A. The main role of tourism in IndonesiaTourism has undoubtedly played a very significant part in the country’s development process, particularly in the aspects of economy, culture, education, and environment. It has become one of the biggest sources of Indonesian foreign exchange earnings which helps boost the economic development. Nevertheless, it has to be carefully planned, developed, organized, and controlled in order to minimize its disbenefits to the entire nation. This is why the Indonesian government has intensified and expanded the tourism industry with due interest for preservation of the Indonesian culture and national identity.
B. The positive effects of tourism activitiesTourism activities have significantly brought positive effects to our society concerning:
- Preservation of cultural monuments and historical places. In turn, it will motivate the sense of cultural heritage among the Indonesian people.
- Preservation of traditional cultural patterns, art, dances, customs, and dress. It will develop the national pride, heritage, and unity.
- Improvement of cross-cultural exchange and international understanding through contact of persons of different countries, cultures, and environment. It will promote the national culture itself.
- Provision of employment and increase of income level.
- Increase of foreign exchange
- Help in paying costs of infrastructure
- Improvement of managerial and technical skills in tourism, which, in turn, will help to pay other economic activities.
- Improvement of cross-cultural exchange and better international understanding. It develops the awareness of the importance of international relationship.
- Building stronger national pride, sense of heritage, sense of belonging, and unity among the Indonesian by learning more about the diverse culture and environment of Indonesia.
- Improvement of infrastructure will result in easy accessibility and wider social relationship.
- Preservation of natural environment will lead to cleanliness and safety. Environmental deterioration can be minimized.
- The improvement of infrastructure, including transportation and communication, will result in easy accessibility for law enforcement agencies.
- Increase and improvement of law enforcement agencies as well as their facilities, e.g. security guards, police agents, police stations, patrol cars, means of communication, etc.
- Improvement of managerial and technical skills and knowledge in tourism.
- Preserved environmental and natural features, such as parks, flora-fauna, scenic view, monuments, and historical places, will enable people to learn more about culture, nature, geography, history and other studies.
C. Products of TourismTourism product is actually a service, which is made up of 3 main components, i.e.:
- Attraction of the destination.
- Facilities at the destination.
- Accessibility of the destination.
It concerns the image that a tourist has in mind about a tourism object.
It concerns the accommodation, catering, entertainment and recreation
It concerns how the destination can be reached easily from the place of origin.
D. Motivations of Tourism ActivitiesPeople's travel motivation and the purpose of visits can be classified as follows:
- General motivation:
To be away from the home areas.
- Specific motivation:
Price inelastic: business, meeting, or conference.
Price elastic: holiday makers, family visits, education, sports, health, religion, shopping, prestige, or conformity.
Tourism IndustryTourism industry is the marketing effort which means the systematic and coordinated execution of business for the needs of tourists and to achieve the maximum satisfaction and obtain the appropriate returns. It coordinates the whole approach of an enterprise or organization to its business (chain of distribution). It consists of;
- Private sector support services:
- Guide services
- Travel insurance and finance services
- Marketing support services
- Private ports, etc.
- Public sector support services:
- National / regional tourist organizations
- Resort publicity offices
- Public education and training establishments
- Visa and passport offices, etc.
- Carriers; means of transportation
- Accommodations; e.g. hotels, apartments, holiday centers, etc.
- Man-made attractions; e.g. activity centers, theme parks, etc.
- Middleman: e.g. tour operators / brokers, travel agents, etc.