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Home Posts filed under Modal
Showing posts with label Modal. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Modal. Show all posts

November 19, 2021

The Simple Future Tense (Will + Infinitive)

I. Positive and negative statement with "Will + Infinitive"
SubjectAuxiliary Verb (Will)Main Verb (Infinitive)
I / We / You / They / He / She / It / David / The studentswill ('ll)
will not (won't)
buy
practice
work
leave
wait
II. Interrogative statement (Question) with "Will + Infinitive"
Auxiliary Verb (Will)SubjectMain Verb (Infinitive)
WillI / We / You / They / He / She / It / David / The studentsbuy?
practice?
work?
leave?
wait?
III. Usage of future tense with "Will" and example sentences
  1. We use "will" for the future (tomorrow / next week / next month, etc.). E.g.:
    • Sue travels a lot. Today she is in Madrid. Tomorrow, she'll be in Rome. Next week she'll be in Tokyo.
    • Leave the old bread in the garden. The birds will eat it.
    • Don't drink coffee before you go to bed. You won't sleep.
    • She will not be at school tomorrow.
  2. We use "will" for unplanned future actions, which are done spontaneously at the time of speaking. E.g.:
    • Hold on. I'll get a pen.
    • We will see what we can do to help you.
    • Maybe we'll stay in and watch television tonight.
    For things we have arranged or planned to do, "be going to + infinitive" is commonly used.
    Learn more about Contrasting Future Forms "Be Going To" VS "Will" HERE.
  3. We often use the simple future tense (will + infinitive) after "I think ...."E.g.:
    • I think I'll talk to him about it.
    • I think I will see her after work.
    • I don't think I will do that.
  4. We use the simple future tense (will + infinitive) to make a prediction about what we think will happen in the future. E.g.:
    • The weather forecast says that it will rain tomorrow.
    • Things will get better soon.
    • Thousands of people will come to the new circuit to watch the first race.
    Learn more about Talking about Future Plans and Predictions in English HERE
    Learn more about Making Predictions with Future Continuous Tense HERE.
  5. "Will you ...?" are usually used in polite requests. To make requests sound even more polite, "please" can be used at the end of the sentence.E.g.:
    • Will you talk to him about it?
    • Will you sign here, please?
    • Will you be quiet, please? I'm trying to concentrate.
    Learn more about Imperative Sentences and Polite Requests in English HERE
IV. EXERCISES
  1. Write affirmative (positive), interrogative (question), and negative sentences with "will ...". Number 1 has been done as an example.
    1. They - build a new office.
      +: They will build a new office.
      ?: Will they build a new office?
      -: They won't build a new office.
    2. Ria - get the job.
    3. We - be away for a week.
    4. It - take a long time.
    5. She - be at work tomorrow.
    6. The committee - postpone the meeting.
  2. In this interactive exercise, choose the correct answer for each question, "will" or "won't".
  3. Helen is travelling in Europe. By referring to the picture below, complete the sentences with "she's", "she was", or "she'll be".
      Simple Future Tense
    1. Yesterday, ... in Paris.
    2. Tomorrow, ... in Amsterdam.
    3. Last week, ... in Barcelona.
    4. Next week, ... in London.
    5. At the moment, ... in Brussels.
    6. Three days ago, ... in Munich.
    7. At the end of her trip, ... very tired.
  4. Write sentences beginning with "I think ..." or "I don't think ...". Number 1 and 2 have been done as an example.
    1. Diana will pass the exam.
      Answer: I think Diana will pass the exam.
    2. John won't pass the exam.
      Answer: I don't think John will pass the exam.
    3. We'll win the game.
    4. I won't be here tomorrow
    5. Sue will like her present.
    6. They won't get married.
    7. You won't enjoy the film.
    8. We will finish the project in time.
    9. We will not leave yet.
    10. The train will arrive on time.
  5. Change the following commands into polite requests using "Will you ...? Number 1 has been done as an example.
    1. Sign this form, please.
      Answer: Will you sign this form, please?
    2. Leave your bags here.
    3. Speak loudly, please.
    4. Say that again.
    5. Come with me.
    6. Make some coffee, please.
Reference:
  • Murphy, Raymond Essential Grammar In Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • 6610-0124PM-940.

    August 03, 2021

    Conditional Sentence Type 0 And Type 1

    Conditional Sentence Type 0 And Type 1
    P
    reviously in our earlier post, we have learned about all types of Conditional sentences, i.e. type 0, 1, 2, 3, and mixed conditionals, including their usage or functions, examples, and exercises as well.

    In this post, we are going to focus and take a closer look at Conditional sentence type 0 and type 1.

    Conditional sentence type 0

    Structure:
  • If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Simple Present)....
  • If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Imperative)....
  • Usage / function:
    • Conditional sentences in "If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Simple Present)..." can be used to express general truths / facts. (see examples a and b below)
    • Conditional sentences in "If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Imperative)...." can be used to express suggestions, instructions, or commands. (see examples c and d below)
    Examples
    1. If the moon passes between the sun and Earth, a solar eclipse happens.
    2. If we heat water to 100 degrees Celsius, it boils.
    3. If you arrive at the station, call me.
    4. If you want to turn on the device, press this button.

    Conditional sentence type 1

    Structure:
    If ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Simple Future / Modals)....
    Usage / function:
    Conditional sentences in "If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Simple Future / Modals)..." can be used to express;
    • reminders (see examples a and b below)
    • suggestions (see examples c and d below)
    .
    Examples
    1. If you eat too much, you will get a stomachache.
    2. If you don't shut that window, we will die of cold.
    3. If we want to see the sunrise, we will have to leave very early.
    4. If you want to buy that car, you should provide a bigger garage.
    EXERCISE
    A. Match the sentences on the left with the ones on the right. Number 1 has been done for you as an example.
    If you need help,somebody will open the door.
    If we keep ice in a hot temperature,they will get wet.
    If you fail the exam,let's go for a swim.
    If you ring the bell,it melts.
    If it rains,consult your advisor.
    If it is fine,you'll need to take a remedial test.
    Answer:
    1. If you need help, consult your advisor.
    2. ....
    3. ....
    4. ....
    5. ....
    6. ....
    B. Write correct conditional sentences by putting the verbs in the bracket into the correct form. In some sentences, conditional sentence type 0 and 1 can be used interchangeably. Number 1 has been done as an example.
    1. If I get a ticket, I (go) to the concert.
      Answer: If I get a ticket, I will go to the concert.
    2. If we have time, we (visit) you.
      Answer: ....
    3. If you don't watch the TV, (turn) it off.
      Answer: ....
    4. If the weather is fine, we (go) to the beach.
      Answer: ....
    5. If you want those pictures, I (send) you the copies.
      Answer: ....
    6. If you don't feel well, (stay) at home.
      Answer: ....
    C. Complete the following conditional sentences using your own ideas and words.
    1. If you pass the exam, ....
    2. If I finish my study, ....
    3. If you want to have it, ....
    4. If you have a question, ....
    5. If the weather is fine this afternoon, ....
    You can also study the lesson about conditional sentences type 0 and type 1 through the slide presentation attached below.

    March 07, 2020

    Expressing Certainty, Possibility, and Advisability in the Past Using Modals + Perfective

    Modals + Perfective: Expressing Certainty, Possibility, and Advisability in the Past
    In English Dialogue: Expressing Past Probability With Modals + Perfective, you have noticed the use of modals + perfective in English conversation. Let's take another look at the following sentences:
    • I must have forgotten to take my umbrella.
    • I might have lost it anywhere.
    • How could you have lost it?
    • I may have left it in the coffee lounge.
    • You should have been more careful.
    Do you understand what the above sentences mean? Do you know how to make a sentence with similar structure to those? Let's learn more about it here.
    1. The Structure of Modals + Perfective
    1. Affirmative / positive sentence:
    SubjectModalshavepast participle
    I
    We
    You
    They
    He
    She
    It
    Etc.

    may
    might
    ought to
    must
    could
    should



    have
    been
    slept
    arrived
    finished
    forgotten
    left
    gone
    Etc.
    2. Interrogative sentence / question:
    Question wordsModalsSubjecthavepast participle

    Who
    What
    How
    Where
    When
    Etc.

    may
    might
    must
    could
    should
    I
    we
    you
    they
    he
    she
    it
    Etc.



    have
    been?
    slept?
    arrived?
    finished?
    forgotten?
    left?
    gone?
    Etc.
    3. Negative sentence:
    SubjectModals + nothavepast participle
    I
    We
    You
    They
    He
    She
    It
    Etc.

    may not
    might not
    ought not to
    must not (mustn't)
    could not (couldn't)
    should not (shouldn't)
    needn't



    have
    been
    slept
    arrived
    finished
    forgotten
    left
    gone
    Etc.

    2. The Uses of Modals + Perfective
    • May have past participle expresses less than 50% certainty.
      Example: I may have left my umbrella in the coffee lounge.
    • Might have past participle expresses less than 50% certainty.
      Example: I might have lost it anywhere.
    • Ought to have past participle expresses:
      • advisability
        Example: You ought to have talked to your manager, but you didn't.
      • 90% certainty/expectation
        Example: She ought to have done well in the test because she was well prepared.
    • Must have past participle expresses 95% certainty/logical conclusion
      Example: You must have lost your umbrella, not your briefcase.
    • Could have past participle expresses:
      • less than 50% certainty
        Example: I suppose someone could have picked it up before I rang.
      • unfulfilled suggestion (positive sentence only)
        Example: You could have talked to me before making the decision.
      • impossibility (negative only)
        Example: He couldn't have done such a silly thing.
    • Should have past participle expresses:
      • advisability/unfulfilled expectation
        Example: He should have worked harder for the test, but he didn't.
      • 90% certainty/expectation
        Example: She should have done well in the test because she was well prepared.
    • Needn't have past participle expresses lack of necessity.
      Example: You needn't have worried all day.

    3. The examples of Modals + Perfective in dialogues
    Practice this dialogue and pay attention to what modal + perfective structures imply.

    Barbara: Yesterday I walked home from work, because I had no money for the bus.
    Bill: You needn't have walked home yesterday. I could have lent you some money.
    Barbara: I didn't like to borrow money from you.
    Bill: Oh, but you should have asked me.

    Exercise
    1. Choose the best answer to complete the dialogues.
    1. Tom: Where was Mary yesterday? She wasn't at work.
      Bob: She ... sick yesterday.
      1. must have been
      2. needn't have been
    2. Lucy: Betty isn't home.
      Ann: She ... to the shops.
      1. may have gone
      2. needn't have gone
    3. Andy: Bob hasn't arrived yet.
      Bill: He ... in a traffic jam at this busy hour.
      1. ought to have been caught
      2. could have been caught
    4. Lisa: I didn't know that the meeting would be postponed to next week.
      Mary: Yes. You ... the room today.
      1. might not have prepared
      2. needn't have prepared
    5. Hadi: I think I've lost my key. I put it in my pocket after locking the room.
      Mary: You ... it anywhere.
      1. must have dropped
      2. should have dropped
    6. Betty: He hasn't arrived yet. I assume he's lost his way.
      Rosa: I think so. He ... his way.
      1. must have lost
      2. needn't have lost
    7. Jim: Nancy hasn't received the email.
      Bill: Really? It ... to the wrong address.
      1. ought to have gone
      2. may have gone
    8. Dave: Bella didn't call her office when she was away from work yesterday.
      Gary: That was bad. She ... her boss.
      1. must have informed
      2. should have informed
    9. Sam: I worked until late last night.
      Greg: You ... so hard. The report is due next week.
      1. could have worked
      2. needn't have worked
    10. Rea: Did she phone the police?
      Lori: No. She ..., but she didn't.
      1. must have phoned
      2. could have phoned

    2. Change the verbs
    Change the verbs in he following sentences to indicate past time by using modal + perfective (modal + have + past participle). Number 1 has been done as an example.
    1. That must be a very interesting play.
      That must have been a very interesting play.
    2. Joan may not remember the number.
    3. John might forget to do the shopping.
    4. He needn't do that job.
    5. You could borrow my laptop.
    6. She should get to work on time.
    7. They ought to tell me.
    8. You needn't shout so loudly.
    9. He should knock at the door before coming in.
    10. She may know the answer.
    Prev: BSE SMK Kelas XII, 7/3/11, 10:34 AM, PV 2042

    March 06, 2020

    English Dialogue: Expressing Past Probability With Modals + Perfective

    English Dialogue: Expressing Past Probability With Modals + Perfective
    Are you familiar with the structure of these sentences?
    • You should have informed me earlier.
    • How could you have done that to him?
    • They might have lost their way in the forest.
    Pay attention to the underlined phrases in the above sentences. They are often referred to as "modal + perfective", and are used to express various degrees of certainty, prabibility, or advisability in the past. You can learn more about the structure and uses here.
    A. Practice the dialogue below.
    Betty is waiting for Jim to come home from work. It is raining outside and it is dark, and Betty is worried about Jim. Then she hears a car stopping.
    BettyAh! That must be Jim now. I'll open the door for him ....
    Hello, darling. Oh! Your clothes are so wet.
    JimYes, darling. I forgot to take my umbrella today.
    BettyBut it was raining a little this morning when you left for work.
    JimI know, but I must have forgotten to take my umbrella.
    BettyWhat a pity! Never mind, go and put on some dry clothes.
    JimI'll put on some dry clothes in a minute, Betty. At the moment I'm very worried.
    BettyWhy, darling?
    JimBecause I've lost my briefcase.
    BettyOh, Jim. That's bad luck! Do you know where you lost it?
    JimNo, that's the trouble. I might have lost it anywhere.
    BettyBut a briefcase is quite a large thing. How could you have lost it?
    JimI don't know. I may have left it in the coffee lounge where I had a cup of coffee this morning.
    BettyWhy don't you phone the coffee lounge?
    JimI phoned them this afternoon, but it wasn't there. I suppose someone could have picked it up before I rang.
    BettyI suppose so. Did you look in other places in your office? You might have put it in a different place.
    JimI don't think so, Betty. I thought I might have put it in a different place in the office, but we all looked for it and we couldn't find it.
    BettyAnd was there anything very important in your briefcase, Jim?
    JimYes, unfortunately. I had the plans of a new bridge in it.
    BettyOh, Jim! If you had important plans in your briefcase, you should have been more careful!
    JimYes, you're quite right! ... Oh well, I suppose I'd better put some dry clothes on.
    BettyNow, Jim, you must hurry. You should have put dry clothes on as soon as you came home. Why didn't you take your umbrella? Now hurry and change your clothes.
    JimAll right, Betty. I won't be long ... Betty! I didn't lose my briefcase after all! Here it is! I must have forgotten to take it this morning.
    BettyOh, I'm so glad. So you needn't have worried all day. You didn't lose anything. That's good.
    JimBut - er, - Betty! I - er - must have taken my umbrella after all, because it isn't there now.
    BettyOh dear! You are silly sometimes, Jim. You must have lost your umbrella, not your briefcase.
    (Adapted from: Radio Australia - English for You, Lesson No. 96)
    Exercise
    Answer the following questions
    1. What is the main topic of the above conversation?
    2. Betty said, "But it was raining a little this morning when you left for work."
      What did Betty most probably mean? Choose the best answer.
      1. She suggested that Jim should bring his umbrella with him.
      2. Jim shouldn't have left for work because of the rain.
      3. It was very unlikely that Jim had left his umbrella at home.
      4. It was probable that Jim had left his umbrella in his office.
    3. Why was Jim very worried?
    4. What was in his briefcase?
    5. Jim said, "I may have left it in the coffee lounge ...."
      What does Jim's sentence imply? Choose the best answer.
      1. He felt he should not leave his briefcase in the coffee lounge.
      2. He was sure that he may leave his briefcase in the coffee lounge.
      3. It was certain that he had not left his briefcase in the coffee lounge.
      4. He thought he had possibly left his briefcase in the coffee lounge.
    6. Did Jim really lose his briefcase? Where did he find it at last?
    7. What actually happened with his briefcase?
    8. What did he actually lose?
    9. What must have happened with the umbrella?
    10. Please copy all the italicized verbs and indicate whether they express certainty, probability, or advisability.
    Prev: Crossword 2, 8/21/11, 8:53 PM, PV 3142