Friday, September 30, 2011

Contrasting The Simple Past With The Past Perfect Tense


Previously, we have contrasted the simple past with the past continuous and the simple past with the present perfect tense. Now, we will contrast the simple past with the past perfect.

Common mistakes made by English learners in using past tenses:

  1. She wasn't new in this town. She has lived here before.
  2. I told him that I have submitted the proposal the day before.
  3. She realized that she left her umbrella on the bus.
  4. The kids were excited to see the Komodo. They never saw the animal before.
  5. Last night, she felt very tired because she has worked all day.
The italicized verbs in the above sentences show the most common mistakes made by English learners when they are using the past tenses. Can you change them into the correct form? Yes, they should have been in the past perfect instead of the simple past or the present perfect tense.


The Simple Past TenseThe Past Perfect Tense
To tell past events in the order in which they occured.
Untuk menceritakan kejadian lampau sesuai urutan kejadian.
  • The bridge was destroyed during the war. They repaired it two years ago.
  • They got married in 2007. Their first son was born two years later.
To look back on earlier past events from a certain point in the past.
Untuk bercerita "secara mundur" tentang kejadian lampau yang lebih dahulu terjadi.
  • They repaired the bridge two years ago. It had been destroyed during the war.
  • Their first son was born in 2009. They had been married for two years then.
In clauses with "when", "as soon as": to indicate that one past event follows another very closely, possibly as a quick reaction.
Dalam kalimat berklausa ("when", "as soon as"): untuk menunjukkan bahwa suatu kejadian lampau terjadi segera setelah kejadian lampau lainnya (hampir bersamaan), mungkin sebagai reaksi yang cepat.
  • When the teacher came in, the classroom became quiet.
  • I screamed out in pain when he stepped on my swollen foot.
In clauses with "when", "as soon as": to emphasize that a past event was completed before another started.
Dalam kalimat berklausa ("when", "as soon as"): untuk menekankan bahwa suatu kejadian lampau telah selesai terjadi sebelum kejadian lampau lainnya dimulai.
  • When the teacher had left, the classroom became noisy.
  • As soon as she had packed her clothes, she left.
In "Till/Until + Past Perfect + Simple Past" combination, the action in the simple past normally happens earlier.
Dalam kalimat kombinasi "Till/Until + Past Perfect + Simple Past", kejadian yang menggunakan bentuk simple past biasanya terjadi lebih dahulu.
  • She waited till I had finished teaching.
  • I didn't understand until you had given me a clear explanation.
In "Till/Until + Past Perfect + Simple Past" combination, the past perfect emphasizes on the completion of an action / event.
Dalam kalimat kombinasi "Till/Until + Past Perfect + Simple Past", bentuk past perfect menekankan selesainya suatu aktifitas / kejadian.
  • She waited till I had finished teaching.
  • I didn't understand until you had given me a clear explanation.
In "Before + Past Perfect + Simple Past" combination, the action in the simple past always happens earlier.
Dalam kalimat kombinasi "Before + Past Perfect + Simple Past", kejadian yang menggunakan bentuk simple past selalu terjadi lebih dahulu.
  • The rain fell before we had arrived home.
  • Before we had finished the exercise the bell rang.
With "Before", both events may use the past perfect.
Dengan "Before", kedua kejadian / kegiatan bisa menggunakan bentuk past perfect.
  • Before I had finished packing the bus had arrived.
  • Before she had reached home it had started raining .
Used in time clauses "when", "as soon as" with verbs like "know, understand, realize, etc"
Digunakan dalam klausa keterangan waktu "when", "as soon as" bersama kata kerja seperti "know", "understand", "realize", dll
  • She fainted when she knew the truth.
  • When I realized that I had made a mistake, I apologized.
Used in time clauses "when", "as soon as" with verbs like "know", "understand", "realize", "etc" only when the period of time is mentioned.
Digunakan dalam klausa keterangan waktu "when", "as soon as" bersama kata kerja seperti "know", "understand", "realize", dll, hanya jika disebutkan jangka waktunya.
  • When he had known her for about two years he proposed a marriage to her.
  • When I had learned how to use English tenses I was able to write better.
Used in direct speeches to talk about past actions.
Digunakan dalam kalimat langsung untuk membicarakan kegiatan lampau.
  • She said, "I saw him in his office this morning."
  • She told me, "I put my dictionary on your table."
In indirect speeches, the past perfect tense often replaces the simple past and the present perfect tense.
Dalam kalimat tidak langsung, past perfect seringkali merupakan pengganti simple past dan present perfect tense.
  • She said that she had seen him in his office that morning.
  • She told me that she had put her dictionary on my table.
Used in conditional sentences type 2.
Digunakan dalam kalimat conditional type 2.
  • If we had more rain this year, we would have a better harvest.
  • If you lived in Malang you would be used to cold air.
Used in conditional sentences type 3.
Digunakan dalam kalimat conditional type 3.
  • If we had had more rain last year, we would have had a better harvest.
  • If you had lived in Malang you would have been used to cold air.
Used in unreal past with "wish"; to express regret about a present situation.
  • I wish I knew her mobile number. We can't inform her now.
  • I hate this traffic jam. I wish we lived in a small town.
Used in unreal past with "wish"; to express regret about a past situation.
  • I wish I had known her mobile number. I couldn't pass the information to her.
  • I was late for work due to the traffic jam. I wish I had taken the subway.
Used in the past subjunctive after "as if" or "as though", to indicate unreality or doubt or improbability in the present.
Digunakan dalam past subjunctive setelah "as if" atau "as though" untuk menggambarkan kondisi yang berlawanan dengan realita.
  • She talks about computer as if she knew a lot about it.
  • Don't behave as if you didn't know about the rule.
Used in the past subjunctive after "as if" or "as though", to refer to a real or imaginary action in the past.
Digunakan dalam past subjunctive setelah "as if" atau "as though" untuk membicarakan kondisi nyata atau tidak nyata di waktu lampau.
  • She talks / talked about computer as though she had known a lot about it.
  • They behaved as though they hadn't been informed about the rule.


Exercise

Put the verbs in the simple past or the past perfect.
  1. When the old man (return) home from his vacation he (find) that burglars (break) in during his absence. The front door (be) open and everything in the house (be) upside down.
  2. He (be) sure that he (see) the girl before. He (keep) looking at her, wondering where they (meet).
  3. He (return) the book, (thank) me for lending it to him and (say) that he (enjoy) it very much.
  4. We (be) lucky. It (stop) raining when the class (be) over.
  5. When we (get) married in 2006 we (know) each other for more than five years.
Click here to download the answer key to the above exercise.

Reference:

  1. Azar B.S. Understanding and Using English Grammar (2nd Ed). NJ: Prentice-Hall. Inc, 1989.
  2. Thomson & Martinet. A Practical English Grammar (4th Ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.
  3. Swan, M. Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Wednesday, September 28, 2011

English Olympiad For Junior High Schools (SMP / MTs)


In this test, you have to choose the best answer; A, B, C, D, or E to each question.
This is a timed test. You have 90 minutes to do this test.

Text 1: Questions No. 1 - 7

Living things ...(1)… found almost …(2)… on the Earth. They are found in …(3)… habitats. A habitat is the place …(4)… an organism lives. A pond, a stream, a field, an area of leaf …(5)…, a seashore and even a rotting log are all examples of habitats.
Within a habitat, many things affect the ...(6)… of the organism. Some of these things are air, water, and …(7)… organisms. The things that affect the organism make up its environment.
  1. Choose the correct word.
    1. be
    2. is
    3. are
    4. were
    5. will be
  2. Choose the correct word.
    1. nowhere
    2. everywhere
    3. elsewhere
    4. somewhere
    5. wherever
  3. Choose the correct word.
    1. difference
    2. differ
    3. differential
    4. differentiate
    5. different
  4. Choose the correct word.
    1. where
    2. which
    3. that
    4. whose
    5. what
  1. Choose the correct word.
    1. litter
    2. liter
    3. latter
    4. letter
    5. later
  2. Choose the correct word.
    1. survive
    2. survey
    3. surveillance
    4. survivor
    5. survival
  3. Choose the correct word.
    1. another
    2. the other
    3. other
    4. no other
    5. others

Text 2: Questions No. 8 - 14

Conservation of natural resources involves the intelligent use and care of our resource. Why do we need to conserve our resources?

A few thousand years ago, there were not many people living on the Earth. There were more than enough natural resources for everyone. But in the last 200 years, the world population has increased rapidly. As the world population increases, more natural resources are needed to support the population. The demand for natural resources will become even greater as countries all over the world become more developed.

We have also invented many machines to help people do work and to make life more comfortable. A lot of fuel is being used to provide energy to run all these machines.
We are using huge amounts of our natural resources so rapidly that the natural resources are in danger of being depleted. Our Earth has limited supplies of non-renewable resources. They are running out quickly.

Even our renewable resources are in danger. The trees in forests are being destroyed too fast. There is just not enough time for new trees to grow to replace the ones that are removed. As more land is needed for development of towns or farms, more forests will be cleared.

A wide variety of wildlife lives in forests. When forests are destroyed, the wildlife in them is in danger of extinction. Some wild animals are also becoming extinct because so many of them have been hunted and killed for profit.

Therefore, we need to conserve our natural resources to make them last as long as possible.
  1. What is the best title for the above text?
    1. Natural Resources and The Earth
    2. Conservation of Natural Resources
    3. The Importance of Natural Resources
    4. The Destruction of Forests
    5. The Danger of Growing Population
  2. "Conservation of natural resources involves the intelligent use and care of our resource.” (par. 1) The word “intelligent” can be replaced by the following without changing the intended meaning, except ….
    1. thoughtful
    2. careful
    3. wise
    4. reasonable
    5. dreadful
  3. According to the text, which is not responsible for natural resource depletion?
    1. Human population.
    2. The invention of machines.
    3. The variety of wildlife.
    4. The clearance of forests.
    5. The development of countries.
  4. According to the text, what happened a few thousand years ago?
    1. The world population increased rapidly.
    2. More natural resources were needed to support the population.
    3. The demand for natural resources was greater than it is today.
    4. There were plenty of natural resources for everyone.
    5. People didn’t need natural resources at all.
  1. To conserve our natural resources, we should do the followings, except ….
    1. protect endangered animals.
    2. stop forest clearance.
    3. increase the demand for natural resources.
    4. control the use of non-renewable resources.
    5. conserve our forests.
  2. “They are running out quickly.” (par. 4) The phrase “running out” means ….
    1. going out
    2. becoming used up
    3. li>flowing
    4. spending
    5. becoming long
  3. The following words are synonyms of the word “conserve”, except ….
    1. maintain
    2. keep up
    3. preserve
    4. protect
    5. decay

Text 3: Questions No. 15 - 20

The Disappearing Honeybee

Do you run away when you hear a bee buzzing? Many people do. A bee sting hurts and some people are allergic to bee venom. But did you know that bees are very important to humans? Honeybees do more than just make honey. They fly around and pollinate flowers, plants, and trees. Our fruits, nuts, and vegetables rely on these pollinators. One third of America's food supply is pollinated by the honeybee.

Have you seen or heard a honeybee lately? Bees are mysteriously disappearing in many parts of the world. Most people don't know about this problem. It is called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). Some North American beekeepers lost 80% of their hives from 2006-2008. Bees in Italy and Australia are disappearing too.

The disappearance of the honeybee is a serious problem. Can you imagine never eating another blueberry? What about almonds and cherries? Without honeybees food prices will skyrocket. The poorest people always suffer the worst when there is a lack of food.

This problem affects other foods besides fresh produce. Imagine losing your favorite ice cream! Haagen Daaz is a famous ice cream company. Many of their flavors rely on the hard working honey bee. In 2008 Haagen Daaz began raising money for CCD. They also created a website called helpthehoneybee.com.

Donating money to research is the most important thing humans can do to save the honeybees. Scientists need money to investigate the causes of Colony Collapse Disorder. Some scientists blame CCD on climate change. Others think pesticides are killing the bees. Commercial bee migration may also cause CCD. Beekeepers transport their hives from place to place in order to pollinate plants year round.
(Adapted from http://www.englishclub.com/environment/honeybee-reading.htm)
  1. Which is not true according to the text?
    1. Without honeybees, food prices will increase significantly.
    2. Beekeepers transport beehives to help protect bees.
    3. Honeybees pollinate plants that give us fruit and vegetables.
    4. Pesticide use may be one of the causes of CCD.
    5. Scientists need fund to research the causes of CCD.
  2. How does the text describe that bees are very important to humans?
    1. They pollinate plants, flowers, and trees.
    2. They begin to disappear.
    3. Bees may sting and hurt people.
    4. The disappearance of the honeybee is a serious problem.
    5. They produce honey.
  3. Which is not true about Haagen Daaz?
    1. It is a well-known ice cream company.
    2. Their production relies on the honey bee.
    3. They raise money for CCD research.
    4. They solve the problem by decreasing ice cream flavors.
    5. They run a website to help the honey bee.
  1. According to the text, what percentage of America's food supply is pollinated by the honeybee?
    1. about 25%
    2. about 33%
    3. about 40%
    4. about 50%
    5. about 75%
  2. “Bees are mysteriously disappearing in many parts of the world.” (par. 2) What is the synonym of the underlined word?
    1. becoming visible
    2. examining
    3. defending
    4. pressure
    5. vanishing
  3. According to the text, why do people send beehives to other places?
    1. to protect them from extinction.
    2. because bee sting is dangerous.
    3. to help pollinate plants in certain places.
    4. to avoid pesticides.
    5. to be used in scientists’ researches.

Questions 21 – 24 refer to the following dialog

Ani :“It is a very …(21)… shopping experience. Terrific!”
Beti :“Sorry, I couldn’t hear you. I beg your …(22)…?”
Ani :“This mall is great. I like shopping here.”
Beti :“Yes, but it’s very …(23)…. I can hardly hear you.”
  1. Choose the correct word.
    1. horrible
    2. exciting
    3. disappointing
    4. boring
    5. terrifying
  2. Choose the correct word.
    1. pardon
    2. sorry
    3. permission
    4. excuse
    5. repeat
  1. Choose the correct word.
    1. quiet
    2. slow
    3. big
    4. noisy
    5. calm
  2. Where does the above conversation take place?
    1. A school
    2. A concert
    3. A shopping center
    4. A hobby shop
    5. A studio

  1. Arrange the following sentences into a good paragraph.
    1. When it rains, the rainwater dissolves the harmful substances in the air to form a weak acid.
    2. It kills trees in the forests.
    3. When it gets into rivers and lakes, the organisms that live in them are harmed.
    4. In some countries, air pollution is very bad.
    5. Acid rain is very harmful to the environment.
    6. We call this ‘acid rain’.
    1. 6-4-1-5-2-3
    2. 1-6-5-2-3-4
    3. 4-6-5-1-2-3
    4. 4-1-6-5-2-3
    5. 6-2-3-5-1-4
  2. Ovi: “Wenny can’t drive a car.”
    Reza: “….”
    1. So can’t I.
    2. I can either.
    3. I can’t too.
    4. Neither can’t I.
    5. Neither can I.
  3. Sita: “… do you read a newspaper?”
    Fifi: “Every day.”
    1. How
    2. What time
    3. How often
    4. How long
    5. How many times
  4. I have a bad headache. I’ve taken some medicine but my head is … aching.
    1. yet
    2. already
    3. ever
    4. still
    5. not
  5. I need to open these screws. I need a ….
    1. screw opener
    2. screwdriver
    3. spanner
    4. drill
    5. saw
  6. You can fasten the nut with ….
    1. pliers
    2. a bolt
    3. a drill
    4. a hacksaw
    5. a wrench
  7. A=12m. B=10m. C=12m. D=15m. E=14m. Which is not true according to the data?
    1. A is as long as C.
    2. D is longer than C.
    3. C is shorter than B.
    4. B is the shortest of all.
    5. A is shorter than D.
  8. Adi: “Can you turn the music down? I can’t concentrate.”
    Heri: “Oh, certainly.”
    Which sentence best describes the situation?
    1. It’s not noisy enough for Heri to concentrate.
    2. It is too noisy for Adi to concentrate.
    3. Adi can’t listen to the music clearly.
    4. It is not noisy enough for Adi to concentrate.
    5. It is too noisy for Heri to listen to the music.
  9. She heard a noise behind her, so she looked ….
    1. out
    2. away
    3. up
    4. in
    5. back
  10. Do you remember the woman … sang at the party?
    1. which
    2. who
    3. whom
    4. whose
    5. when
  11. I met a man … wife is an English teacher at my son’s school.
    1. which
    2. who
    3. whom
    4. whose
    5. when
  12. The Nile is … river in the world.
    1. longest
    2. longer
    3. longer than
    4. as long as
    5. the longest
  13. Joni: “We went to the cinema last night.”
    Lia: “Oh, really? ….”
    1. So did we.
    2. We do too.
    3. We also do.
    4. So do we.
    5. So we do.
  14. Waiter: “… some drink, Sir?”
    Udin: “Yes, tea please.”
    1. What do you like
    2. May I have
    3. Could you drink
    4. Do you like
    5. Would you like
  15. My car is at the garage now. ….
    1. It is repairing.
    2. It is being repaired.
    3. It repairs.
    4. It has repaired.
    5. It has been repaired.
  16. Penny: “I must leave early.”
    Penny said that ….
    1. I must leave early.
    2. she must be left early.
    3. she had to leave early.
    4. I had to leave early.
    5. she must be leaving early.
  17. My mother likes cooking. For me, she’s the best … in the world.
    1. cooker
    2. cook
    3. cooks
    4. cookies
    5. cooked
  18. Gita began reading before the phone rang. So, when the phone rang, she ….
    1. was reading
    2. is reading
    3. began reading
    4. read
    5. has been reading
  19. Denny: “… Tia and Merry … yet?”
    Yoni: “No, not yet. We’re waiting for them.”
    1. Has - arrived
    2. Had - arrived
    3. Did - arrive
    4. Have - arrived
    5. Do - arrive
  20. Jaka has a bad memory. He can’t remember ….
    1. something
    2. anything
    3. nothing
    4. everything
    5. some things
  21. Eddy … in a factory. Now he works in a supermarket.
    1. works
    2. is working
    3. has been working
    4. had been working
    5. used to work
  22. My mother was at home, and my sister was too.
    1. Both my mother or my sister were here.
    2. Either my mother or my sister was at home.
    3. Neither my mother nor my sister was at home.
    4. My mother was not only here but also was my sister.
    5. Not only my mother but also my sister was here.
  23. He stood there and looked at … in the mirror.
    1. myself
    2. yourself
    3. himself
    4. herself
    5. itself
  24. Denny : “...?”
    Rio : “It weighs 30 kilos.”
    1. How weight is it?
    2. How much does it weigh?
    3. What does it weigh?
    4. How far is it?
    5. How many is it?>
  25. It's very cold. You should ... your coat.
    1. put on
    2. put off
    3. put out
    4. put away
    5. put up
  26. The traffic runs smooth. They have repaired the street.
    1. The street had been repaired.
    2. The street is being repaired.
    3. The street is repaired.
    4. The street will have been repaired.
    5. The street has been repaired.

Want to know your score?

Download the English Olympiad Interactive Test and do it on your computer (HTML File, size 155.9kb)

Sunday, September 25, 2011

TOEFL Preparation Exercise: Reducing An Adjective Clause Into An Adjective Phrase

  1. Combine the following sentences using adjective clauses. Please pay attention to the punctuation, and put commas where necessary.
  2. Reduce the adjective clauses into adjective phrases

Example:
  1. On 27 October 1945, a British plane from Jakarta dropped leaflets over Surabaya. They urged all Indonesian troops and militia to surrender their weapons.
    1. On 27 October 1945, a British plane from Jakarta dropped leaflets over Surabaya which urged all Indonesian troops and militia to surrender their weapons.
    2. On 27 October 1945, a British plane from Jakarta dropped leaflets over Surabaya urging all Indonesian troops and militia to surrender their weapons.
  2. The Battle of Surabaya became a symbol of resistance to the re-imposition of Dutch colonial rule. It cost the lives of many thousands of Indonesians.
    1. The Battle of Surabaya, which cost the lives of many thousands of Indonesians, became a symbol of resistance to the re-imposition of Dutch colonial rule.
    2. The Battle of Surabaya, costing the lives of many thousands of Indonesians, became a symbol of resistance to the re-imposition of Dutch colonial rule.

  1. Jakarta is very crowded. It is the capital city of Indonesia.
  2. The car belongs to Mr. Harun. It is parked under the tree.
  3. The old woman makes a very good living by selling clothes. She lives next door.
  4. He borrowed a book from the library. It is about Indonesian literature.
  5. The girl is very attractive. She lives opposite my house.
  6. The writer has just written an article. It criticizes the system of education in Indonesia.
  7. In playing football, the children use a small ball. It is made of solid rubber.
  8. I have found a letter. It is addressed to one of our important clients.
  9. She bought a book. It is written by a famous author.
  10. I know the lady. She was driving the car.
  11. Rujak Cingur is a traditional East Javanese dish. It is made of salad, chicken, and seafood.
  12. The krill is a tiny sea animal. It looks like a shrimp.
  13. A supernova produced the famous Crab nebula. It is a favorite among astronomers.
  14. The St. Bernard is a breed of very large working dog from the Italian and Swiss Alps. It is originally bred for rescue.
  15. Sunlight can be used to generate electricity by means of cells. They contain substances that emit electrons when bombarded with protons.
  16. Positive thinkers look at life with an attitude of hope. It influences their environment in a way that creates positive results.
  17. Cato the Elder was born in Tusculum. It was a municipal town of Latium.
  18. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in adults. It is caused by changes in the blood vessels of the retina.
  19. Anne Boleyn was the second wife of King Henry VIII. She was beheaded at the age of 29.
  20. A new species of tomato has been developed. It is adapted to harsh climatic conditions.
  21. Edward Kazarian uses microscopes and diamond-tipped tools to create figures the size of the head of a pin. He is a master of making miniatures.
  22. The vast oil spill cost millions to clean up. It smeared the coast.
  23. Majapahit kingdom reached its peak of glory during the era of Hayam Wuruk. He reigned from 1350 to 1389.
  24. James wrote an article. The article indicated that he disliked the president.
  25. The man was brought to the police station. He confessed to the crime.
If you would like to download the answer key to this exercise, click here.


Reference:
  1. Gear J & Gear R. Cambridge Preparation for the TOEFL Test 2nd Ed. Cambridge, Cambridge UP, 1996.
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Surabaya. Accessed Sept 25, 2011.

TOEFL Preparation: Reducing Adjective Clauses Into Adjective Phrases

Sebelumnya, kita sudah belajar tentang adjective clause atau relative clause serta bagaimana menggabungkan kalimat dengan menggunakan adjective clause atau relative clause.

Sekarang, kita akan mempelajari "peringkasan" adjective clause menjadi adjective phrase agar kalimat kita menjadi lebih efisien. Seperti halnya adjective clause, adjective phrase adalah salah satu testing point dalam tes TOEFL, TOEIC, dan Ujian Akhir Nasional (UAN) SMA dan SMK.

What is an adjective phrase?

Adjective phrase adalah "penyusutan" dari adjective clause. Fungsinya masih sama, yaitu menerangkan tentang seseorang atau sesuatu. Tidak seperti adjective clause, adjective phrase tidak memiliki subyek dan kata kerja. Pada kalimat-kalimat berikut, bagian kalimat yang bergaris bawah adalah adjective phrase.
  1. In 1920, the Panama Canal was officially opened, finally linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
  2. Much of the prosperity of this region is due to a cigar factory established more than one hundred years ago.
  3. In 1799, a soldier discovered a piece of stele (a stone pillar bearing an inscription) known as the Rosetta stone.
  4. The giant redwood trees of California, called "sequoias", will further imprint Sequoia's name in history.
  5. After writing many letters seeking employment in local factories, she was finally hired by a big garment manufacturer.

Can we reduce all adjective clauses into adjective phrases?

Hanya adjective clause dengan subyek "who", "which", "that" yang bisa diringkas menjadi adjective phrase.

How to reduce an adjective clause into an adjective phrase?

Ada dua cara meringkas adjective clause menjadi adjective phrase:
  1. Subyek "who", "which", "that" dan verb be dihilangkan.

    Reducing Adjective Clauses into Adjective Phrases
    Adjective ClausesAdjective Phrases
    The woman who is sitting next to our headmaster is the new supervisor.The woman sitting next to our headmaster is the new supervisor.
    The test which was given to us this morning was quite easy.The test given to us this morning was quite easy.
    She has just moved from Pasuruan, which is a town near Probolinggo.She has just moved from Pasuruan, a town near Probolinggo.
    The apples which are on that plate look fresh and appealing.The apples on that plate look fresh and appealing.

  2. Jika tidak ada verb be, hilangkan "who", "which", atau "that", lalu ubah Verb menjadi bentuk -ing.

    Reducing Adjective Clauses into Adjective Phrases
    Adjective ClausesAdjective Phrases
    The woman who sat next to our headmaster was the new supervisor.The woman sitting next to our headmaster was the new supervisor.
    The TOEIC test, which consists of 200 test items, takes approximately two hours.The TOEIC test, consisting of 200 test items, takes approximately two hours.
    A tapeworm is a parasite that lives in the intestines of humans and animals.A tapeworm is a parasite living in the intestines of humans and animals.


Now, practice what you've just learnt. Reduce the adjective clauses in the following sentences into adjective phrases.

  1. A thunderstorm is a form of weather which is characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere which is known as thunder.
  2. The cloud type which is associated with the thunderstorm is the cumulonimbus.
  3. Thunderstorms most frequently form and develop within areas that are located at mid-latitude when warm moist air collides with cooler air.
  4. Thunderstorms, and the phenomena that occur along with them, pose great hazards to populations and landscapes.
  5. Damage that results from thunderstorms is mainly inflicted by downburst winds, large hailstones, and flash flooding which is caused by heavy precipitation.
  6. Mesoscale convective systems which are formed by favorable vertical wind shear within the tropics and subtropics are responsible for the development of hurricanes.
  7. Dry thunderstorms can cause the outbreak of wildfires with the heat that is generated from the cloud-to-ground lightning that accompanies them.
  8. The falling droplets create a downdraft of air that spreads out at the Earth's surface, which causes strong winds.
  9. Thunderstorms which cause hail to fall are known as hailstorms.
  10. Thunderstorms, which result from the rapid upward movement of warm and moist air, can be very disastrous.

If you would like to download the answer key, click here


References:
  1. Azar B.S. Understanding and Using English Grammar (2nd Ed). NJ: Prentice-Hall. Inc, 1989, pg.257.
  2. Pyle M.A. and Munoz M.E. . TOEFL Preparation Guide (5th Ed). Lincoln: Cliffs Notes Inc., 1995.
  3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thunderstorm. Accessed Sept 25, 2011.

Saturday, September 24, 2011

Adjective Clause (Relative Clause)

Materi tentang adjective clause atau relative clause adalah salah satu materi yang harus dikuasai dengan baik oleh siswa SMA, SMK, hingga mahasiswa perguruan tinggi. Selain dibutuhkan dalam penyusunan dan penulisan kalimat berbahasa Inggris yang efisien, adjective clause atau relative clause juga merupakan salah satu testing point yang selalu diujikan dalam test TOEFL, TOEIC, dan Ujian Akhir Nasional (UAN). Karena itu, setelah mengenal sekilas tentang adjective clause atau relative clause, sekarang kita akan mempelajarinya secara lebih terperinci lagi.

1. Adjective Clause Using Subject Pronouns: Who, Which, That

Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with Subject Pronouns: "Who", "Which", "That"
Without adjective clause / relative clause Using adjective clause / relative clause
I will introduce you to a friend. He runs a successful business.I will introduce you to a friend who runs a successful business.
I will introduce you to a friend that runs a successful business.
The book is about religion. It has raised controversy.The book which has raised controversy is about religion.
The book that has raised controversy is about religion.
Notes:
  • "Who", "which", atau "that" adalah subyek dalam adjective clause.
  • "Who" digunakan untuk mengganti subyek berupa orang.
  • "Which" digunakan untuk mengganti subyek berupa benda.
  • "That" digunakan untuk mengganti subyek berupa orang maupun benda, dan lebih umum dipakai daripada "which". Akan tetapi, "that" hanya bisa digunakan pada defining relative clause saja. (Baca Menggabungkan Kalimat Menggunakan Adjective Clause (Relative Clause).


2. Adjective Clause Using Object Pronouns: Who(m), Which, That

Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with Object Pronouns: "Who(m)", "Which", "That"
Without adjective clause / relative clause Using adjective clause / relative clause
I will introduce you to a friend. You have never met him before.I will introduce you to a friend (who(m)) you have never met before.
I will introduce you to a friend (that) you have never met before.
The book is about religion. I bought it in Gramedia bookstore last week.The book (which) I bought in Gramedia bookstore last week is about religion.
The book (that) I bought in Gramedia bookstore last week is about religion.
The song was very popular in 1990's. I am listening to it.The song to which I am listening was very popular in 1990's.
The song (which) I am listening to was very popular in 1990's.
The song (that) I am listening to was very popular in 1990's.
Notes:
  • "Whom" digunakan untuk mengganti obyek berupa orang, umumnya digunakan dalam bahasa Inggris formal. Untuk bahasa Inggris informal dan percakapan, "who" lebih sering dipakai menggantikan "whom".
  • "Which" digunakan untuk mengganti obyek berupa benda.
  • "That" digunakan untuk mengganti obyek berupa orang maupun benda, dan lebih umum dipakai daripada "which". Akan tetapi, "that" hanya bisa digunakan pada defining relative clause saja. (Baca Menggabungkan Kalimat Menggunakan Adjective Clause (Relative Clause).
  • Pada bahasa Inggris percakapan (lisan), "who", "which", atau "that" seringkali dihilangkan.

3. Adjective Clause Using Whose

Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with "Whose"
Without adjective clause / relative clause Using adjective clause / relative clause
I will introduce you to a friend. His interest is learning English.I will introduce you to a friend whose interest is learning English.
The old lady has a painting. Its value is inestimable.The old lady has a painting whose value is inestimable.
Notes:
  • Dalam adjective clause atau relative clause, "whose" digunakan untuk menunjukkan milik, menggantikan "his", "her", "its", atau "their".
  • Sebagaimana "his", "her", "its", dan "their", "Whose" selalu diikuti kata benda.
  • "Whose" tidak bisa dihilangkan.


4. Adjective Clause Using Where

Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with "Where"
Without adjective clause / relative clause Using adjective clause / relative clause
I will take you to the restaurant. I usually have lunch there (at the restaurant).I will take you to the restaurant where I usually have lunch.
I will take you to the restaurant at which I usually have lunch.
I will take you to the restaurant (which) I usually have lunch at.
The old lady has sold the house. She has lived there (in the house) for more than twenty years.The old lady has sold the house where she has lived for more than twenty years.
The old lady has sold the house in which she has lived for more than twenty years.
The old lady has sold the house (which) she has lived in for more than twenty years.
Notes:
  • "Where" dalam adjective clause atau relative clause digunakan untuk menjelaskan tempat.
  • Jika "where" digunakan, preposition pada keterangan tempat (seperti in, from, to, at, on, under, above) tidak diperlukan dalam adjective clause. Sebaliknya, jika "where" tidak digunakan, preposition harus ada. (lihat contoh ke-2 dan ke-3 dalam tabel di atas)

5. Adjective Clause Using When

Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with "When"
Without adjective clause / relative clause Using adjective clause / relative clause
We will never forget the day. My wife gave birth to my first son then (on that day).We will never forget the day when my wife gave birth to my first son.
We will never forget the day on which my wife gave birth to my first son.
We will never forget the day (that) my wife gave birth to my first son.
August is the month. The weather gets very windy then (in August).August is the month when the weather gets very windy.
August is the month in which the weather gets very windy.
August is the month (that) the weather gets very windy.
Notes:
  • "When" dalam adjective clause atau relative clause digunakan untuk menjelaskan waktu.
  • Jika "when" digunakan, preposition pada keterangan waktu (seperti in, on, at) tidak diperlukan dalam adjective clause. Sebaliknya, jika "where" tidak digunakan, preposition ada. (lihat contoh ke-2 dan ke-3 dalam tabel di atas)

Want to learn more about Adjective Clause?


Reference:
  1. Azar B.S. Understanding and Using English Grammar (2nd Ed). NJ: Prentice-Hall. Inc, 1989.
  2. Thomson & Martinet. A Practical English Grammar (4th Ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.
  3. Swan, M. Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980.
* Updated Tues, Oct 2, 2012.

Friday, September 23, 2011

Menggabungkan Kalimat Menggunakan Adjective Clause (Relative Clause)

Perhatikan dua pasang kalimat berikut ini.

  • The woman comes from Bandung. She lives next door.
  • I bought a new book. The book was written by a famous author.
Kedua pasang kalimat di atas terasa tidak mengalir lancar dan efisien, karena pada tiap pasang kalimat terdapat kesamaan hal yang sedang dibicarakan, yaitu the woman / she dan a new book / the book, namun tidak "dimampatkan" dengan baik ke dalam satu kalimat. Untuk menghasilkan kalimat atau tulisan yang mengalir lancar, efisien dan terhindar dari pengulangan yang tidak perlu, kita bisa menggabungkan kedua kalimat di atas dengan mengubah kalimat kedua, yang berisi informasi tambahan tentang orang / hal yang dibicarakan pada kalimat pertama, menjadi adjective clause atau relative clause.
  • The woman who lives next door comes from Bandung.
  • I bought a new book which was written by a famous author.

What is an adjective clause or relative clause?

Bagian kalimat yang dicetak miring di sebut adjective clause atau relative clause. Adjective clause atau relative clause adalah klausa (anak kalimat) yang tidak dapat berdiri sendiri dan merupakan bagian dari suatu kalimat induk (main clause). Adjective clause atau relative clause memberikan informasi tambahan tentang seseorang, suatu benda, tempat, atau waktu. Pada kalimat di atas, who lives next door memperjelas siapa yang sedang dibicarakan.

Jadi, fungsi dari adjective clause atau relative clause adalah:
  1. Memperjelas atau mendefinisikan orang atau benda manakah yang sedang dibicarakan, tanpa membuat suatu kalimat baru.
  2. Menghindari pengulangan kata yang tidak perlu. Remember, avoid repetition as much as possible.
Di sinilah letak pentingnya penggunaan adjective clause atau relative clause secara baik dan benar dalam membuat kalimat berbahasa Inggris yang efisien.

Perlu diketahui, adjective clause atau relative clause adalah salah satu testing point yang hampir selalu diujikan dalam setiap test TOEFL. (baca Tips TOEFL: Strategi Mengerjakan Test TOEFL Dengan Mengenali Testing Point)

Penulisan adjective clause atau relative clause dalam kalimat: Dengan koma atau tanpa koma?

Kadang kita bingung dalam menentukan apakah adjective clause atau relative clause harus dipisah dari kalimat induk dengan menggunakan koma atau tidak. Pahamilah aturan ini.
  1. Jangan gunakan koma jika keberadaan adjective clause atau relative clause dalam kalimat dibutuhkan sebagai penjelas yang mendefinisikan orang / benda yang sedang dibicarakan. Inilah yang dalam istilah grammar disebut defining relative clause. Tanpa defining relative clause, hal yang dibicarakan dalam kalimat akan menjadi tidak jelas.
  2. Gunakan koma jika keberadaan adjective clause atau relative clause dalam kalimat hanya sebagai informasi tambahan tentang seseorang / suatu hal. Inilah yang dalam istilah grammar disebut non-defining relative clause. Tanpa menggunakan non-defining relative clause-pun, hal / orang yang dibicarakan dalam kalimat sudah jelas.
Defining and Non-defining Relative Clause
Defining Relative ClauseNon-defining Relative Clause
The rhincodon typus is a species of shark which reaches approximately 12 metres (39 ft).

I will introduce you to a friend who runs a successful business.
Sharks, which date from more than 420 million years ago, have diversified into 440 species.

Mr. Lui, who has been our principal for two years, is a very energetic man.


Tips singkat membuat adjective clause atau relative clause

  1. "Who" digunakan jika adjective clause atau relative clause membicarakan seseorang, bukan benda.
    • The doctor who is examining the patient is a heart specialist.
    • I am going to tell you a story about a man who risked his own life to help another..
  2. "That" atau "which" digunakan jika adjective clause atau relative clause membicarakan benda, bukan seseorang.
    • The book that I borrowed from the local library two days ago was about the theories of learning.
    • My son enjoyed reading the storybook that I bought him last month.
  3. "That" lebih umum digunakan daripada "which". Akan tetapi, non-defining relative clause hanya boleh menggunakan "which".
    • She lived in a house that / which overlooked the beach.
    • He told us about his new job, which he enjoyed very much. (‘that’ is not possible)
  4. "Whose" digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti milik "his", "her", "their".
    • A widow is a woman whose husband is dead. (her husband is dead)
    • Do you still remember the boy whose book you borrowed?
  5. "Whom" digunakan untuk menggantikan kata ganti orang jika posisinya adalah sebagai obyek pada relative clause. Dalam bahasa Inggris lisan, "whom" seringkali digantikan oleh "who", "that", atau dihilangkan sama sekali.
    • Do you know the man (whom) we met in the hotel lobby this morning?
    • The student (whom) the teacher sent out was caught cheating during a test.
  6. "Where" digunakan jika relative clause membicarakan suatu tempat.
    • The house where we lived before moving here was quite old.
    • The beach where human skeletons were found is closed for public.
  7. "When" digunakan jika relative clause membicarakan waktu.
    • Do you still remember the day when we first met?
    • September is the month when mango trees start to bear fruit.

Exercise: Combine the sentences using adjective clause or relative clause

  1. The village has changed a lot. I grew up there.
  2. I ran into an old friend on Facebook. I haven't seen her for twenty years.
  3. The movie was boring. I saw it last week.
  4. I am reading a blog post. It talks about adjective clauses.
  5. The man is my teacher. He wrote the article.
  6. Saturday is the day. We are going to have a picnic to the beach on that day.
  7. We visited my uncle. His house is at the foot of a mountain.
  8. I will explain my absence to my teacher. I missed his class.
  9. The foreigner came from UK. I had conversation with him on a bus.
  10. The TV program was good. I watched it last night.
Untuk mempelajari adjective clause atau relative clause secara lebih terperinci, baca Adjective Clause.

Untuk mengetahui posisi adjective clause atau relative clause sebagai testing point dalam test TOEFL, baca Tips TOEFL: Strategi Mengerjakan Test TOEFL Dengan Mengenali Testing Point.


Reference:
  1. Azar B.S. Understanding and Using English Grammar (2nd Ed). NJ: Prentice-Hall. Inc, 1989.
  2. Thomson & Martinet. A Practical English Grammar (4th Ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.
  3. Swan, M. Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Wednesday, September 21, 2011

Conditional Sentences Type 1, Type 2, Type 3, and Mixed Conditional

Do you understand what these sentences imply?
Do you know what they mean?
  • "If you had left earlier, you would have caught the train." or
  • "You will make yourself ill if you eat all those chocolates."
They are called conditional sentences. A conditional sentence consists of two clauses; the if-clause, and the main clause. The if-clause can come first or second. When it comes first, we usually put a comma between the two clauses.

There are 4 (four) types of conditional sentences, including mixed conditional.

  1. Conditional Sentence Type 1
  2. The if-clause is in the present tense, the main clause uses will and the infinitive, or simple present.

    Conditional Sentence Type 1
    TYPEIF CLAUSEMAIN CLAUSEMEANING
    Type 1Simple present
    If you work hard,
    Simple present
    you succeed.
    Simple future
    you will succeed.
    True in the present or possible in future
    It’s possible to happen in the future

    When do we use conditional sentence type 1?

    1. We use conditional sentence type 1 to talk about possible situations in the present or future.
      • If you leave earlier, you will not be late.
      • If you open the windows, the room will get some fresh air.
    2. We often use conditional type 1 to talk about facts or processes:
      • If you heat water to 100 degrees, it will boil.
      • If we stare into the sun, we will hurt our eyes.

    Note:

    Other modal verbs can also be used in place of will and would.
    • If it rains like this all day, the river might flood. (might = will possibly)
    • If it rains like this all day, the river could flood. (could = will be able to)

  3. Conditional Sentence Type 2
  4. The if-clause is in the simple past or the past continuous tense, the main clause uses would and the infinitive, or would be and the present participle (Verb-ing).

    Conditional Sentence Type 2
    TYPEIF CLAUSEMAIN CLAUSEMEANING
    Type 2 Simple past
    If you worked hard,
    Past continuous
    If it were not raining now,
    would + simple form
    you would succeed.
    would be + present participle
    I would be going out for a walk.
    Untrue in the present
    Fact:
    You don’t work hard, so you don’t succeed
    Fact:It’s raining now, so I’m not going out for a walk.

    When do we use conditional sentence type 2?

    Conditional sentence type 2 is used to talk about actions or situations that are not taking place in the present or future, but we can imagine the probable result.
    • If we didn’t live in a big city, we would not have to breathe polluted air everyday. (In truth, we live in a big city)
    • If he were here, I would tell him about my plan.
      (In fact, he isn’t here)

    Note:

    • ‘Were’ is used for both singular and plural subjects.
    • The use of type 2 conditional in “If I were you, I would ………” is a common form of advice.

  5. Conditional Sentence Type 3
  6. The if-clause is in the past perfect or the past perfect continuous tense, the main clause uses would have and past participle (Verb 3), or would have been and present participle (Verb-ing).

    Conditional Sentence Type 3
    TYPEIF CLAUSEMAIN CLAUSEMEANING
    Type 3Past perfect
    If you had worked hard,
    Past perfect continuous
    If it had not been raining yesterday afternoon,
    would have + past participle
    you would have succeeded.
    would have been + present participle
    I would have been going out for a walk.
    Untrue in the past
    Fact:
    You didn’t work hard, so you didn’t succeed.
    Fact: It was raining yesterday afternoon. I was not going out for a walk.

    When do we use conditional sentence type 3?

    Conditional sentence type 3 is used to talk about actions or situations that did not take or were not taking place in the past, but we can imagine the probable result.
    • If you had come to the party last night, you would have met my cousin. (In truth, you didn’t come to the party last night)
    • If he had not been late this morning, his teacher would not have punished him. (In truth, he was late)

  7. Mixed Conditional Sentence
  8. Mixed conditional sentence is a combination of conditional sentence type 2 and conditional sentence type 3.

    Mixed Conditional Sentence
    TYPEIF CLAUSEMAIN CLAUSEMEANING
    Mixed Type Simple past
    If I were a bird,
    Past perfect
    If you had worked hard,
    would have + past participle
    I would have flown to your place last night.
    would + simple form
    you would succeed.
    Untrue in the present or future.
    Fact:
    I am not a bird, so I didn’t fly to your place.
    Untrue in the past.
    Fact:
    You didn’t work hard. Now, you don’t succeed.

    When do we use mixed conditional sentence?

    Mixed conditional sentence is used to talk about actions or situations that did not take or were not taking place in the past, but we can imagine the probable result in the present, or actions or situations that do not take place in the present, but we can imagine the probable result in the past.
    • If you lived near the factory, you would have heard the sound of the explosion. (In truth, you don’t live near the factory. Therefore, you didn't hear the sound of the explosion.)
    • If he had not been late this morning, he would be permitted to join the test. (In truth, he was late. Therefore, he is not permitted to join the test.)
To do the exercise or test on conditional sentences, read and download (free) Interactive Grammar Test: Conditional Sentence.
To read how conditional sentence is used as a testing point in TOEFL Test, please read Tips TOEFL: Strategi Mengerjakan Test TOEFL Dengan Mengenali Testing Point.

Reference:

  1. Azar B.S. Understanding and Using English Grammar (2nd Ed). NJ: Prentice-Hall. Inc, 1989.
  2. Thomson & Martinet. A Practical English Grammar (4th Ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.
  3. Swan, M. Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Saturday, September 17, 2011

English Idioms and Expressions With 'GET'




Idioms and Expressions With "Get"
IdiomMeaningExample
Get a bang / charge / kick out of To receive great pleasure from someone or something; enjoy greatlyI get a bang out of my new video game. It's really fun.
Get (someone's) driftTo understand what someone has said or impliedCan you explain it again, please? I don't get your drift.
Get a fix onTo understand somethingListen well and you will get a fix on it.
Get a grip (on yourself)To control your emotions and remain calmAs a teacher, you have to get a grip on yourself.
Get a grip / handle (on something)To understand how to deal with somethingWith his experience, I'm sure he will always get a grip on any possible problem.
Get a lifeTo have fun; to do something differentWhen we are bored, we often spend an evening out and get a life.
Get a life!Find something more important / interesting to do or say!How could you say that stupid thing? Get a life!
Get a line onTo get information about someone or do somethingYou need to read the manual and get a line on how to solve the problem.
Get a load off one's mindTo relieve one's mind of a problem or a worryI was relieved. The good news got the load off my mind.
Get a load of someone or somethingTo get a good look at someone or something (that is very surprising or attractive)Get a load of Alya. I can hardly recognize her in that dress.
Get a toeholdTo get a position to begin an activity or effortIt took the business approximately 2 years to get a toehold in our city.
Get away withTo escape the consequences of (a blameworthy act)Don't be silly. No one can get away with crimes.
To get down on someoneTo criticize someoneDuring the meeting, she got down on me about the plan.
Get down to something / business / workTo start doing something seriouslyStop talking. It's time to get down to work.
Get faceTo be taken seriouslyIt's usual that young people seldom get face.
Get in one's faceTo annoy or provoke someoneDon't get in my face. I have work to do.
Get in one's hairTo annoy someone, especially by being near them for a long periodWith the kids getting in my hair, I wasn't able to finish the proposal.
To get in on the actTo become involved in something interestingIt's time for you to get in on the act. Do your best.
Get / go into a huddleTo form a group away from other people to discuss something secretlyThere's no need to get into a huddle. We'd better talk to the boss about it.
Get in the swing of thingsto become more social and up-to-date.It seemed difficult for him to get in the swing of things since his wife passed away.
Get into (off on) somethingTo enjoy something greatlyMy son seems to get off on his new computer game.
Get just deserts / lumpsTo get what one deservesIf you treat others badly, you'll get your just deserts.
Get knotted! / Get lost!Something you say when you feel annoyed and want someone to go awayYou have really got on my face. Now, get lost!
Get nose out of jointto resent that one has been slighted, neglected, or insulted.Cheer up. Don't get your nose out of joint easily. He didn't mean that.
Get off one's caseto stop criticizing and annoying someoneGet off my case! Don't you have another thing to do?
Get (down) off one's high horseto become humble; to be less haughty.He is the kind of a leader who always gets off his high horse.
Get on soapboxTo express strong opinions, especially about something boringSomehow I often miss those times when my father would start getting on his soapbox about teenagers.
Get out with lifeTo survive a serious incident or accidentThe crash was fatal, but I was lucky enough to get out with my life.
Get one's teeth intoTo start to do something (with dedication)You need to get your teeth into it or you won't finish on time.
Get one's goatTo annoy or bother someoneTini was sent out. I think she really got our teacher's goat.
Get sea legsTo get used to a new situationIt always takes time for a shy girl like her to get sea legs.
Get short shriftTo get little attentionIt's usual that schools in rural areas get short shrift from the government.
Get the goods on someoneTo get incriminating evidence against someoneShe won't get away with it once I get the goods on her.
Get some weight off feetTo sit downI'm tired of standing. I wish we had a place to get some weight off our feet.
Get the axeTo lose a job; to stop workingWhen he got the axe, he didn't give up and started his own business.
Get the hang ofTo succeed in learning how to do something after practising itHow long did it take you to get the hang of driving?
Get the kinks outTo be chosenShe was lucky to get the nod and have a chance to go abroad.
Get the nodTo be chosenShe was lucky to get the nod and have a chance to go abroad.
Get under skinTo annoy or irritate someoneBoy students are often annoying, but don't let them get under your skin



Reference: The Free Dictionary - Idioms

Tips TOEFL: Strategi Mengerjakan Test TOEFL Dengan Mengenali Testing Point

Dalam tes TOEFL, testing point adalah bahasan materi tertentu dalam pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris yang diujikan pada soal TOEFL. Meskipun soal atau pertanyaan selalu berbeda pada setiap tes TOEFL, testing point tetap tidak berubah dan selalu berkisar pada hal yang tidak jauh berbeda dengan yang diujikan pada tes TOEFL sebelumnya.

Karena itu, memahami testing point yang paling sering diujikan dalam tes TOEFL merupakan salah satu tips dan strategi yang sangat bagus untuk memperoleh nilai TOEFL yang memuaskan. Dengan memahami testing point, kita bisa mengatur dan mengelola waktu belajar kita dalam mempersiapkan diri menghadapi berbagai macam soal atau pertanyaan yang muncul dalam tes TOEFL. Belajar sebagai persiapan tes TOEFL dengan cara mencoba memahami testing point dalam sebuah soal akan sangat membantu kita dalam mengerjakan tes TOEFL yang sesungguhnya, ketimbang sekedar menjawab soal demi soal tanpa memahami testing point dalam soal tersebut.

Ada berbagai macam testing point yang terdapat dalam setiap bagian tes TOEFL. Bahkan seringkali pula, ada beberapa atau lebih dari satu testing point dalam satu soal atau pertanyaan. Testing point bisa berkisar tentang struktur tata bahasa (grammatical structure), kosa kata umum (common vocabulary word), idiom, intonasi bahasa, atau pertanyaan tertentu pada bagian membaca (reading) atau mendengarkan (listening).

Lebih lengkapnya, berikut ini testing point yang sering diujikan dalam tes TOEFL.

LISTENING SECTION

Part A: Short Conversations

  1. Vocabulary word
  2. Idiom / phrasal verb
  3. Verb
  4. Order / sequence
  5. Comparison
  6. Intonation
  7. Similar sounds

Part B: Long Conversations and Talks

  1. Main idea
  2. Restatement
  3. Inference
  4. Classification (khusus Computer Based TOEFL)
  5. Choose two correct answers (khusus Computer Based TOEFL)

STRUCTURE SECTION

Part 1: Sentence Completion

  1. Noun phrase
  2. Word order
  3. Subject + verb
  4. Verb / verb phrase
  5. Adjective phrase / Adjective clause
  6. Conjunction
  7. Parallel construction
  8. Adverb phrase / clause
  9. Comparison
  10. Infinitive / gerund
  11. Preposition / prepositional phrase
  12. Superlative
  13. Negative
  14. Conditional
  15. Pronoun

Part 2: Error Identification

  1. Word form
  2. Verb form
  3. Pronoun
  4. Parallel construction
  5. Singular / plural pronoun
  6. Mistaken words
  7. Unnecessary word
  8. Omitted word
  9. Preposition
  10. Reversed words
  11. Conjunction
  12. Infinitive / gerund
  13. Comparative
  14. Superlative
  15. Article

READING SECTION

Topik bacaan reading comprehension yang paling umum dalam tes TOEFL

  1. General science, natural history, human physiology
  2. North American history, government, geography
  3. Art, literature, and music
  4. Biographies of famous people

Jenis pertanyaan reading comprehension yang paling umum dalam tes TOEFL

  1. Main idea
  2. Inference
  3. Restatement
  4. Vocabulary
  5. Negative question
  6. Referent
  7. Author's attitude / opinion / purpose
  8. Preceding / following topic
  9. Sentence insertion (khusus Computer Based TOEFL)
  10. Paragraph focus
  11. Line focus
Selamat belajar. Good luck with your TOEFL test.
Reference:
Sullivan PN, Brenner GA, Zhong GYQ. Master The TOEFL (7th ED). NJ, Thomson Peterson's, 2004.

Friday, September 9, 2011

English Idioms and Expressions With "Have"



Idioms and Expressions with "Have"
IDIOM MEANING EXAMPLE
Have a big mouth To be a gossiper; to be a person who tells secrets. She has a big mouth. She told her friends about the meeting.
Have a card up sleeve To have an advantage that other people do not know about. Having a card up his sleeve, he remained calm and waited for the right time to speak.
Have a bee in bonnet To talk a lot about something thought to be important.
  • Martin has a bee in his bonnet about recycling.

  • She has a bee in her bonnet that a new system must be adopted.

  • Have a bone to pick with (someone) To have a disagreement to discuss with someone; to have something to argue about with someone. I've got a bone to pick with you. Where is the money you owe me?
    Have a brush with (something) To have a brief contact with something; to have an experience with something. She had a close brush with the law. She was nearly arrested for speeding.
    Have a chip on shoulder To blame other people for something bad and to continue to be angry about it. Even though he went to university, he's always had a chip on his shoulder about his poor upbringing.
    Have a close call (Have a close shave) To be close to danger; To have a narrow escape from something dangerous. I almost got struck by a speeding car. It was a close call. He also had a close call yesterday and was almost in a car accident.
    Have a familiar ring [for a story or an explanation] To sound familiar; you've heard it before. The story has a familiar ring. I've heard it many times before.
    Have a tiger (bear) by the tail To be associated with something powerful and potentially dangerous; to have a very difficult problem to solve. We've had a tiger by the tail ever since we signed the loan agreement.
    Have a good head on shoulders To have common sense; to be sensible and intelligent. I always have a good head on my shoulders. Don't worry about me.
    Have a green thumb To be good at gardening; To have the ability to grow plants well. My daughter has a green thumb. Look at our garden.
    Have a heart To be compassionate or generous and forgiving with people. Let's hope she has a heart and forgive you.
    Have a heart of gold To be generous, sincere, and friendly. Many people have a heart of gold. They are always willing to help others.
    Have a heart of stone To be cold, unresponsive, unforgiving, and unfriendly. Don't annoy her. She has a heart of stone.
    Have an ax to grind To complain about something. May I talk to you? I have an ax to grind.
    Have an in with someone To have special access to someone ( at work). He had an in with the manager so he could get a promotion quickly.
    Have a one-track mind To think entirely about one subject. She has a one-track mind. She can only talk about jewelry.
    Have a soft spot in heart To have a fondness for someone, something, or an animal. He owns several aquariums. He's got a soft spot in his heart for fish.
    Have a sweet tooth To desire to eat many sweet foods-especially candy and pastries. You should watch your weight, especially because you have a sweet tooth.
    Have clean hands To be without guilt, guiltless. The police took him in, but let him go after questioning because he had clean hands.
    Have egg on face To be embarrassed by something one has done. (As if one went out in public with a dirty face.) I was completely wrong, and now I have egg on my face.
    Have eyes in the back of head To seem to be able to sense what is going on behind or outside of one's field of vision. The students believed their teacher had eyes in the back his head.
    Have mixed feelings To be both pleased and not pleased about something at the same time. He seemed to have mixed feelings about leaving. He enjoyed staying with us but he had to go.
    Have money to burn To have a lot of money and spend large amounts on things that are not necessary. When it comes to Lebaran days, people seem to have money to burn.
    Have hands tied To be prevented from doing something. He can't help. He has his hands tied by his boss.
    Have head in the clouds To not pay attention, be unaware of what is going on from fantasies or daydreams. During lessons, you should not have your head in the clouds.
    Have tail between legs To be frightened or afraid of doing something. He seemed to lack courage. He went away with his tail between his legs and didn't tell her that she'd been wrong.
    Have other fish to fry To have other opportunities; to have more important things to do. Please make it short. I have other fish to fry.
    Have in hands To have the responsibility for someone or something. I'm sorry I won't be able to come. I have many things in my hands.
    have the Midas touch To have the ability to be successful, especially the ability to make money easily. The girl seems to have the Midas touch. She can get new clients easily.
    Have the presence of mind to do To have the calmness and ability to act sensibly in an emergency or difficult situation. She had the presence of mind to hold on the rope tightly.
    Have stardust in eyes To be uncritically or unrealistically optimistic. The Commander seemed to have stardust in his eyes and decided to continue the attack.
    Have one foot in the grave To be almost dead. The Commander seemed to have stardust in his eyes and decided to continue the attack.

    Reference: The Free Dictionary: Idioms