holidays
    3. If you go to the beach
    4. If I had got some days off
Read the following dialogue to answer questions number 45-47
Baim:I am planning to purchase a motorcycle tomorrow, but I'm still confused what to buy. Do you have any recommendation?
Mario:I think, you should buy a DVX motor. It has good performance.
Baim:What about RHV?
Mario:For an affordable price and a powerful machine, RHV is a good choice.
Baim:Okay, thanks a lot for your advice. I think I have made up my mind.
  1. What will Baim most likely do after hearing Mario's advice?
    1. Baim will quickly choose RHV.
    2. Baim will right away sell DVX.
    3. Baim will go to the desirable dealer.
    4. Baim will create leaflets of both brands.
  2. Mario recommends DVX motor to Baim because ....
    1. Mario knows that Baim's fund is very limited.
    2. Mario personally prefers DVX to RHV motor.
    3. Mario knows motorcycle better than Baim.
    4. Mario thinks that performance is important.
  3. “For an affordable price and powerful machine ....”
    The underlined word is closest in meaning to ....
    1. Manageable
    2. Preferable
    3. Reasonable
    4. Reduced
  4. Complete the following dialogue with the most suitable expression.
    Aryo:Hi Mike, have you done your report?
    Mike:No, I haven't. My computer is broken.
    Aryo:.... I'll try to fix it.
    Mike:That'll be great. Thanks, Aryo.
    1. Will it be all right if you check it?
    2. Would you mind checking it?
    3. Would you like me to check it?
    4. Will it be OK if I use it?
  5. Complete the following dialogue with the most suitable expression.
    Teacher:Have you done your project?
    Students:Yes, Sir.
    Teacher:Please bring it tomorrow because ....
    1. It was going to be checked
    2. It should have been submitted
    3. It is being done
    4. It will be scored
  6. Complete the following dialogue with the most suitable expression.
    Arif:Where are you going, Burhan?
    Burhan:I am going to my friend's house.
    Arif:Don't you have homework? ....
    Burhan:I guess you're right. Thank you for reminding me.
    1. Let's go together, then.
    2. Why do you want to go there?
    3. Why don't you do it before going out?
    4. How about going out together?
Prev: BSE SMK XI 061911 19:52 1707

March 10, 2020

English Dialogue With "Used to" And "Be Used to"

Read and practice the dialogue below.
Wendy:When you were a boy, Paul, where did you live? What were your hobbies? Tell me everything.
Paul:Well, Wendy, there isn't much to tell. When I was boy, my family used to live in the country - about a hundred miles from the city.
Wendy:I didn't know you used to live in the country!
Paul:You've never asked me about it before.
Wendy:But my family used to live in the country too, Paul. And we lived about a hundred miles from the city too! Where did you use to live?
Paul:Oh, I used to live at Wyanna.
Wendy:At Wyanna? We used to live at Listerton. That's only a few miles from Wyanna!
Paul:Fancy that! As a matter of fact, I used to go to the Listerton school. I used to travel to school by bus every day.
Wendy:And I used to go to the Listerton school too, of course. I used to ride my bicycle to school every day. Think of it, Paul! We used to go to the same school, but we didn't know one another in those days.
Paul:No, we didn't. You must have been in a different class. Oh, I used to enjoy travelling by bus. A lot of children from Wyanna used to travel to school by bus every day, and we used to sing songs in the bus. And we used to whistle too!
Wendy:Oh, the poor bus-driver! I enjoyed riding my bicycle to school. I used to ride to school with several other children, and we used to play games on the way to school.
Paul:What sort of games did you play?
Wendy:Oh, we used to count the number of cars we saw, or the number of horses, or something like that. They were very simple games. And we often used to whistle and sing, of course.
Paul:After school, I used to like making things in my father's workshop. I had my own hammer and my own saw, and I never used my father's tools, because he said I wasn't used to expensive tools .... What did you do after school, Wendy?
Wendy:Oh, I used to read books, or play with my dolls. I used to water the garden every day for my father. I'd forgotten that! I never water the garden now. I wonder if Daddy remembers that I watered it every day at Listerton.
Paul:Well, I never make things now. I haven't used a hammer or a saw for many years. Now I'm a university student. I don't have time for things like that.
Wendy:Well, I used to like living in the country, but I'm used to the city now.
Paul:I liked the country too, but now I'm used to lectures and essays and examinations!
Wendy:Would you like to go back to Wyanna and Listerton for a holiday one day?
Paul:I wouldn't mind a holiday there, but I suppose everything is different now.
(Adapted from: English For You - Radio Australia, Lesson No. 97) Answer the following questions.
English Dialogue With Used to And Be Used to
  1. What is the topic of the above conversation?
  2. Where does the conversation probably take place?
  3. What is the most probable relationship between the speakers?
  4. Before the conversation, did the speakers know that they used to go to the same school?
  5. How did Wendy and Paul use to travel to school?
  6. What did they use to do on the way to school?
  7. What did they use to do after school?
  8. Why did Paul never use his father's tools?
  9. What is their opinion about living in the country?
  10. Please copy all the sentences with "used to" and "be used to", and note how they are different in structure and meaning.You may refer to THIS PAGE.
PV 2698

March 07, 2020

Modals + Perfective: Expressing Certainty, Possibility, and Advisability in the Past

Modals + Perfective: Expressing Certainty, Possibility, and Advisability in the Past
In English Dialogue: Expressing Past Probability With Modals + Perfective, you have noticed the use of modals + perfective in English conversation. Let's take another look at the following sentences:
  • I must have forgotten to take my umbrella.
  • I might have lost it anywhere.
  • How could you have lost it?
  • I may have left it in the coffee lounge.
  • You should have been more careful.


A. The Structure
1. Affirmative / positive sentence:
SubjectModalshavepast participle
I
We
You
They
He
She
It
Etc.

may
might
ought to
must
could
should



have
been
slept
arrived
finished
forgotten
left
gone
Etc.
2. Interrogative sentence / question:
Question wordsModalsSubjecthavepast participle

Who
What
How
Where
When
Etc.

may
might
must
could
should
I
we
you
they
he
she
it
Etc.



have
been?
slept?
arrived?
finished?
forgotten?
left?
gone?
Etc.
3. Negative sentence:
SubjectModals + nothavepast participle
I
We
You
They
He
She
It
Etc.

may not
might not
ought not to
must not (mustn't)
could not (couldn't)
should not (shouldn't)
needn't



have
been
slept
arrived
finished
forgotten
left
gone
Etc.

B. The Uses
  • May have past participle expresses less than 50% certainty.
    Example: I may have left my umbrella in the coffee lounge.
  • Might have past participle expresses less than 50% certainty.
    Example: I might have lost it anywhere.
  • Ought to have past participle expresses:
    • advisability
      Example: You ought to have talked to your manager, but you didn't.
    • 90% certainty/expectation
      Example: She ought to have done well in the test because she was well prepared.
  • Must have past participle expresses 95% certainty/logical conclusion
    Example: You must have lost your umbrella, not your briefcase.
  • Could have past participle expresses:
    • less than 50% certainty
      Example: I suppose someone could have picked it up before I rang.
    • unfulfilled suggestion (positive sentence only)
      Example: You could have talked to me before making the decision.
    • impossibility (negative only)
      Example: He couldn't have done such a silly thing.
  • Should have past participle expresses:
    • advisability/unfulfilled expectation
      Example: He should have worked harder for the test, but he didn't.
    • 90% certainty/expectation
      Example: She should have done well in the test because she was well prepared.
  • Needn't have past participle expresses lack of necessity.
    Example: You needn't have worried all day.

C. Example Dialogue
Practice this dialogue and pay attention to what modal + perfective structures imply.

Barbara: Yesterday I walked home from work, because I had no money for the bus.
Bill: You needn't have walked home yesterday. I could have lent you some money.
Barbara: I didn't like to borrow money from you.
Bill: Oh, but you should have asked me.

D. Exercise 1
Choose the best answer to complete the dialogues below.
  1. Tom: Where was Mary yesterday? She wasn't at work.
    Bob: She ... sick yesterday.
    1. must have been
    2. needn't have been
  2. Lucy: Betty isn't home.
    Ann: She ... to the shops.
    1. may have gone
    2. needn't have gone
  3. Andy: Bob hasn't arrived yet.
    Bill: He ... in a traffic jam at this busy hour.
    1. ought to have been caught
    2. could have been caught
  4. Lisa: I didn't know that the meeting would be postponed to next week.
    Mary: Yes. You ... the room today.
    1. might not have prepared
    2. needn't have prepared
  5. Hadi: I think I've lost my key. I put it in my pocket after locking the room.
    Mary: You ... it anywhere.
    1. must have dropped
    2. should have dropped
  6. Betty: He hasn't arrived yet. I assume he's lost his way.
    Rosa: I think so. He ... his way.
    1. must have lost
    2. needn't have lost
  7. Jim: Nancy hasn't received the email.
    Bill: Really? It ... to the wrong address.
    1. ought to have gone
    2. may have gone
  8. Dave: Bella didn't call her office when she was away from work yesterday.
    Gary: That was bad. She ... her boss.
    1. must have informed
    2. should have informed
  9. Sam: I worked until late last night.
    Greg: You ... so hard. The report is due next week.
    1. could have worked
    2. needn't have worked
  10. Rea: Did she phone the police?
    Lori: No. She ..., but she didn't.
    1. must have phoned
    2. could have phoned

E. Exercise 2
Change the verbs in the following sentences to indicate past time by using modal + perfective (modal + have + past participle). Number 1 has been done as an example.
  1. That must be a very interesting play.
    That must have been a very interesting play.
  2. Joan may not remember the number.
  3. John might forget to do the shopping.
  4. He needn't do that job.
  5. You could borrow my laptop.
  6. She should get to work on time.
  7. They ought to tell me.
  8. You needn't shout so loudly.
  9. He should knock at the door before coming in.
  10. She may know the answer.
Prev: BSE SMK Kelas XII, 7/3/11, 10:34 AM, PV 2042

March 06, 2020

English Dialogue: Expressing Past Probability With Modals + Perfective

English Dialogue: Expressing Past Probability With Modals + Perfective
Are you familiar with the structure of these sentences?
  • You should have informed me earlier.
  • How could you have done that to him?
  • They might have lost their way in the forest.
Pay attention to the underlined phrases in the above sentences. They are often referred to as "modal + perfective", and are used to express various degrees of certainty, prabibility, or advisability in the past. You can learn more about the structure and uses here.
A. Practice the dialogue below.
Betty is waiting for Jim to come home from work. It is raining outside and it is dark, and Betty is worried about Jim. Then she hears a car stopping.
BettyAh! That must be Jim now. I'll open the door for him ....
Hello, darling. Oh! Your clothes are so wet.
JimYes, darling. I forgot to take my umbrella today.
BettyBut it was raining a little this morning when you left for work.
JimI know, but I must have forgotten to take my umbrella.
BettyWhat a pity! Never mind, go and put on some dry clothes.
JimI'll put on some dry clothes in a minute, Betty. At the moment I'm very worried.
BettyWhy, darling?
JimBecause I've lost my briefcase.
BettyOh, Jim. That's bad luck! Do you know where you lost it?
JimNo, that's the trouble. I might have lost it anywhere.
BettyBut a briefcase is quite a large thing. How could you have lost it?
JimI don't know. I may have left it in the coffee lounge where I had a cup of coffee this morning.
BettyWhy don't you phone the coffee lounge?
JimI phoned them this afternoon, but it wasn't there. I suppose someone could have picked it up before I rang.
BettyI suppose so. Did you look in other places in your office? You might have put it in a different place.
JimI don't think so, Betty. I thought I might have put it in a different place in the office, but we all looked for it and we couldn't find it.
BettyAnd was there anything very important in your briefcase, Jim?
JimYes, unfortunately. I had the plans of a new bridge in it.
BettyOh, Jim! If you had important plans in your briefcase, you should have been more careful!
JimYes, you're quite right! ... Oh well, I suppose I'd better put some dry clothes on.
BettyNow, Jim, you must hurry. You should have put dry clothes on as soon as you came home. Why didn't you take your umbrella? Now hurry and change your clothes.
JimAll right, Betty. I won't be long ... Betty! I didn't lose my briefcase after all! Here it is! I must have forgotten to take it this morning.
BettyOh, I'm so glad. So you needn't have worried all day. You didn't lose anything. That's good.
JimBut - er, - Betty! I - er - must have taken my umbrella after all, because it isn't there now.
BettyOh dear! You are silly sometimes, Jim. You must have lost your umbrella, not your briefcase.
(Adapted from: Radio Australia - English for You, Lesson No. 96)
B. Answer the following questions.
  1. What is the main topic of the above conversation?
  2. Betty said, "But it was raining a little this morning when you left for work."
    What did Betty most probably mean? Choose the best answer.
    1. She suggested that Jim should bring his umbrella with him.
    2. Jim shouldn't have left for work because of the rain.
    3. It was very unlikely that Jim had left his umbrella at home.
    4. It was probable that Jim had left his umbrella in his office.
  3. Why was Jim very worried?
  4. What was in his briefcase?
  5. Jim said, "I may have left it in the coffee lounge ...."
    What does Jim's sentence imply? Choose the best answer.
    1. He felt he should not leave his briefcase in the coffee lounge.
    2. He was sure that he may leave his briefcase in the coffee lounge.
    3. It was certain that he had not left his briefcase in the coffee lounge.
    4. He thought he had possibly left his briefcase in the coffee lounge.
  6. Did Jim really lose his briefcase? Where did he find it at last?
  7. What actually happened with his briefcase?
  8. What did he actually lose?
  9. What must have happened with the umbrella?
  10. Please copy all the italicized verbs and indicate whether they express certainty, probability, or advisability.
Prev: Crossword 2, 8/21/11, 8:53 PM, PV 3142