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Showing posts with label Usage. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Usage. Show all posts

July 05, 2022

Past Perfect Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, dan Latihan Soal

Past Perfect
Pada kesempatan kali ini, kita akan membahas tentang struktur atau susunan kalimat dalam bentuk Past Perfect tense serta bagaimana penggunaannya. Untuk mempermudah kita dalam mempelajarinya, pembahasan ini dilengkapi dengan contoh kalimat serta latihan soal yang dapat kita kerjakan di akhir pembelajaran. Selamat belajar.
I. Struktur Past Perfect Tense
Struktur Past Perfect tense cukup mudah untuk diingat dan dipahami. Untuk kalimat positif, lihatlah struktur berikut:
Subject + auxiliary verb "HAD" + Past participle (VERB 3)
(Subyek + kata kerja bantu "HAD" + kata kerja bentuk ke-3)
Untuk daftar Verb 3 irregular verbs, lihat di SINI
Contoh kalimat:
  1. (+) I had been there. / I'd been there.
    (?) Had I been there?
    (-) I had not been there. / I hadn't been there
  2. (+) He had worked hard. / He'd worked hard.
    (?) Had he worked hard?
    (-) He had not worked hard. / He hadn't worked hard.
  3. (+) They had gone away. / They'd gone away.
    (?) Had they gone away?
    (-) They had not gone away. / They hadn't gone away.
Catatan:
  1. Untuk kalimat tanya (interrogative / question), letakkan kata kerja bantu "had" di depan subyek. Contoh; "Had they gone?"
  2. Untuk kalimat menyangkal (negative), tambahkan "not" di belakang kata kerja bantu "had". Contoh; "They hadn't gone?"
  3. Dalam percakapan, had seringkali disingkat dengan cara yang sama seperti saat kita menyingkat kata would menjadi 'd. Perbedaannya ada pada kata kerja yang mengikutinya. Pada Past Perfect tense, 'd selalu diikuti oleh verb-3 (past participle), sedangkan kata "would" yang disingkat menjadi 'd selalu diikuti oleh verb-1 (infinitive). Contoh:
    • They'd gone = They had gone.
    • They'd go = They would go.
    • She'd sung = She had sung.
    • She'd sing = She would sing.
II. Penggunaan Past Perfect Tense
Bagaimana dan kapan kita menggunakan bentuk Past Perfect Tense?
  1. Past Perfect Tense digunakan untuk membicarakan kejadian/tindakan yang terjadi sebelum sebuah kejadian/tindakan lainnya terjadi di waktu lampau. Jadi, Past Perfect Tense menunjukkan kejadian/tindakan yang terjadi lebih dulu sebelum kejadian/tindakan lainnya. Contoh:
    • The train left at 7am. We arrived at 7.10am. When we arrived, the train had left. The train had left when we arrived.
    • The fact that he came late wasn't surprising to me. It had happened a few times before.
  2. Past Perfect Tense digunakan sebagai bentuk yang setara dengan Present Perfect tense, misal dalam kalimat tidak langsung (Indirect / Reported speech). Contoh:
    • He said, "I have submitted the report." ~ He said that he had submitted the report.
    • She said, "I've lost my wallet." ~ She said that she had lost his wallet.
  3. Past Perfect Tense digunakan dalam kalimat Conditional (If - conditional) tipe ke 3. Kalimat conditional tipe ke 3 ini digunakan untuk mengungkapkan pengandaian tentang kejadian / keadaan di masa lampau yang tidak sesuai dengan fakta yang sebenarnya. Contoh:
    • If you had arrived ten minutes earlier, you wouldn't have missed the train. (Fakta: you didn't arrive ten minutes earlier and you missed the train)
    • He would have been soaking wet if he hadn't worn a raincoat. (Fakta: He wasn't wet because he wore a raincoat.)
  4. Sama halnya dengan when pada penggunaan pertama (no. 1) di atas, Past Perfect Tense bisa digunakan bersama Simple Past tense as soon as, the moment, immediately, till/until, before, after untuk menegaskan atau memperjelas bahwa kegiatan atau peristiwa yang dimaksud terjadi atau selesai dilakukan sebelum kegiatan lainnya di masa lampau. Contoh:
    • When he had shut the window, he turned on the AC.
    • Before we had reached the basecamp, the rain poured down.
    Pelajari lebih jauh DI SINI.
Lihat contoh dialog tentang penggunaan Past Perfect tense DI SINI.

III. LATIHAN SOAL
A. Put the verbs in brackets into the past perfect tense.
  1. They were very tired. They (work) hard all day.
  2. I didn't know her. I (never met) her before.
  3. When the accident happened, I (finish) working at my garden.
  4. They found out that some burglars (break) into their house.
  5. When the cops arrived, the thieves (run) away.
  6. Sue did not go to work that day. She (be) sick for a week.
  7. We (not leave) the meeting room.
  8. you (arrive)?
  9. they (had) dinner?
  10. Some of the students (not do) the assignment.
B. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past or the Past Perfect tense.
  1. Jim (wait) for an hour when the bus (show) up.
  2. The classroom (look) clean. The students (clean) them when we (get) there.
  3. We (try) to chase the car after it (hit) the motorist.
  4. As soon as they (left) the building, it finally (collapse).
  5. I (hear) about his resignation before you (tell) me.
  6. Before I (become) a teacher in 2015, I (work) as an Assistant Manager for 6 years.
  7. The burglars (escape) before the cops (arrive) at the scene.
  8. If she (read) the announcement, she would have known about the change of schedule.
  9. Diane (tell) me that she (send) the goods on the previous day.
  10. The engine (break) after the race (start) for 10 minutes.
C. The Simple Past or the Past Perfect tense? Do this online exercise.
051011 0759PM 984

December 21, 2021

Asking And Giving Directions

A. How to Ask for Direction
  • Where is ..., please?
  • How do I get to ...?
  • Can you help me, please? I want to get to ....
  • Can you tell me where ... is?
  • I’m looking for ....
B. How to Give Direction
  • Go straight ahead. Take the lift / stairs.
  • Turn left / right at the traffic lights.
  • Walk straight.
  • It’s on your left / right.
  • It’s on the second floor.
  • It’s upstairs / downstairs.
  • Take the first right.
  • Take the first exit.
  • Take the ... bus and get off at ....
  • It's next to ....
  • It's opposite ....
C. Useful Expressions with Illustrations
Ask And Give Directions
D. Example Dialogues
Dialogue 1
Andy stops a passer-by to ask the way to the city museum.
Andy:Excuse me, could you tell me where the museum is?
Passer-by:The museum? It’s just over there, next to the park.
Andy:Ah yes, thanks very much.
Passer-by:You're welcome.
Dialogue 2
Ann needs to go to an ATM and asks a passer-by.
Ann:Excuse me. Could you tell me the way to the nearest ATM?
Passer-by:Well, go straight and turn left at the first junction. Go along the street and you will find a big supermarket. There are ATM booths in front of it.
Ann:And what’s the supermarket called?
Passer-by:Matahari. Shall I write it down for you?
Ann:No, I think I’ve got it. Thanks a lot.
Passer-by:Bye!
Dialogue 3
Lidya wants to go to the art gallery but she doesn't know how to get there.
Lidya:Excuse me. How could I get to the art gallery?
Passer-by:The art gallery? Get the 11 bus from the corner here, and get off at the Central park. Then turn left into Bright Avenue, and go on until you get to the gallery. It's on your right.
Lidya:Could you write it down for me? I might get lost again otherwise.
Passer-by:Certainly ... [writes it down for Lidya] ... there you are.
Lidya:Thank you for your help.
Passer-by:My pleasure. Enjoy the art gallery!
Lidya:I will. Bye!
Passer-by:Bye!
E. Exercises

December 09, 2021

How To Express Amazement, Admiration, or Surprise in English

A. TELLING SURPRISING NEWS
  • Guess what!
  • Surprise!
  • I’ve got news for you!
  • Do you know what!
  • Are you sitting down?
  • You’d better sit down!
  • You won’t believe this, but...
B. EXPRESSING AMAZEMENT / ADMIRATION

That’s + adjective!

That’s
amazing!
incredible!
terrific!

That’s + noun phrase!

That’s
a beautiful goal!
a brilliant maneuver!
a nice dress!

What + noun phrase!

What
a wonderful voice she has!
a brilliant maneuver!
a nice dress!

How + adjective / adverb!

How
stunning she looks!
gently she walks!
clever!
C. EXPRESSING SURPRISE
Amazement, Admiration, Surprise
  • I’m really surprised at ....
  • Oh no! It can’t be (true)!
  • My goodness!
  • What a surprise!
  • What on earth is that thing?
  • I was shocked by ....
  • It’s too good to be true!
  • It’s unbelievable!
  • I can’t believe it!
  • Incredible!
  • It’s really beyond belief!
D. EXERCISES
I. Match each incomplete sentence into the correct word, "How" or "What".
II. Arrange these jumbled sentences
  1. experience – what – had – unforgettable – an – we
  2. was – fascinating – sunset – how – the
  3. actress – a – beautiful – what – is – she
  4. a – family – our – dinner – had – what – fantastic
  5. the – next – how – girl – is – adorable – door
  6. succeed – she – how – to – hard – tried
  7. perfect – by – what – Ronaldo – ball – a – long
  8. the – astonishing – was – sight – how
  9. hall – a – conference – large – what – is – it
  10. for – what – the – team – a – new – year – successful
III. Complete the following dialogues using your own words.
Dialogue 1
Didy:Look. Messy has just scored another goal.
Danny:Wow! ....
Didy:....
Dialogue 2
Bob:What are you reading?
Paul:Sport news as usual.
Bob:What's new today?
Paul:My favorite team won once again. So far, it is the only club that has won each of its five three league matches.
Bob:Really? ....
Paul:Furthermore, so far it has scored 11 goals and allowed none. Isn’t it amazing?
Bob:Indeed. ....
Dialogue 3
Yoyo:Can we go to the movie this evening?
Nike:I’d love to, but I’m sorry I’m tied up till 8 p.m. I’m going to have a meeting at 4 p.m. and it may last until 6. Then I still have to finish a report tonight in order to meet the deadline.
Yoyo:....
Nike:I wish I could go with you. What about Friday evening?
Yoyo:....

December 04, 2021

A Lot Of, Many, Or Much?

A Lot Of, Many, Or Much
I. "A lot of"
"A lot of" is used for all types of sentences, affirmative (positive), interrogative (questions), or negative sentences, for both countable and uncountable nouns.
  1. Example sentences with "a lot of" + countable nouns:
    • I have a lot of books.
    • Bob doesn't have a lot of clothes.
    • Do you have a lot of friends?
  2. Example sentences with "a lot of" + uncountable nouns:
    • I have a lot of work to do.
    • Ali doesn't have a lot of money.
    • Do you have a lot of spare time?
Note: "Much" is never used in affirmative / positive sentences, while "many" can sometimes be used at the beginning of an affirmative / positive sentence, especially when the meaning is negative.
II. "Many" and "much"
"Many" and "much" are used in interrogative (questions) and negative sentences. "Many" is used for both countable nouns, whereas "much" is for uncountable nouns.
  1. Example of interrogative sentences with "many" + countable nouns:
    • Do you have many books?
    • Does Siti have many clothes?
    • Do you have many photos?
    • I don't have many books.
    • Siti doesn't have many clothes.
    • I don't have many photos.
  2. Example of interrogative sentences with "much" + uncountable nouns:
    • Do you have much paper?
    • Does Ali have much money?
    • Do you have much spare time?
    • I don't have much paper.
    • Ali doesn't have much money.
    • I don't have much spare time.
III. "A lot", "many" and "much" without a noun
"A lot", "many" and "much" can also be used without a noun.
Example sentences:
  • I have some money but not much.
  • I took some pictures but not many.
  • She spoke to me but she didn't say much.
  • Do you watch TV much? ~ No, not much.
  • We like films, so we go to the cinema a lot.
  • I don't like him very much.
IV. Exercises
A. Interactive Quiz
Complete each sentence by filling in the blank spaces with the correct answer, "a lot of", "many", or "much".
B. Writing Exercise
Rewrite the following sentences into the interrogative (questions).
  1. He has a lot of friends.
  2. Bill takes a lot of medicine.
  3. This hotel has a lot of rooms.
  4. There are a lot of bananas on the table.
  5. They drink a lot of tea.
Rewrite the following sentences into the negative.
  1. He is saving a lot of money.
  2. There are a lot of kangaroos in the country.
  3. There are a lot of people in front of the building.
  4. She eats a lot of biscuits.
  5. There is a lot of traffic in the streets during rush hours.
Complete the following sentences using "a lot of", "many", or "much". Sometimes, more than one answer may be possible.
  1. Ali has ... spare time.
  2. Indonesia has ... beautiful beaches.
  3. Does Brisbane have ... bridges?
  4. Do you eat ... rice?
  5. We don't have ... bread.
  6. Do they have ... different customs?
  7. Barbara has ... flowers in her garden.
  8. We usually have ... rain from October to April.
  9. There are ... islands in Indonesia.
  10. Do they grow ... rice?
  11. How ... money have you got?
  12. How ... photographs did you take?
  13. How ... is this book?
  14. How ... does the ticket cost?
  15. Did they ask you ... questions?

November 26, 2021

Participial Adjectives (Participle sebagai Adjective)

Participial Adjectives
A
pakah yang dimaksud dengan PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVE? Participial adjective adalah bentuk participle, yang berfungsi sebagai ajektiva. Ajektiva (adjective), atau seringkali disebut sebagai kata sifat, memiliki fungsi untuk menjelaskan kata benda (nouns).

Participle itu sendiri sebenarnya adalah turunan dari kata kerja (verb). Ada 2 (dua) jenis participle, yaitu;

  1. Present participle, yang dikenal sebagai kata kerja (verb) berakhiran -ing, contoh; interesting, drawing, amazing, shocking, dsb.
  2. Past participle, atau dikenal sebagai kata kerja ke-3 (verb 3), contoh; interested, drawn, amazed, shocked, dsb.
A. Perbedaan antara Present Participle dengan Past Participle

Sebagai kata sifat, kedua jenis participle ini memberikan makna yang berbeda terhadap kata benda yang dibicarakan. Lihat contoh kalimat yang menggunakan participle di bawah ini:

  1. Winning the match was an exciting experience for the players. (Present participle)
  2. The excited players were celebrating the victory. (Past participle)
Penjelasan:

Present participle pada contoh no. 1 memiliki makna aktif, yaitu menyebabkan atau melakukan sesuatu. Kata benda (noun) ‘experience’ menyebabkan sesuatu hal, sehingga disebut sebagai ‘exciting experience'.

Sedangkan, past participle memiliki makna pasif. Kata benda (noun) yang dimaksud menjadi obyek dan terdampak oleh berbagai situasi. Pada contoh no. 2, kata benda "players" menjadi obyek dari sesuatu, sehingga disebut sebagai ‘excited players’.

B. Daftar Participial Adjective
Kenalilah beberapa participial adjective yang ada di dalam daftar berikut dan cobalah memahami maknanya. Lengkapilah daftar ini dengan participial adjective yang kalian ketahui.
VerbPresent ParticiplePast Participle
boreboringbored
exciteexcitingexcited
confuseconfusingconfused
sortsortingsorted
surprisesurprisingsurprised
encloseenclosingenclosed
includeincludingincluded
amazeamazingamazed
astonishastonishingastonished
terrifyterrifyingterrified
disappointdisappointingdisappointed
breakbreakingbroken
writewritingwritten
interestinterestinginterested
threatenthreateningthreatened
EXERCISES
A. Horse Race Game
To win the horse race. Choose the correct answer for each of the following sentences. Only the fastest answer can get the full score and all others get only half a point. Now, let's get the race started.

B. Sentence Completion Exercise
Do the following exercise. Use either present participle or past participle of the verbs in the brackets.
  1. The ... announcement has raised questions among the students. (confuse)
  2. The ... students did not know what uniform to wear on the following day. (confuse)
  3. The ... film caused me to fall asleep. (bore)
  4. The ... audience fell asleep during the speech. (bore)
  5. The ... brochure provides tourists with the information they need. (enclose)
  6. The team were ... when they heard about the approval. (excite).
  7. I was very ... to see what was happening at that time. (shock)
  8. This is one of the most ... books I’ve ever read. (interest)
  9. The children soon fell asleep after the ... journey. (tire)
  10. Our vacation was ruined by the ... experience. (frighten)
  11. Aceh was completely destroyed by a ... tsunami on December 26, 2004. (devastate)
  12. The process of repairing ... buildings and streets took years to complete. (damage)
  13. The snake is still a ... sight for most women. (terrify)
  14. The ... workers sat down to rest under the shade of a tree. (exhaust)
  15. His experiences in Jakarta were rather .... (depress)
  16. The woman was trying to comfort the ... child when a policeman came. (cry)
  17. Lapindo tragedy clearly wiped out many ... business opportunities in the area. (promise)
  18. To anticipate the ... volume of air passengers in the holiday season, the airline has added more than 40,000 seats to 14 routes. (increase)
  19. The new ... system is equipped with an advanced protection system. (operate)
  20. A month after the theft, the ... jewelry was recovered. (steal)
Prev: BSE SMP Cls IX 072311 0343PM PV 5113

November 19, 2021

The Simple Future Tense (Will + Infinitive)

I. Positive and negative statement with "Will + Infinitive"
SubjectAuxiliary Verb (Will)Main Verb (Infinitive)
I / We / You / They / He / She / It / David / The studentswill ('ll)
will not (won't)
buy
practice
work
leave
wait
II. Interrogative statement (Question) with "Will + Infinitive"
Auxiliary Verb (Will)SubjectMain Verb (Infinitive)
WillI / We / You / They / He / She / It / David / The studentsbuy?
practice?
work?
leave?
wait?
III. Usage of future tense with "Will" and example sentences
  1. We use "will" for the future (tomorrow / next week / next month, etc.). E.g.:
    • Sue travels a lot. Today she is in Madrid. Tomorrow, she'll be in Rome. Next week she'll be in Tokyo.
    • Leave the old bread in the garden. The birds will eat it.
    • Don't drink coffee before you go to bed. You won't sleep.
    • She will not be at school tomorrow.
  2. We use "will" for unplanned future actions, which are done spontaneously at the time of speaking. E.g.:
    • Hold on. I'll get a pen.
    • We will see what we can do to help you.
    • Maybe we'll stay in and watch television tonight.
    For things we have arranged or planned to do, "be going to + infinitive" is commonly used.
    Learn more about Contrasting Future Forms "Be Going To" VS "Will" HERE.
  3. We often use the simple future tense (will + infinitive) after "I think ...."E.g.:
    • I think I'll talk to him about it.
    • I think I will see her after work.
    • I don't think I will do that.
  4. We use the simple future tense (will + infinitive) to make a prediction about what we think will happen in the future. E.g.:
    • The weather forecast says that it will rain tomorrow.
    • Things will get better soon.
    • Thousands of people will come to the new circuit to watch the first race.
    Learn more about Talking about Future Plans and Predictions in English HERE
    Learn more about Making Predictions with Future Continuous Tense HERE.
  5. "Will you ...?" are usually used in polite requests. To make requests sound even more polite, "please" can be used at the end of the sentence.E.g.:
    • Will you talk to him about it?
    • Will you sign here, please?
    • Will you be quiet, please? I'm trying to concentrate.
    Learn more about Imperative Sentences and Polite Requests in English HERE
IV. EXERCISES
  1. Write affirmative (positive), interrogative (question), and negative sentences with "will ...". Number 1 has been done as an example.
    1. They - build a new office.
      +: They will build a new office.
      ?: Will they build a new office?
      -: They won't build a new office.
    2. Ria - get the job.
    3. We - be away for a week.
    4. It - take a long time.
    5. She - be at work tomorrow.
    6. The committee - postpone the meeting.
  2. In this interactive exercise, choose the correct answer for each question, "will" or "won't".
  3. Helen is travelling in Europe. By referring to the picture below, complete the sentences with "she's", "she was", or "she'll be".
      Simple Future Tense
    1. Yesterday, ... in Paris.
    2. Tomorrow, ... in Amsterdam.
    3. Last week, ... in Barcelona.
    4. Next week, ... in London.
    5. At the moment, ... in Brussels.
    6. Three days ago, ... in Munich.
    7. At the end of her trip, ... very tired.
  4. Write sentences beginning with "I think ..." or "I don't think ...". Number 1 and 2 have been done as an example.
    1. Diana will pass the exam.
      Answer: I think Diana will pass the exam.
    2. John won't pass the exam.
      Answer: I don't think John will pass the exam.
    3. We'll win the game.
    4. I won't be here tomorrow
    5. Sue will like her present.
    6. They won't get married.
    7. You won't enjoy the film.
    8. We will finish the project in time.
    9. We will not leave yet.
    10. The train will arrive on time.
  5. Change the following commands into polite requests using "Will you ...? Number 1 has been done as an example.
    1. Sign this form, please.
      Answer: Will you sign this form, please?
    2. Leave your bags here.
    3. Speak loudly, please.
    4. Say that again.
    5. Come with me.
    6. Make some coffee, please.
Reference:
  • Murphy, Raymond Essential Grammar In Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • 6610-0124PM-940.

    November 13, 2021

    Cause and Effect, Opposition, and Condition Words

    I
    n this post, we are going to learn adverb clause words, transitions, conjunctions, and prepositions which express cause and effect, opposition, and condition. To make it easier for you to understand the subject, there are example sentences as well as an interactive exercise where you can practice and test your uderstanding. Happy learning.
    A. CAUSE & EFFECT, OPPOSITION, CONDITION WORDS / PHRASES
    ADVERB CLAUSE WORDSTRANSITIONSCONJUNCTIONSPREPOSITIONS
    CAUSE & EFFECTbecause
    since
    now that
    as
    as/so long as
    inasmuch as
    so (that)
    therefore
    consequently
    so
    for
    because of
    due to
    OPPOSITION / CONTRASTeven though
    although / though
    whereas
    while
    nevertheless
    nonetheless
    however
    on the other hand
    but (... anyway)
    yet (... still)
    despite
    in spite of
    CONDITIONif
    unless
    only if / even if
    whether or not
    provided (that)
    providing (that)
    in case (that)
    in the event (that)
    otherwiseor (else)in case of
    or (else)
    B. EXAMPLE SENTENCES OF CAUSE & EFFECT, OPPOSITION, CONDITION

    1. Adverb clauses
    1. He went to bed because he was sleepy. (Cause and effect)
    2. Gold is expensive, whereas copper is cheap. (Opposition)
    3. I’m going to the movie this evening whether or not it rains. (Condition)
    2. Transitions:
    1. It was hot. Therefore, he turned on the air condition. (Cause and effect)
    2. It was raining. Nevertheless, he went out. (Opposition)
    3. You’d better wear a jacket. Otherwise, you’ll catch cold. (Condition)
    3. Conjunctions:
    1. It was getting late, so we decided to go home. (Cause and effect)
    2. It was getting late, yet we still continued working. (Opposition)
    3. You should leave now, or (else) you’ll be late for school. (Condition)
    4. Prepositions:
    1. The flight was canceled due to the heavy fog. (Cause and effect)
    2. They went out despite the bad weather. (Opposition)
    3. In case of fire, call 911 immediately. (Condition)
    C. MULTIPLE CHOICE INTERACTIVE EXERCISE


    D. SENTENCE COMPLETION EXERCISE

    Do this exercise. Complete the sentences using one of the words listed in the above table.
    Cause and Effect, Opposition, and Condition Words
    1. Dina lives in the city, ... Rinda lives in the country.
    2. The meeting was postponed ... the heavy rain.
    3. ... I had a cold, I decided to go to school.
    4. You’d better prepare for the test, ... you will fail again.
    5. You forget the meaning of these words ... you never practice it.
    6. Mastering English is just a matter of practice. ... you must practice a lot.
    7. She kept riding her motorcycle ... the flat back tire.
    8. I’m going to take my TV set ... it hasn’t been repaired.
    9. Her father has told her to study. ... she is going to the movie.
    10. Parents should supervise their children when watching TV. ... they may watch inappropriate programs.
    11. He didn't get the job ... he didn't have enough experience.
    12. He got the job ... he didn't have enough experience.
    13. I'll lend you some money ... you really need it.
    14. The music was loud ... you could hear it from miles away.
    15. I couldn't sleep ... I was very tired.
    16. ... it rained a lot, we enjoyed our vacation.
    17. We went out ... the rain.
    18. He passed the exam ... he was well-prepared.
    19. I didn't get the job ... I had all the necessary qualifications.
    20. ... fire, please leave the building as quickly as possible.