March 25, 2020

Kalimat Langsung (Direct Speech) & Kalimat Tak Langsung (Indirect Speech / Reported Speech)

Indirect Speech or Reported Speech
I. Apakah "Direct Speech" dan "Indirect Speech / Reported Speech"?
Dalam bahasa Inggris, untuk menceritakan kembali atau mengutip perkataan dan pemikiran seseorang, kita bisa melakukannya dengan 2 (dua) cara, yaitu:
  1. Menggunakan kalimat langsung (direct speech), yaitu dengan mengulang atau menggunakan kata-kata aslinya dengan menggunakan tanda kutip (‘....’ atau “....”) dalam penulisannya. Contoh:
    • He said, “I have seen the movie before”.
    • I thought, “he needs to improve his English."
    • “The mission,” he stated, "will be difficult to accomplish.”
    • “I think so,” replied Tom.
  2. Menggunakan kalimat tak langsung (indirect speech / reported speech), yaitu menyampaikan isi makna atau gagasan secara tepat tanpa menggunakan atau mengutip kata-kata aslinya. Contoh:
    • He said that he had seen the movie before.
    • I thought that he needed to improve his English.
    • The mission,” he stated, "will be difficult to accomplish.”
    Catatan: Kata-kata seperti "yes", "no", "well", serta kata seru dan question-tags, tidak bisa digunakan pada kalimat tak langsung (indirect speech / reported speech). Contoh:
    • “Yes, I think so,” he said. “It’s difficult, isn’t it? (direct speech)
    • He agreed and said that it was difficult. (indirect speech / reported speech)
II. Bagaimana cara mengubah "Direct Speech" menjadi "Indirect Speech / Reported Speech"?
Untuk mengubah "direct speech" menjadi "indirect speech / reported speech", ada beberapa perubahan atau penyesuaian yang harus dilakukan, terutama jika kata kerja untuk melaporkan (reporting verb) ada dalam bentuk lampau (past), contoh; "said", "wondered", "thought", "told", dll). Agar lebih mudah dipelajari, berikut ini contoh-contoh perubahan kalimat langsung (direct speech) menjadi kalimat tak langsung (indirect speech / reported speech) yang disajikan dalam tabel.
A. Kalimat positif (statement / affirmative)
DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT / REPORTED SPEECH
SIMPLE PRESENT
“I never travel by train,” he explained.
SIMPLE PAST
He explained that he never traveled by train.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS
“I’m cleaning my room,” she said.
PAST CONTINUOUS
She said (that) she was cleaning her room.
PRESENT PERFECT
“We have found a key,” they said.
PAST PERFECT
They said (that) they had found a key.
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
He said, “I’ve been working hard.”
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
He said he had been working hard.
SIMPLE PAST
‘I took it home with me,’ she said.
PAST PERFECT
She said she had taken it home with her.
PAST CONTINUOUS
‘When I saw her she was eating,’ he said.


‘I was doing my job,’ he said.
PAST CONTINUOUS
He said (that) when he saw her she was eating.
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
He said (that) he had been doing his job.
FUTURE
She said, ‘I will send it by email.”
CONDITIONAL
She said she would send it by email.
FUTURE CONTINUOUS
‘I’ll be meeting him soon,’ she said.
CONDITIONAL CONTINUOUS
She said she’d be meeting him soon.
CONDITIONAL
I said, ‘I would like to see it.’
CONDITIONAL (No Change)
I said (that) I would like to see it.
B. Kalimat tanya (question / interrogative)
DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT / REPORTED SPEECH
SIMPLE PRESENT
“Where does she live?” he said.
SIMPLE PAST
He asked where she lived.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS
“Where is he going?” she said.
PAST CONTINUOUS
She asked where he was going.
PRESENT PERFECT
“Have you found a flat?” he said.
PAST PERFECT
He asked if/whether I had found a flat.
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
He said, “How long have you been waiting?”
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
He asked how long I had been waiting.
SIMPLE PAST
‘Did you live in a house or a dorm?’ she asked.
PAST PERFECT
She asked whether I’d lived in a house or a dorm.
PAST CONTINUOUS
‘Was she studying or not?’ he asked.


‘Were you joking about the price?’ he said.
PAST CONTINUOUS
He asked whether or not she was studying.
He asked whether she was studying or not.
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
He asked if I had been joking about the price.
FUTURE
He asked, ‘If you pass will you move to Bali?”
CONDITIONAL
He asked whether, if I passed, I’d move to Bali.
FUTURE CONTINUOUS
‘Will you be using it on the 7th?’ she asked.
CONDITIONAL CONTINUOUS
She asked if I would be using it on the 7th.
CONDITIONAL
He said, ‘Would she accept it?’
CONDITIONAL (No Change)
He asked if she would accept it.
C. Kalimat permintaan, penawaran, & saran (request, offer, & suggestion)
DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT / REPORTED SPEECH
Kalimat permintaan (request)
“Will/would you file these letters, please?” I said.I asked/told him to file the letters.
“Could I see her, please?” he said.He asked to see her.
He said, “Lie down, Tom.”He asked Tom to lie down.
“Don’t swim out too far, boys,” I said.I warned/told the boys not to swim out too far.
‘Don’t be late,’ said the teacher.The teacher asked not to be late.
Kalimat penawaran (offer)
“Would you like a lift?” said Ann.Ann offered me a lift.
Nasehat / saran (suggestion / advice)
‘Let’s leave the case here,’ he said.He suggested leaving the case there.
He suggested that they leave the case there. (US)
He suggested that they should leave the case there. (GB)
III. Soal Latihan "Direct Speech" dan "Indirect Speech / Reported Speech"
Ubahlah kalimat-kalimat langsung (direct speech) berikut ini menjadi kalimat tak langsung (indirect speech / reported speech).
  1. He explained, "When I came home, he was fixing the leaking pipe."
  2. "I have finished the report," Jim said.
  3. Mary asked me, "Can you speak Spanish?"
  4. I told him, "Please show me your ID card."
  5. She said, "I am making a new dress."
  6. "Where did you find the information?" I asked her.
  7. He told her, "Please finish the story."
  8. "Can you find the documents?" she asked.
  9. Dad said, "You should knock at the door before coming in."
  10. "Don't shout!" said the teacher.
  11. "Do you remember the number?" the policeman asked.
  12. She said, "Would you like some coffee?"
  13. "Do you play badminton?" he asked her.
  14. He said, "I don't intend to go to town today."
  15. "Don't use too much paint on the front gate," he said.
  16. "Let's wash these clothes," they said.
  17. "Where did the accident happen?" she asked him.
  18. She asked the gardener, "How often do you water the flowers?"
  19. The teacher said, "We will announce the exam result soon."
  20. He explained, "They are going to discuss the proposal at the next meeting."
English Crossword Puzzle, 082011 11.23 PM 5296

Recommended

Mister Guru

A person who won’t read has no advantage over one who can’t read. – Mark Twain