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VIERA & TOEIC Preparation Test

What's in this test? I. Sentence Completion II. Short Conversation III. Reading Comprehension Answer the following questions by ch...

August 08, 2020

VIERA & TOEIC Preparation Test

Answer the following questions by choosing the best answer A, B, D, or D.
I. Sentence Completion
1. Battery-operated reading lamps ... very well right now.
  1. sale
  2. sold
  3. are selling
  4. were sold
2. In order to place a call outside the office, you have to ... nine first.
  1. tip
  2. make
  3. dial
  4. number
3. We are pleased to inform ... that the missing order has been found.
  1. you
  2. your
  3. yours
  4. yourself
4. Unfortunately, neither Mr. Sachs ... Ms. Flyynn will be able to attend the awards banquet this evening.
  1. but
  2. and
  3. nor
  4. either
5. After the main course, choose from our wide ... of homemade desserts.
  1. varied
  2. various
  3. vary
  4. variety
6. One of the most frequent complaints among airline passengers is that there is not ... legroom.
  1. enough
  2. many
  3. very
  4. plenty
7. Faculty members are planning to ... a party in honor of Dr. Walker, who will retire at the end of the semester.
  1. carry
  2. do
  3. hold
  4. take
8. ... our production figures improve in the near future, we foresee having to hire more people between now and July.
  1. During
  2. Only
  3. Unless
  4. Because
9. The prime minister is expected to arrive at the convention hall at ... 7.00 P.M.
  1. approximated
  2. approximates
  3. approximate
  4. approximately
10. As the filming location has not yet been ..., the release date has been postponed.
  1. detained
  2. determined
  3. delayed
  4. deleted
11. Extreme ... should be used when the forklift truck is being operated.
  1. caution
  2. cautioned
  3. cautiosly
  4. cautions
12. The country hospital is currently ... volunteers to staff the reception.
  1. look to
  2. looking for
  3. looking around
  4. looking into
13. We are a major international company with a growing number of ... in North America.
  1. inferences
  2. instances
  3. influences
  4. interests
14. The Executive Council of the Fashion Buyer’s Congress is ... of fifteen members from various branches of the fashion industry.
  1. compose
  2. composing
  3. composed
  4. to compose
15. Though their performance was relatively unpolished, the actors held the audience’s ... for the duration of the play.
  1. attentive
  2. attentively
  3. attention
  4. attentiveness
16. Savat National Park is ... by train, bus, charter plane, and rental car.
  1. accessible
  2. accessing
  3. accessibility
  4. accesses
17. Replacing the office equipment that the company purchased only three years ago seems quite ....
  1. waste
  2. wasteful
  3. wasting
  4. wasted
18. On ... employees reach their peak performance level when they have been on the job for at least two years.
  1. common
  2. standard
  3. average
  4. general
19. If you send in an order ... mail, we recommend that you phone our sales division directly to confirm the order.
  1. near
  2. by
  3. for
  4. on
20. Rates for the use of recreational facilities do not include tax and are subject to change without ....
  1. signal
  2. cash
  3. report
  4. notice
21. We conduct our audits in accordance ... generally accepted auditing standards.
  1. of
  2. with
  3. in
  4. across
22. The Director of Educational Programs works collaboratively with the Ministry of Education to ... that the programs are meeting the needs of the institution.
  1. ensure
  2. define
  3. accept
  4. imply
23. Armstrong has the ... management team of the three companies under consideration.
  1. impressive
  2. more impressive
  3. impressively
  4. most impressive
24. There are over thirty keyboard commands that can prompt word-processing procedures, but common usage ... only a few.
  1. involves
  2. receives
  3. subscribes
  4. corresponds
25. The recent storms have led to the ... closure of our overseas office.
  1. temporal
  2. temporary
  3. temporarily
  4. temporaries
26. “Accounts receivable” is money owed to a company, ... “accounts payable” is money owed by the company to creditors.
  1. whereas
  2. otherwise
  3. such as
  4. in order that
27. Cooks must remember that some raw foods are very ... and should be refrigerated or chilled until ready to be eaten or cooked.
  1. peripheral
  2. perishable
  3. periodic
  4. permanent
28. If savings could have been made elsewhere, we ... to give financial support to local community service organizations last year.
  1. continue
  2. continued
  3. has continued
  4. would have continued
29. The telecommunications department is completing a detailed ... of each factory site to determine the types of equipment and features needed in each area.
  1. elaboration
  2. evolution
  3. evaluation
  4. expansion
30. Proposed changes that are not ... with existing safety regulations will not be considered.
  1. dependent
  2. compliant
  3. relating
  4. supportive
II. Short Conversation
Questions number 31 - 33 refer to the following dialogue.
Dina:We need to hire a temporary assistant to help us with this project until our regular assistant fully recovers.
John:Yeah, it will take him at least 2 months till he’s able to return to his duties.
Dina:I know, that’s why I hate it when people around me become indispensable. It just makes me feel helpless sometimes.
John:In the meantime, why don’t we try finding someone from our staff to replace him? That way we’ll avoid the training period since all staff know, more or less, how things run around the office.
31. What is the problem with Dina's assistant?
  1. She needs to hire a temporary assistant.
  2. He feels helpless.
  3. He is sick.
  4. He doesn't want to help.
32. What does Dina imply about her assistant?
  1. She hates him.
  2. He is indispensable.
  3. He is helpless.
  4. He lives around the office.
33. What are they planning to do?
  1. Avoid the training period
  2. Run around the office
  3. Find someone from their staff to replace the assistant
  4. Hire a temporary assistant
Questions 34 - 36 refer to the following conversation.
Levi:When did you say you are going on that business trip again?
Siska:Well, I’m leaving on Wednesday evening, but I won’t be back until Tuesday.
Levi :The conference is on for two days isn’t it?
Siska:Well, yes, but since my husband is coming with me this time, we thought we’d take Monday off and spend the weekend by Lake Como near Milan. We’ve heard so many good things about it, and with my new position we haven’t had the chance to go on vacation in the last couple of years.
34. How many days will Siska be away from work?
  1. Three
  2. Four
  3. Five
  4. Six
35. When is the conference?
  1. Wednesday and Thursday
  2. Thursday and Friday
  3. Saturday and Sunday
  4. Monday and Tuesday
36. What can be inferred about Siska?
  1. She is usually too busy to go on vacation.
  2. She has been to Lake Camo before.
  3. She is going to the conference alone.
  4. She often goes on vacation.
Questions 37 - 39 refer to the following conversation.
Romi:I think we need to ask the Staff Director to order two new desks for us. Mine is very small, while yours is very big and takes up too much space. And we could do with new wallpaper as well.
Ulfa:That’s fine by me, but the company is on a very tight budget this year, so they might not approve any of it. We’re lucky we’ve still got a job.
Romi:Why don’t you draft a formal request, and we’ll see what happens?
Ulfa:Sure! There might even be some old desks available in the warehouse that would suit us perfectly.
37. What does Romi want to do?
  1. Buy new desks
  2. Make his table larger
  3. Take up more space
  4. Renovate his office.
38. What does Ulfa imply about the company?
  1. It doesn't have lot of money to spend.
  2. It sells new wallpapers this year.
  3. It will approve their requests.
  4. It gives them a new job in the office.
39. What does Romi ask Siska to do?
  1. Find old desks in the warehouse.
  2. See what will happen to their desks.
  3. Save more office space.
  4. Write a formal request
Questions 40 - 42 refer to the following conversation.
Timmy:I ordered some products from your company a week ago but they haven’t arrived yet, although you had assured me you would ship them one or two days after I placed my order.
Voice:Give me a second, sir, to track down your order, ... yes, here it is. The products were shipped on September the 19th, that’s a day after you placed your order. The shipping number is 335601342 and the courier company is BLC.
Timmy:Oh, OK. I’ll try contacting them to find out what’s taking them so long to deliver the package.
Voice:My guess is that they’ve got problems with the customs office. In any case, call me if I can be of any further assistance.
40. Why did Timmy call?
  1. He wanted to place an order.
  2. He couldn't find the order shipping number.
  3. His order hadn't arrived.
  4. He wanted to cancel an order delivery.
41. When were the products sent?
  1. September 12th
  2. September 18th
  3. September 19th
  4. September 20th
42. What will Timmy most probably do afterwards?
  1. Call the courier company.
  2. Cancel the shipment.
  3. Solve the customs problems.
  4. Go to the customs office.
Questions 43 - 45 refer to the following conversation.
Operator:Mr. Lee isn’t coming in today. Can I take a message?
Anita:I’d rather talk to him in person. Do you know when he’s coming back?
Operator:I’m afraid he’s not coming in for the next couple of weeks. He’s on a sabbatical to work on his dissertation.
Anita:Well, in that case could you please tell him that I’ve reviewed his article and that he needs to contact me to go over my revisions ASAP? Unless you can give me his home number and I’ll contact him in person.
43. Why isn’t Mr. Lee in his office?
  1. He is reviewing a dissertation.
  2. He is finishing a revision project.
  3. He's on vacation.
  4. He's on a sabbatical leave.
44. What does Anita want Mr. Lee to do?
  1. Give her his phone number.
  2. Contact her.
  3. Review his article.
  4. Check her revisions.
45. How long will Mr. Lee be away?
  1. A year
  2. Several weeks
  3. Six months
  4. A couple of days
III. Reading Comprehenesion
Questions 46 - 49 refer to the following news.

Jayapura, Papua (ANTARA) - The Indonesian Army's Mi-17 helicopter that crashed on Mount Mandala in Oksop Sub-district, Pegunungan Bintang District, Papua Province, and killed 12 people aboard, was owing to bad weather, according to an official.

"I think the pilot had attempted to re-direct the helicopter to the original location due to foggy weather, but when the helicopter turned, it crashed into the mountain," Major General Herman Asaribab, commander of the Regional Military Command (Pangdam) XVII/Cenderawasih, remarked here on Saturday.

The helicopter reportedly lost contact during its flight from Oksibli to Sentani on June 28, 2019. Since the day it went missing, search efforts have been steadily made to locate the helicopter by involving a Bell Helicopter 206 and Bell Helicopter 412 bearing registration number HA-5177. However, the SAR's efforts to locate the missing helicopter have been hindered by factors, including erratic weather conditions and difficulties on ground due to inaccessibility to roads.

46. What is the news about?
  1. Mount Mandala in Oksop Sub-district
  2. A helicopter crash in Papua Province
  3. Indonesian Army's Mi-17 helicopters
  4. The bad weather in Pegunungan Bintang
47. According to the text, what was the cause of the flight accident?
  1. Inaccessibility to roads
  2. Difficulties on ground
  3. An official's decision
  4. Bad weather
48. These are the factors that made the attempts to find the helicopter difficult, EXCEPT ....
  1. weather conditions
  2. difficult terrain
  3. human errors
  4. inaccessibility to roads
49. "I think the pilot had attempted to re-direct the helicopter to the original location ...."
What is the synonym of the underlined word?
  1. stopped
  2. repaired
  3. continued
  4. tried
Questions 50 - 53 refer to the following memo.
Memorandum
50. Who sent the above memo?
  1. GTS Sales Staff
  2. Karen Moore
  3. Mr. John Sakazaki
  4. Mr. Lockhart
51. What does the memo talk about?
  1. Sales staff enthusiasm
  2. A new product
  3. Sales strategy
  4. A marketing presentation
52. According to the memo, what will GTS Sales Staff most likely receive in the near future?
  1. Bonus checks
  2. Customer presentation
  3. A congratulatory letter
  4. A new product
53. Who is Mr. Lockhart?
  1. Sales manager of GTS
  2. A supplier
  3. A customer
  4. Karen Moore's worker
Questions 54 - 57 refer to the following letter.

Dear Mr. Komar,

We are sorry to learn that the vacuum cleaner you recently ordered arrived with several missing parts. Thank you for returning it promptly.

A replacement model of the same style, color, and price is being shipped to you and should arrive in two days' time. It has been carefully inspected to ensure that you will not be troubled again with a similar problem.

We sincerely regret the delay and inconvenience that has caused you, but we hope that you will be pleased with your new cleaner.

Thank you for your patience.

Sincerely,

Agung

Customer Relations


54. What is the purpose of the letter?
  1. To address a complaint
  2. To confirm an order
  3. To reply to a complaint
  4. To order the missing parts
55. What was the problem with the order?
  1. It was delayed.
  2. It should be returned soon.
  3. It hasn't been received.
  4. There were some missing parts.
56. What might have caused the problem?
  1. The order delivery was not on time.
  2. Mr. Komar was not satisfied with the product.
  3. The order was not carefully inspected.
  4. The replacement had a different style and color.
57. What should Mr. Komar do after receiving the letter?
  1. Make another complaint for the delay
  2. Reply to a complaint from Agung
  3. Contact the Customer Relations staff
  4. Wait until the replacement arrives
Questions 58 - 60 refer to the following letter.

Dear Mr. Jiggit,

Your resume is very impressive, but we are no longer hiring full time workers. Like many companies, we are trying to operate with a minimum staff, hiring temporary office workers.

When the workload increases, or when we need people for a specific project, we look for part time workers. Should such a need arise, we will contact you.

With every good wish.

Sincerely yours,
Sa Osheroff

58. What employment practice does this company share with others?

  1. Hiring temporary workers
  2. Hiring full-time workers
  3. Training its own workers
  4. Asking retirees to return
59. When are these workers usually hired?
  1. When costs are high
  2. When the workload increases
  3. When employees are ill
  4. When they operate with a minimum staff
60. Mr. Jiggit probably wrote to the company ....
  1. to inquire about a part time job
  2. to ask about company benefits
  3. to look for temporary office workers
  4. to seek full-time employment

July 21, 2020

Talking About Family And Relatives (KD 3.1 & 4.1)

Kompetensi Dasar:
3.1Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait jati diri dan hubungan keluarga, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya. (Perhatikan unsur kebahasaan pronoun: subjective, objective, possessive)
4.1Menyusun teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis pendek dan sederhana yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait jati diri, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai konteks penggunaannya.
I. Read the following conversations and practice them with your friend.
Conversation 1
Jean:Who's that, David?
David:Oh, that's my cousin, Amy. She's Aunt Dina's daughter.
Jean:Oh, I see. She's very pretty. How old is she?
David:Twenty-two.
Jean:What does she do?
David:She's an accountant. She works in an office.
Jean:Is she married or single?
David:She's still single.
Conversation 2
David:I just got an email from Aunt Shinta. You remember her, don't you?
Jean:Yes, I remember. She's the one who has been working abroad since last year.
David:She has two children, doesn't he?
Jean:That's right. She said they would probably be able to visit us next year.
David:Great. You must be very happy to meet your cousins again.
Jean:Yes. I'm looking forward to seeing my uncle's family again.
II. Complete the sentences with the appropriate word from the list on the right.
1.My father's parents are my ....cousin
2.My mother's sister is my ....grandparents
3.My mother's brother is my ....nephew
4.My uncle's son is my ....grandmother
5.My sister's daughter is my ....aunt
6.My brother's son is my ....grandchildren
7.My son's children are my ....brother
8.My uncle is my father's ....grandfather
9.My aunt is my father's ....uncle
10.My father's mother is my ....niece
11.My father's father is my ....step-sister
12.My father's sister is my mother's ....sister
III. Use the possessive form of the pronoun in each of the following sentences (my/our/your/their/his/her/its).
Example:
... brother had another child. (I)
My brother had another child.
  1. ... brother works in a foreign company. (She)
  2. ... cousin has been married for a long time. (He)
  3. When is ... parents' wedding anniversary? (You)
  4. When is ... mother's birthday? (They)
  5. ... grandfather died five years ago. (I)
  6. We are busy preparing. ... sister's wedding will take place next week.
  7. She is a widow. ... husband passed away last year.
  8. Andi and Susi has a baby. ... baby was born last month.
  9. Mr. and Mrs. Ali live alone. ... children work abroad.
  10. My sister has just started ... career as a secretary.
IV. Complete the following sentences by referring to the family tree below.

Family Tree
  1. Robert is my ....
  2. Tina is my ....
  3. Susy is my ....
  4. Ronald and Annie are my ....
  5. Bobby and Anita are my ....
  6. Pamela is Robert's ....
  7. Robert is Anita's ....
  8. Nick is Bobby's ....
  9. Tina and I are .... Ronald's ....
  10. Ronald is Bobby's ....
Blog pic 071810 1248am
Exercises adapted from: English 900, A Basic Course (Three), Unit 4

July 19, 2020

English Dialogue With Passive Voice: Meeting Friends At The Airport

J
im and Betty have come to the airport to meet their friends, Nancy and Tom, who are returning from a holiday in Indonesia. The plane has just arrived.
Betty:Oh, Jim, isn't it exciting!
Jim:Yes, it is. Can you see Nancy and Tom?
Betty:No, not yet.
Jim:Look, Betty, the stairs are being pushed towards the plane!
Betty:Yes, they're being put near the door of the plane. Oh, now the door is being opened. Oh, another door is being opened! What is that door for?
Jim:The passengers' luggage is taken out of that door.
Betty:I see. Oh, now the passengers are being allowed to come out of the plane! But I can't see Nancy and Tom yet.
Jim:Never mind. Perhaps they've been sitting at the back of the plane. They're probably being delayed by all the other passengers in front of them.
Betty:Look behind you, Jim! What a lot of people are waving handkerchiefs! They're recognising their friends.
Jim:My handkerchief is ready. I'll wave it as soon as I see Nancy and Tom.
Betty:Oh bother! Mine is in my bag. Jim, there's Nancy.
Jim:And there's Tom!
Betty:They haven't seen us yet.
Jim:I suppose our handkerchiefs can't be seen among all these other ones.
Betty:Oh, Jim, the passengers aren't being allowed to come and say "hello" to their friends. They're being taken into that room over there!
Jim:Yes, Betty. That's the Customs room. Their luggage must be examined by the Customs officials before they're allowed to talk to their friends.
Betty:Look, Nancy has seen us! She's waving to us.
Jim:So is Tom.
Betty:Hello, Nancy!
Jim:Tom! Hello!
Betty:Oh, we can't be heard - there's too much noise! How long before we'll be able to talk to them?
Jim:Oh, people are never kept very long by the Customs officials. After their luggage is examined, they'll be able to talk to us.
Betty:But while their luggage is being examined, we aren't allowed to go into the Customs room.
Jim:No, nobody is allowed to go into the Customs room to speak to the passengers. Let's go and wait near the door.
Betty:Oh yes! I can hardly wait to be told all about their holiday in Indonesia.
Meeting Friends At The Airport
Answer the following questions.
  1. Where does the conversation take place?
  2. What are Jim and Betty doing there?
  3. Where have Nancy and Tom been?
  4. What will Jim do with his handkerchief?
  5. Where's Betty's handkerchief?
  6. Can the passengers come and say 'hello' to their friends after they come out of the plane?
  7. Where are the passengers being taken?
  8. When will Jim and Betty be able to talk to their friends?
  9. Where will they wait for their friends?
  10. Please copy all the sentences with "passive present continuous" and underline the verbs.
7/27/11, 11:34 PM, PV 2353
Family vector created by pch.vector - www.freepik.com

June 29, 2020

English Dialogue With SO And NEITHER: My Back Is Sore

I
t's Saturday evening. Jim and Betty have been working in the garden all day. They're sitting in the living room after dinner.
Jim:I've worked so hard today, Betty!
Betty:So have I, Jim! I haven't even read this morning's paper.
Jim:Neither have I! Where is it?
Betty:Oh, I think it's on top of refrigerator in the kitchen. Would you mind getting it, Jim? I'm too tired to move.
Jim:I don't really want to read it.
Betty:Well, neither do I. You know, my back is quite sore.
Jim:So is mine. I planted a lot of young plants this afternoon.
Betty:I didn't stop working all the afternoon.
Jim:Neither did I. And by three o'clock my back was aching!
Betty:So was mine. I wasn't able to stand up straight for quite a while afterwards.
Jim:Neither was I. My whole body feels sore.
Betty:So does mine. I shan't plant any more young plants for a while.
Jim:Neither shall I. I'd like to rest for hours now.
Betty:Jim, you shouldn't work so hard in the garden in future.
Jim:Neither should you. But we both like to have flowers in the house. At any rate, I like to see flowers in the house.
Betty:Oh, so do I, Jim. But we can't afford to buy flowers all the time. ... Oh, well, perhaps we'll feel better tomorrow.
Jim:Perhaps! What are we going to do tomorrow, Betty?
Betty:If it's fine, I wouldn't mind going for a drive in the car.
Jim:Neither would I. Let's ask Hadi and Yati to go for a drive with us. Hadi likes going for a drive.
Betty:So does Yati. She'll enjoy a drive in the country.
Jim:They're both fond of the country.
Betty:We can take a picnic lunch, and perhaps we could go to National Park. I'd like that.
Jim:So would I. Hadi has been there, hasn't he?
Betty:Yes, and so has Yati. But I don't mind how often I go there.
Jim:Neither do I. It's a very pleasant place, with all those lovely trees.
Betty:Oh, I'm looking forward to it! My back feels better already.
Jim:So does mine. I'll go and phone Hadi immediately.
Betty:And when you've phoned Hadi, I'll phone Yati. Tell Hadi we'll call for him at half past nine tomorrow morning.
Jim:All right, Betty.
Betty:I'll get the newspaper. I'll need it while you're talking to Hadi.
EXERCISE
A. Answer the following questions.
English Dialogue With SO And NEITHER
  1. Have Jim and Betty worked hard today, or have they been idle?
  2. Have they read the newspaper?
  3. Where is the newspaper?
  4. Why wouldn't Jim or Betty get the newspaper?
  5. How did their back feel?
  6. What did they do in the garden?
  7. What are they going to do tomorrow?
  8. Who is Jim going to call?
  9. Who is Betty going to call?
  10. Do Hadi and Yati like going for a drive?
  11. Where will they go?
  12. Are they going to eat in a restaurant or are they going to take a picnic lunch?
  13. What time will Jim and Betty pick Hadi up tomorrow morning?
  14. What will Betty do while Jim is talking to Hadi?
  15. Please copy the dialogue and underline all the phrases/sentences with "so" and "neither".
B. Complete the following sentences using "so" or "neither".
  1. Adi: I like mangoes.
    Jaka: ... do I.
  2. Hendra: Santi doesn't live near here.
    Udin: ... does Tari.
  3. Kiki: I haven't had lunch. I'm so hungry.
    Ovin: ... have I.
  4. Tasya: I didn't understand what he was saying.
    Dena: ... did I. I think he spoke too fast.
  5. Rio: My office has applied new policies as a response to Covid-19 outbreak.
    Lily: ... has mine.
  6. Yudi: I couldn't go out of town due to the travel restriction.
    Gita: ... I.
  7. Maya: My father works in a private company.
    Elsa: ... my father. He often has to work on Sundays.
  8. Dea: Ahmad didn't attend the meeting yesterday.
    Joni: ... did Hans, his supervisor.
  9. Umi: Many students aren't prepared for online learning during the pandemic.
    Tika: ... are teachers. Most of them are still adapting to new technologies.
  10. Yana: Eating nutritious food is very important in maintaining our health.
    Sita: ... is having regular exercise. A little exercise every day can help us stay healthy.
BSE SMK, 061811 10:34 AM, 2438

June 15, 2020

English Dialogue With Passive Voice: A Trip to Indonesia

H
adi is sitting and drinking a cup of coffee when he sees Margaret.
Hadi:Hello, Margaret!
Margaret:Oh, hello, Hadi.
Hadi:Won't you sit down here?
Margaret:Certainly.
What are you doing?
Hadi:Just drinking coffee and thinking.
Margaret:Well, now you can drink coffee and talk! I want to be told all the news!
Hadi:News! What news!
Margaret:About Jim and Betty's friends, the Fosters - Tom and Nancy. They've just come back from Indonesia, haven't they?
Hadi:Oh, yes, they arrived home last week. I was invited to Jim and Betty's place a few days ago, and Tom and Nancy were there too.
Margaret:And did they tell you all about their trip? What did they do? Where did they go?What interested them the most? Did they enjoy themselves?
Hadi:Yes, I think they enjoyed their holiday very much. They went to Jakarta first - by plane from Sydney. They have some friends in Jakarta, and so they were invited to a lot of places, and they were taken on several visits.
Margaret:Lucky people!
Hadi:After they'd been in Jakarta for a few days, a visit to Bandung was arranged for them. They were taken there by car. They were delighted by the scenery in Bandung.
Margaret:Yes, it must be a beautiful place.
Hadi:Ah, you'll go there one day, Margaret!
Margaret:Mm! Did Nancy and Tom speak Indonesian while they were there?
Hadi:A little. They knew only a few words of Indonesian - but they practiced them whenever possible! They met some Indonesian people who could speak English to them.
Margaret:Really?
Hadi:Yes, English is spoken by quite a lot of people in Indonesia now! One day Nancy and Tom were invited to a meeting of a Youth Club. They were asked to give a speech.
Margaret:In English?
Hadi:Yes. And after the speech had been given, they were asked a lot of questions about Australia. They found it very interesting.
Margaret:H'm.
Hadi:Another day, they went to Borobudur.
Margaret:Where?
Hadi:Borobudur. Haven't you heard of it?
Margaret:I'm not sure, Hadi. Where is it?
Hadi:It's in Central Java. It's an old Buddhist temple. It was built - oh, a long time ago.
Margaret:How long ago?
Hadi:I don't know, Margaret - I'm not a history student!
Margaret:Neither am I.
Hadi:I don't think the date is known exactly, but it must have been built - oh, between the eighth and ninth centuries. It was designed very beautifully.
Margaret:And it's a tourist attraction, is it?
Hadi:Yes. If you come to the party next week, you'll be shown some pictures of it. Tom and Nancy are bringing some photos that were taken in Indonesia.
Margaret:Good! I love being shown photos! What else did Tom and Nancy do?
Hadi:Well, they didn't have much time to go to a lot of places - it was only a very short holiday - but they had a quick visit to Bali. Then they came back to Jakarta, and caught the plane home to Sydney.
Margaret:And they were met at the airport by Betty and Jim.
Hadi:Yes. And when Betty and Jim heard all about their holiday, they decided that they must go to Indonesia for a holiday themselves!
Exercise
Answer the following questions.
  1. Where does the above conversation probably take place?
    English Dialogue With Passive Voice
  2. Who are they talking about?
  3. Where have the Fosters been?
  4. When did they arrive?
  5. What places did they visit during their trip?
  6. How long did they stay in Jakarta?
  7. Where did they go after visiting Jakarta?
  8. Did Nancy and Tom speak Indonesian language during their trip?
  9. where did Nancy and Tom give a speech?
  10. What happened after the speech?
  11. Does Margaret know much about Borobudur temple?
  12. What does Hadi know about Borobudur?
  13. Where will Margaret be shown the photos of the trip?
  14. Was it a long holiday, or was it a short one?
  15. What did Betty and Jim decide to do after hearing about the Fosters' holiday?
BML 062611 1159 AM 2420

May 02, 2020

6 Kesalahan Berbahasa Inggris Dalam Materi Asking And Giving Opinions

S
aat mempelajari materi "Asking and Giving Opinions" dalam mata pelajaran bahasa Inggris, seringkali siswa harus melakukan unjuk kerja seperti membuat dialog bahasa Inggris dan mempraktekkannya di depan kelas. Meskipun telah mendapat pembekalan berupa ungkapan-ungkapan untuk menanyakan atau meminta pendapat (asking for opinions), mengeluarkan pendapat (giving opinions), serta menyetujui dan tidak menyetujui pendapat (agreeing and disagreeing with opinions), siswa masih sering membuat kesalahan dalam menggunakan ungkapan-ungkapan tersebut.

Berikut ini beberapa macam kesalahan yang sangat sering dilakukan siswa dalam mempraktekkan materi "Asking And Giving Opinions".

  1. Menggunakan frase "according to me" atau "according to my opinion" untuk mengungkapkan pendapat pribadi.

    Dalam bahasa Indonesia, frase "menurut saya" dan "menurut pendapat saya" adalah ungkapan yang umum digunakan untuk mengutarakan pendapat. Akan tetapi, jika frase tersebut diterjemahkan secara serampangan tanpa memperhatikan kaidah penggunaan kata dalam bahasa Inggris, terjemahan yang didapat seringkali adalah "according to me", atau "according to my opinion".

    Padahal penggunaan "according to me" untuk mengutarakan pendapat pribadi adalah kurang tepat, karena penggunaan "according to ..." yang benar adalah untuk mengutip pendapat, kondisi, atau pernyataan orang lain, atau mengutip suatu peraturan tertentu, dan bukan pendapat pribadi orang yang berbicara. Contoh-contoh kalimat dengan penggunaan "according to me" yang benar adalah:

    • According to the travel agency, the bus will arrive at the destination on 8 P.M. this evening.
      As stated by the travel agency, the bus will arrive at the destination on 8 P.M. this evening.
    • According to the new regulation, legal requirements will be required for exports of wood products.
      In conformity with the new regulations, legal requirements will be required for exports of wood products.
    • Everyone worked hard according to their ability.
      Everyone worked hard depending on their ability.

    Untuk mengutarakan pendapat, terjemahan bahasa Inggris yang tepat untuk frase "menurut saya" atau "menurut pendapat saya" adalah in my opinion, in my point of view, as for me. (Lihat materi "Asking And Giving Opinions").

  2. Menggunakan kalimat "I am agree", atau "I am not agree" untuk mengungkapkan setuju atau tidak setuju.

    Agree adalah termasuk kata kerja yang berkaitan dengan aktifitas mental dan harus menggunakan bentuk simple, bukan bentuk continuous. Penggunaannya tidak membutuhkan auxiliary verb "be" atau "to be", seperti "am", "is", atau "are". Jadi cukup kata kerja "agree" dalam bentuk simple saja. (Lihat materi Simple Present Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, & Latihan Soal)

    Karena itu, kalimat yang tepat seharusnya adalah, "I agree" untuk mengungkapan kesetujuan, atau "I don't agree" untuk mengungkapkan ketidaksetujuan terhadap suatu pendapat.

  3. Menggunakan kalimat "I am believe", atau "I am not believe" untuk mengungkapkan keyakinan atau ketidakyakinan terhadap suatu pendapat.

    Sama dengan penjelasan nomer 2, believe adalah termasuk kata kerja yang berkaitan dengan aktifitas mental dan tidak membutuhkan auxiliary verb "be" atau "to be".

    Karena itu, kalimat yang tepat seharusnya adalah, "I believe" untuk mengungkapan keyakinan, atau "I don't believe" untuk mengungkapkan ketidakyakinan.

  4. Menggunakan kalimat "Are you agree?", "Are you believe that ...?", atau "What are you thinking about ...?" untuk menanyakan pendapat.

    Masih sama dengan penjelasan nomer 2, agree, believe, dan think jika bermakna memiliki pendapat tidak membutuhkan auxiliary verb "be" atau "to be", seperti "am", "is", atau "are". Jadi cukup kata kerja dalam bentuk simple.

    Karena itu, kalimat yang tepat untuk menanyakan pendapat seharusnya adalah, "Do you agree", "Do you believe", dan "What do you think about ...?".

    Di sini, penggunaan kata kerja "think" berarti "berpendapat", bukan "sedang memikirkan". Jika "think" bermakna "sedang memikirkan", maka penggunaan kalimat "What are you thinking about?" sudah tepat, yang berarti "Apa yang sedang kamu pikirkan?

  5. Menggunakan kalimat "I couldn't agree more" atau "I can't agree more" untuk menyatakan tidak setuju.

    Makna yang tepat dari kalimat "I couldn't agree more" atau "I can't agree more" adalah "saya (sangat) setuju". Jelas bahwa penggunaannya adalah untuk mengungkapkan kesetujuan terhadap suatu pendapat, bukan ketidaksetujuan.

    Kesalahan Berbahasa Inggris Dalam Materi Asking And Giving Opinions
  6. Menggunakan kalimat "I agree to you" untuk menyatakan setuju terhadap pendapat seseorang.
    Makna yang sebenarnya dari frase "agree to" adalah "memberikan persetujuan terhadap sesuatu" atau "setuju untuk melakukan sesuatu". Contoh:
    • The principal has agreed to our proposed plans.
    • He agreed to consult his doctor for the symptoms.
    Jika maksudnya adalah untuk mengungkapkan kesetujuan terhadap pendapat seseorang, maka frase yang lebih tepat digunakan adalah "agree with". Jadi kalimat yang benar seharusnya "I agree with you".
Itulah 6 daftar kesalahan berbahasa Inggris yang sering terjadi dalam pembelajaran materi "Asking And Giving Opinions". Untuk lebih jauh mempelajari materi "Asking And Giving Opinions", baca juga beberapa materi pada tautan di bawah ini. Semoga bermanfaat.

April 26, 2020

Asking And Giving Opinions

W
hat is an opinion? An opinion is a view or judgment formed about something, which is not necessarily based on fact or knowledge. In our daily life, especially in our interactions with other people, there are times when we have to talk about opinions, that is to tell, ask, agree, or disagree with other people's opinions.

Asking And Giving Opinions

Do you understand what expressions are commonly used in sharing opinions? Well, in this material, we are going to learn some of the most common English expressions used in giving, asking, agreeing, and disagreeing with an opinion.

I. Asking and giving opinions
Expressions used in asking and giving opinions
Asking about OpinionsGiving Opinions
What do you think of ...?I think / feel (that) ....
What is your opinion on/about ...?I strongly believe (that) ....
How do you feel about ...?Well, as far as I’m concerned ....
What are your feelings about ...?I’m convinced / sure / positive that ....
What do you like from ...?In my opinion ....
Tell me what you think of ....It seems to me that ....
How do you like ...?Well, to my mind ....
What’s your idea about ...?In my point of view, ....
Why do you say that?Well, if you ask me, ....
Do you agree with / that ...?I have no doubt that ....
II. Agreeing and disagreeing with opinions
Expressions used in agreeing and disagreeing with opinions
AgreeingDisagreeing
Exactly / certainly.I disagree / don’t agree (with you).
I think / suppose so.I see your point, but ....
I agree (with you).Do you think so?
You’re (absolutely) right.I don’t think / suppose so.
That’s true.You must be mistaken.
That’s exactly what I think.Oh, surely not. It's not the same thing at all.
I’m with you.It’s not right. / It’s wrong.
I'm on your side.Yes, but on the other hand, ....
I'll give you that.As for me, I would rather ....
I can’t / couldn’t agree more.We must agree to disagree.
III. Sample dialogues about asking and giving opinions
A. Dialogue 1: Talking about a talented person
Rena:Did you see Ali's performance last night?
Udin:Yes, I did. What do you think of it?
Rena:It was fabulous! I never thought he has such a great talent in music.
Udin:I agree with you. It was one his best performance.
Rena:I'm sure that if he keeps practicing and practicing, he will be a great musician some day.
Udin:That's exactly what I think, Rena.
B. Dialogue 2: Talking about health
Santi:Have you heard the news? The government has urged members of the public to wear a mask to prevent Covid-19 infection.
Julia:Yes, I've heard about that. What's your opinion? Should we really wear a mask?
Santi:Well, there are controversies about it. But , I would rather wear one than wear nothing.
Julia:Well, let's think about it. I'm sure that if everyone starts wearing masks it will create a shortage of masks for health care workers who need masks more desperately than we do.
Santi:I see your point, but we don't have to wear a clinical mask, do we? We can wear a cloth mask for protection, instead.
Julia:I agree with you on this. Clinical masks should be worn only when someone has flu or cough, or they are exposed directly to sick persons.
Santi:That's what I wear when I go out. Cloth mask will do for protection.
Julia:By the way, I have another question. Do you think wearing a mask is really effective in protecting us from Covid-19 infection?
Santi:Well, that's still debatable. As for me, wearing a protection is much better and safer than wearing nothing at all, especially in the midst of this outbreak.
C. Dialogue 3: Talking about clothes
Raisa:What do you think I should wear to Dea's birthday party?
Ima:In my opinion, any dress will do. I know you have quite a lot of party dresses.
Ima:Yes, but I don't want to be seen wearing the same dress in a party.
Ima:I see, but Dea and her friends have never seen all of your dresses, right?
Raisa:You're right. Then, I'll wear the green dress that I wore in my cousin's engagement party.
Ima:That'll be fine. I don't think you can afford buying a new dress every time you are invited to a party.
Santi:That's true, Ima.
Exercise
A. Do you know what these sentences imply?
The sentences below are taken from the sample dialogues above. Identify their meaning by choosing the correct options; A, B, C, or D.
  1. What do you think of it?
    1. Asking for an opinion
    2. Giving an opinion
    3. Agreeing with an opinion
    4. Disagreeing with an opinion
  2. I agree with you. It was one his best performance.
    1. Asking for an opinion
    2. Giving an opinion
    3. Agreeing with an opinion
    4. Disagreeing with an opinion
  3. I'm sure that if he keeps practicing and practicing, he will be a great musician some day.
    1. Asking for an opinion
    2. Giving an opinion
    3. Agreeing with an opinion
    4. Disagreeing with an opinion
  4. That's exactly what I think.
    1. Asking for an opinion
    2. Giving an opinion
    3. Agreeing with an opinion
    4. Disagreeing with an opinion
  5. What's your opinion? Should we really wear a mask?
    1. Asking for an opinion
    2. Giving an opinion
    3. Agreeing with an opinion
    4. Disagreeing with an opinion
  6. But personally, I would rather wear one than wear nothing.
    1. Asking for an opinion
    2. Giving an opinion
    3. Agreeing with an opinion
    4. Disagreeing with an opinion
  7. I see your point, but we don't have to wear a clinical mask, do we?
    1. Asking for an opinion
    2. Giving an opinion
    3. Agreeing with an opinion
    4. Disagreeing with an opinion
  8. As for me, wearing a protection is much better and safer than wearing nothing at all, especially in the midst of this outbreak.
    1. Asking for an opinion
    2. Giving an opinion
    3. Agreeing with an opinion
    4. Disagreeing with an opinion
  9. What do you think I should wear to Dea's birthday party?
    1. Asking for an opinion
    2. Giving an opinion
    3. Agreeing with an opinion
    4. Disagreeing with an opinion
  10. I see, but Dea and her friends have never seen all of your dresses, right?
    1. Asking for an opinion
    2. Giving an opinion
    3. Agreeing with an opinion
    4. Disagreeing with an opinion
B. Complete these dialogues.
Complete the dialogues below by filling each blank underlined space with the best phrase or sentence on the right.
Dialogue 1
Yana:...(1)... about Indonesian movies?In my opinion
Maya:...(2)..., some of them are good, but some are not worth-seeing.I see
Yana:...(3)...?What do you mean
Maya:Some films are made seriously by reputable and experienced producers, while some are made just to be a flash in the pan.What do you think
Yana:...(4).... What kind of films do you like?
Maya:Thrillers and dramas. I like the film that bases its story line on common people's every day life, yet emotionally capturing or thrilling.
Dialogue 2
Cita:Look! Our school walls have been repainted. It looks fresh now. ...(5)...?We must agree to disagree
Rika:...(6)... that the old color is nicer.I disagree with you
Cita:Are you kidding? The newly painted wall and the flowers look wonderful together.What do you think
Rika:...(7).... To me, it’s the worst color combination our school has ever had.It seems to me
Cita:...(8)... this time.
Dialogue 3
Nadia:Dina, that's a red rose, isn't it?I can't agree more
Dina:Yes, it is. And look at that yellow one. Isn't that magnificent?as for me
Nadia:Well, ...(9)..., I would rather have the red one. I'm not really keen on yellow roses. Do you have a garden, Dina?
Dina:Yes, I do. It's small, but it's fun to take care of flowers in our spare time.
Nadia:...(10).... Flowers can be very refreshing.
C. What is your opinion on these issues?
Do you agree with the following issues, or do you disagree? Write your opinion and reason(s).
  1. Members of the public must wear masks in order to prevent and stop the spread of Covid-19.
  2. Strict lockdown such as in India should be applied to stop the spread of Covid-19.
  3. Clinical masks should be worn only by health workers and sick people.
  4. People always want something more or something different, and are never satisfied with what they have.
  5. Students should not bring mobile phones to school.
  6. National Test (UN) is important as a benchmark of national education.
  7. Students playing Tik-Tok during school hours must be punished.
  8. Social media profiles should be considered in new workers recruitment.
  9. School education must be free of charge.
  10. School uniform should be deleted.

Questions? Just drop a few lines in the comment section below.
For another example of a dialogue about feelings and opinions, just click the link below. Mo051611 1132 AM 140

April 23, 2020

Bentuk, Penggunaan, & Latihan Soal Present Continuous Tense

Latihan soal Present Continuous Tense
P
resent continuous tense atau present progressive tense adalah salah satu bentuk waktu (tense) yang sering digunakan dalam bahasa Inggris. Present continuous tense berbeda dengan simple present tense, baik dalam penggunaannya maupun struktur dan bentuk kata kerjanya. Dalam materi kali ini, kita akan membahas struktur, bentuk, dan penggunaan present continuous tense secara lengkap, lalu diikuti dengan latihan soal untuk memastikan pemahaman kalian tentang present continuous tense.
I. Bagaimana struktur & bentuk Present Continuous tense?
Struktur dan bentuk Present Continuous tense adalah sbb:
(+) Subject + auxiliary verb (be) + main verb (verb + ing)
(?) Auxiliary verb (be) + subject + main verb (verb + ing)?
(-) Subject + auxiliary verb (be) not + main verb (verb + ing)

Lihatlah contoh-contoh kalimat Present continuous tense di bawah ini:
Contoh kalimat positif dalam Present Continuous tense
Subject auxiliary verb (be)main verb
(verb + ing)
Iamworkingwith a laptop.
YouarestudyingEnglish.
Aniisreadinga magazine.
The studentsaredoinga test.
Contoh kalimat tanya dalam Present Continuous tense
Auxiliary verb (be)Subjectmain verb
(verb + ing)
AmIworkingwith a laptop?
AreyoustudyingEnglish?
IsAnireadinga magazine?
Arethe studentsdoinga test?
Contoh kalimat negatif dalam Present Continuous tense
Subject auxiliary verb
(be) + not
main verb
(verb + ing)
Iam notworkingwith a laptop.
Youare notstudyingEnglish.
Aniis notreadinga magazine.
The studentsare notdoinga test.
II. Bagaimana penggunaan Present Continuous Tense?
Present Continuous Tense digunakan untuk:
  • Membicarakan kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung atau sedang dilakukan sekarang / pada saat ini juga, biasanya dengan keterangan waktu; now, at the moment, at present. Contoh:
    • You are studying how to use the present continuous tense.
    • Right now you are looking at this screen.
    • You are reading these example sentences.
  • Membicarakan kegiatan di masa sekarang yang bersifat sementara, bukan merupakan kebiasaan dan tidak bersifat permanen, biasanya dengan keterangan waktu; at this time, temporarily, for the time being. Contoh:
    • The government is trying to stop the spread of Covid-19.
    • Experts are working hard to develop a vaccine for Covid-19.
    • He is living with his sister until he finds a boarding house.
  • Membicarakan kegiatan yang sudah direncanakan / dipersiapkan dan akan segera dilakukan di waktu yang akan datang, dan harus disertai dengan keterangan waktu (adverbs of time), seperti; this evening, tomorrow, next week, in July, atau paling tidak waktu kegiatan sudah dipahami / diketahui. Contoh:
    • We are leaving at 8 this evening. We have booked the train tickets.
    • I am seeing my dentist tomorrow. We have made an appointment.
    • We are going to the beach this weekend.
  • Digunakan dengan always, umumnya dalam kalimat positif, untuk membicarakan suatu kebiasaan, disengaja atau tidak disengaja, yang dianggap mengganggu dan menjengkelkan karena terjadi berulang kali. Contoh:
    • She is always asking me questions.
    • Rama is always complaining about his job.
    • Oh no. You are always losing your keys.
    Dalam penggunaan ini, always + present continuous tense berbeda dengan always + simple present tense yang membicarakan rutinitas biasa.
III. Bagaimana penulisan ejaan dalam Present Continuous tense?
Present Continuous tense disusun dengan menggunakan kata kerja bentuk "ing" (verb -ing), caranya dengan menambahkan akhiran "ing" pada kata kerja dasar. Ada beberapa aturan dalam pembentukan verb-ing, sebagai berikut:
  • Tidak ada perubahan pada kata kerja dasar jika huruf terakhir berupa konsonan yang pengucapannya tidak mendapat penekanan.
    Contoh: walk > walking, work > working, stand > standing, blow > blowing, rain > raining, steer > steering, play > playing, open > opening, dll.
  • Menggandakan huruf terakhir jika huruf terakhir berupa konsonan yang pengucapannya mendapat penekanan.
    Contoh: stop > stopping, run > running, begin > beginning, drop > dropping, bid > bidding, get > getting, dll.
  • Jika kata kerja dasar berakhiran "ie", gantilah "ie" dengan "y".
    Contoh: lie > lying, die > dying, tie > tying, dll.
  • Jika kata kerja dasar berakhiran dengan huruf vokal (vowel) "e", hilangkan "e".
    Contoh: come > coming, make > making, take > taking, choose > choosing, give > giving, write > writing, dll.
Latihan Soal
Task 1.
Ubahlah kata kerja berikut ini ke dalam bentuk "verb-ing".
stay = ....
hire = ....
delete = ....
tap = ....
move = ....
shine = ....
kick = ....
win = ....
send = ....
wave = ....
boil = ....
listen = ....
leave = ....
practice = ....
erase = ....
fly = ....
cut = ....
use = ....
Task 2.
Tambahkanlah "be" dan ubahlah kata kerja dalam kurung ke dalam bentuk "-ing" sehingga menjadi kalimat dalam bentuk Present Continuous tense yang benar. Lihat contoh pada nomer 1.
  1. We (eat) in a restaurant tonight.
    Jawaban: We are eating in a restaurant tonight.
  2. They (not work) tomorrow.
  3. When ... you (start) your new job?
  4. ... they (wait) for the bus?
  5. Look! That man (climb) the coconut tree.
  6. What ... you (do)?
  7. Rinda (type) the letter now.
  8. She (not use) the washing machine right now.
  9. Hendra (learn) to drive.
  10. My friends (come) to see me this evening.
Task 3.
Lengkapilah kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini dengan memberikan kata kerja yang sesuai dalam bentuk Present Continuous tense. Setiap kalimat bisa memiliki lebih dari 1 (satu) jawaban benar.
buy - play - cook - listen to - read - do - water - drink - watch - sleep

  1. My grandma ... the flowers in our garden.
  2. Tono and his brother ... a kite in the yard now.
  3. The cat ... on the sofa.
  4. My mother ... dinner in the kitchen.
  5. Andi ... not ... music right now.
  6. My father ... today's newspaper in the living room.
  7. ... she ... TV at the moment?
  8. The animals ... water from the pond.
  9. ... you ... this bed sheet? It's expensive.
  10. What ... they ... in the garage?
060711 0915PM 1408

April 20, 2020

Simple Past Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, dan Latihan Soal

Simple Past Tense
S
imple Past tense adalah bentuk kata kerja yang digunakan untuk membicarakan kegiatan atau kejadian di waktu lampau. Ada beberapa tenses yang bisa digunakan untuk membicarakan sesuatu yang terjadi di masa lampau, akan tetapi simple past tense inilah yang paling sering digunakan. Dalam materi ini, kita akan mempelajari bentuk atau struktur serta penggunaan Simple Past tense melalui contoh-contoh kalimat dan latihan soal untuk membantu kalian dalam belajar.
1. Bagaimana struktur kalimat dan bentuk kata kerja Simple Past tense?
Untuk membuat kalimat dalam Simple Past tense, kita menggunakan;
kata kerja bentuk lampau (Verb 2)
atau
auxiliary (did) + kata kerja dasar (verb 1)

Struktur kalimat positif, kalimat tanya, dan kalimat negatif dalam Simple Past tense secara lengkap adalah sebagai berikut:
(+) Subject + verb 2
(?)Did + subject + verb 1?
(-) Subject + did not (didn't) + verb 1

Lihatlah contoh-contoh kalimat dalam Simple Past tense berikut ini.
Contoh kalimat positif dalam Simple Past tense
SubjectPast verb (verb 2)
Isentthe email yesterday.
Hecleanedthe windows this morning.
Alyaplanteda flower in the garden.
Contoh kalimat tanya dalam Simple Past tense
Didsubjectverb 1
Didyousendthe email yesterday?
Didhecleanthe windows this morning?
DidAlyaplanta flower in the garden?
Contoh kalimat negatif dalam Simple Past tense
Subjectdid not (didn't)verb 1
Idid not (didn't)sendthe email yesterday.
Hedid not (didn't)cleanthe windows this morning.
Alyadid not (didn't)planta flower in the garden.
Di bawah ini adalah contoh beberapa kata kerja dasar (verb 1), baik regular maupun irregular verbs, dengan perubahannya dalam bentuk Simple Past (verb 2).
Regular verbsIrregular verbs
Verb 1Verb 2Verb 1Verb 2
basebasedblowblew
workworkedgowent
wantwantedcomecame
likelikedseesaw
visitvisitedreadread
playplayedwritewrote
Untuk daftar irregular verbs yang lebih lengkap, bisa dilihat dan diunduh di halaman Daftar Irregular Verbs Lengkap Dengan Artinya.
2. Bagaimana dengan kata kerja "to be" dalam Simple Past tense?
Penting diketahui bahwa kata kerja "to be" tidak menggunakan struktur kalimat past tense seperti di atas. Kata kerja "to be" (was, were) tidak membutuhkan auxiliary pada kalimat negatif dan kalimat tanya. Subyek I/he/she/it membutuhkan bentuk "to be" was, sedangkan we/you/they membutuhkan bentuk "to be" were. Perhatikan struktur kalimat Simple Past tense dengan kata kerja "to be" berikut ini:
Struktur kalimat Simple Past tense dengan kata kerja "to be"
Subjectto be
(+)I
He
They
was
was
were
here yesterday.
here yesterday.
here yesterday.
(?)Were
Was
Were
you
he
they
here yesterday?
here yesterday?
here yesterday?
(-)I
He
They
was not (wasn't)
was not (wasn't)
were not (weren't)
here yesterday.
here yesterday.
here yesterday.
3. Bagaimana dan kapan kita menggunakan Simple Past tense?

Seperti yang telah disebutkan di atas, Simple Past tense adalah bentuk kata kerja yang digunakan untuk kegiatan atau kejadian di waktu lampau. Karena itu, Simple Past tense hampir selalu digunakan dalam teks recount tentang pengalaman seseorang atau biografi seorang tokoh, narrative, seperti dongeng, legenda, dan cerita rakyat, serta teks berita (news item).

Secara lebih spesifik, Simple Past tense digunakan untuk:

  • Membicarakan suatu keadaan, kejadian atau kegiatan di waktu lampau dan waktu kejadiannya disebutkan atau sudah diketahui. Contoh:
    • The coronavirus first surfaced in a Chinese seafood and poultry market in Wuhan at the end of 2019.
    • On January 11 2020, Chinese state media reported the first known death from an illness caused by the virus.
    • Wage Rudolf Supratman, the writer of "Indonesia Raya" national anthem, was born on March 9, 1903 in Somongari, Purworejo, Central Java.
  • Membicarakan suatu keadaan, kejadian atau kegiatan yang sudah jelas terjadi di waktu lampau meskipun waktu kejadian tidak disebutkan secara spesifik. Contoh:
    • I graduated from a vocational high school in Probolinggo.
    • She worked in that factory for two years. (but she does not work there now.)
    • I bought this book in a book market in Malang.
  • Membicarakan suatu keadaan, kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi di suatu periode waktu lampau yang tidak mungkin akan terjadi lagi. Contoh:
    • Ismail Marzuki wrote at least 22 songs in his life.
    • My father took me to the zoo twice when I was a child.
    • It rained three times last week.
    Di sinilah letak perbedaan Simple Past dengan Present Perfect tense.

    Peristiwa-peristiwa lampau dalam kalimat contoh di atas tidak mungkin akan terjadi lagi karena jangka waktunya sudah berakhir. Jika jangka waktu masih belum berakhir dan masih ada kemungkinan untuk terjadi lagi, kita harus menggunakan bentuk Present Perfect tense.

  • Menanyakan kapan waktu terjadinya suatu keadaan, kejadian, atau kegiatan di waktu lampau. Contoh:
    • When did you arrive from Surabaya?
    • When did you meet her?
    • What time did you leave the office last night?
  • Dengan adverbs of frequency seperti always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, rarely, never, Simple Past digunakan untuk membicarakan kebiasaan di masa lampau, sama seperti penggunaan used to untuk membicarakan kebiasaan lampau. Contoh:
    • My father always picked me up from school.
    • They never came late.
    • He was always busy in the morning.
  • Membuat kalimat conditional (conditional sentence) type 2. Contoh:
    • If you took a closer look, you would be able to see the difference between these two pictures.
    • If they weren't so noisy, we would be able to concentrate.
    • It would not be so cold if you closed that window.

EXERCISE
A. Lengkapilah kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini dengan bentuk Simple Past (verb 2) dari kata kerja yang sesuai.

borrow - drive - give - watch - be - eat - spend - teach - decide - play

  1. He ... his childhood in a small village in East Java.
  2. I ... a good movie last night.
  3. We ... a very satisfying dinner last night.
  4. Before moving here, we always ... an hour to work every day.
  5. Lusi often ... tennis on weekends.
  6. The Japanese teacher ... our class last semester.
  7. She ... absent from school yesterday.
  8. We ... to work until late last night in order to meet the deadline.
  9. My Mom ... me a wonderful present on my last birthday.
  10. He ... my dictionary a few days ago.
B. Lengkapilah kalimat-kalimat berikut dengan mengubah kata kerja di dalam kurung ke dalam Simple Past tense. Lakukan perubahan susunan kalimat jika diperlukan.
Example:
  • She (make) this delicious cake this morning.
    Answer: She made this delicious cake this morning.
  • How you (get) your present job?
    Answer: How did you get your present job?
  1. My grandmother once (live) in Jember, East Java.
  2. She (work) in a foreign company for 3 years.
  3. They (buy) the car from a showroom last month.
  4. She (go) to the movie last night?
  5. I am sorry. I (not hear) the telephone.
  6. When you (send) the email?
  7. She (be) late because of the traffic jam.
  8. On 17 August 1945, Soekarno and Hatta (proclaim) the independence of Indonesia.
  9. They (not celebrate) the event because of Covid-19 outbreak.
  10. You (enjoy) your holiday?
C. Lengkapilah kalimat-kalimat berikut dengan mengubah kata kerja di dalam kurung ke dalam Simple Past tense. Pilihlah antara kalimat positif dan negatif sesuai dengan makna kalimat.
Example:
  • It was hot in the room, so we ... the windows. (open)
    Answer: It was hot in the room, so we opened the windows.
  • It was cold outside, so we ... the windows. (open)
    Answer: It was cold outside, so we didn't open the windows.
  1. It was very crowded, so we ... the concert. (enjoy)
  2. It was very cloudy this morning, so I ... my umbrella. (bring)
  3. I was very tired, but I ... very well. The bed was uncomfortable. (sleep)
  4. Atri ... to work yesterday because he was sick. (go)
  5. I have submitted the documents they need. I ... it by email about an hour ago. (send)
Reference:
  • Azar B.S. Understanding and Using English Grammar (2nd Ed). NJ: Prentice-Hall. Inc, 1989.
  • Thomson & Martinet (1986). A Practical English Grammar (4th Ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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