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Showing posts with label Grammar. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Grammar. Show all posts

August 05, 2022

Giving And Asking For Permission, And Making And Responding To Preventions In English

Asking For Permission
riting this material reminds me of one of the most amusing experiences that I have had during my long years of being an English teacher. That day, I was teaching a class when a boy student got up from his chair and walked to me. Then he spoke to me in Indonesian, asking for permission to go to the bathroom. I rejected and asked him to use English. Responding to my requirement, he said, "Sir, I am toilet." And the class burst out laughing.

Do you know why? Yes, the sentence "Sir, I am toilet." is NOT the correct expression to say when you are requesting or asking for permission to leave the classroom and go to the bathroom. Now, in order for us not to make a similar mistake when we are requesting permission, let's study the following expressions.

A. Using Modals: "Can I", "Could I", "May I":
Using "Can I", "Could I", "May I"Verb 1
Can I
Could I
May I
go to the bathroom?
use your car?
close the door?
Giving permissionRefusing to give permission
Yes, you can.
Sure, please do.
Certainly, go ahead.
Yes, of course
No problem
By all means.
Yes, why not?
No, sorry.
I’m sorry, you can’t.
No, I’m afraid not ....
I'm afraid you can't do that.
You're now allowed to ....
You should not ....
B. Using "Would you mind ...?":
Using "Would you mind if ...?"subject + Verb 2 (Simple Past)?
Would you mind ifI went to the bathroom?
I used your car?
I closed the door?
Giving permissionRefusing to give permission
No, not at all.
Certainly not.
Please do.
No, go ahead.
I'm sorry, you can't.
Yes, I would.
C. Using "Do you mind ...?":
Using "Do you mind if ...?"subject + Verb 1 (Simple Present)?
Do you mind ifI open the window?
I leave now?
I close the door?
Giving permissionRefusing to give permission
No, I don't.
No, not at all.
Certainly not.
Please do.
No, go ahead.
I'm sorry, you can't.
Yes, I do.
Note: Be careful when responding to a request using "Would you mind ...?". The response "Yes, certainly" would indicate that "you would mind". Hence, if you have objection to the request and do not want to give permission, the response should be "Yes, certainly", "Yes, I do". If you have no objection, the appropriate response would be "No, I don't mind", or "No, please be my guest."
D. Using Other forms:
Using "wonder"subject + could + Verb 1 (Simple Past)?
I wonder ifI could borrow your dictionary.
I could use your car.
Giving permissionRefusing to give permission
Yes, certainly.
Please do.
Why not? Go ahead.
I'm sorry, you can't.
I'm sorry, but I'm still using it.
E. Making Preventions:
Making Preventions
I wouldn’t do that if I were you.
I wouldn’t take the risk if I were in your shoes. It’s too risky.
(I think) it’s not a good idea.
Responding to Preventions
Allright. I’ll consider that.
I’ll think about that.
I’ll think it over.
I’ll reschedule my plan.
Please do.
Why not? Go ahead.
F. Example Dialogues.
Short Dialogue 1
Man : Excuse me, could I try this shirt?
Woman : Yes, please. There's a fitting room over there, near the counter.
Short Dialogue 2
Man : Do you mind if I use your computer to type this letter?
Woman : No, not at all. Please do.
Short Dialogue 3
Woman : May I open the windows? It's very stuffy here.
Man : I'm afraid you can't. The wind is very strong outside.
Short Dialogue 4
Man : Can I put my luggage here?
Woman : That's okay, but please don't be too long.
Write short dialogues like the above examples about permissions based on the following situations.
  1. Your camera is out of battery. You want to borrow your friend's camera.
  2. It's getting late. You should leave your friend's house and go home.
  3. It's very windy and dusty outside. You want to close the windows.
  4. You forgot to bring your charger. You need to use your friend's phone charger.
  5. You want to turn on your television.
  6. You want to go to a movie with your best friends.
  7. You want to visit your friend at the hospital this afternoon. You ask for permission to your mother.
  8. You cannot use your motorcycle to come to your friend's party. You ask your best friend to lend you his motorcycle.
  9. Your pen suddenly runs out. You want to use your deskmate's pen but he is still using it.
  10. You want to go to the beach, but your parents do not allow you to go because the weather is bad.
Prev: 51611 1201PM PV192

July 05, 2022

Past Perfect Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, dan Latihan Soal

Past Perfect
Pada kesempatan kali ini, kita akan membahas tentang struktur atau susunan kalimat dalam bentuk Past Perfect tense serta bagaimana penggunaannya. Untuk mempermudah kita dalam mempelajarinya, pembahasan ini dilengkapi dengan contoh kalimat serta latihan soal yang dapat kita kerjakan di akhir pembelajaran. Selamat belajar.
I. Struktur Past Perfect Tense
Struktur Past Perfect tense cukup mudah untuk diingat dan dipahami. Untuk kalimat positif, lihatlah struktur berikut:
Subject + auxiliary verb "HAD" + Past participle (VERB 3)
(Subyek + kata kerja bantu "HAD" + kata kerja bentuk ke-3)
Untuk daftar Verb 3 irregular verbs, lihat di SINI
Contoh kalimat:
  1. (+) I had been there. / I'd been there.
    (?) Had I been there?
    (-) I had not been there. / I hadn't been there
  2. (+) He had worked hard. / He'd worked hard.
    (?) Had he worked hard?
    (-) He had not worked hard. / He hadn't worked hard.
  3. (+) They had gone away. / They'd gone away.
    (?) Had they gone away?
    (-) They had not gone away. / They hadn't gone away.
  1. Untuk kalimat tanya (interrogative / question), letakkan kata kerja bantu "had" di depan subyek. Contoh; "Had they gone?"
  2. Untuk kalimat menyangkal (negative), tambahkan "not" di belakang kata kerja bantu "had". Contoh; "They hadn't gone?"
  3. Dalam percakapan, had seringkali disingkat dengan cara yang sama seperti saat kita menyingkat kata would menjadi 'd. Perbedaannya ada pada kata kerja yang mengikutinya. Pada Past Perfect tense, 'd selalu diikuti oleh verb-3 (past participle), sedangkan kata "would" yang disingkat menjadi 'd selalu diikuti oleh verb-1 (infinitive). Contoh:
    • They'd gone = They had gone.
    • They'd go = They would go.
    • She'd sung = She had sung.
    • She'd sing = She would sing.
II. Penggunaan Past Perfect Tense
Bagaimana dan kapan kita menggunakan bentuk Past Perfect Tense?
  1. Past Perfect Tense digunakan untuk membicarakan kejadian/tindakan yang terjadi sebelum sebuah kejadian/tindakan lainnya terjadi di waktu lampau. Jadi, Past Perfect Tense menunjukkan kejadian/tindakan yang terjadi lebih dulu sebelum kejadian/tindakan lainnya. Contoh:
    • The train left at 7am. We arrived at 7.10am. When we arrived, the train had left. The train had left when we arrived.
    • The fact that he came late wasn't surprising to me. It had happened a few times before.
  2. Past Perfect Tense digunakan sebagai bentuk yang setara dengan Present Perfect tense, misal dalam kalimat tidak langsung (Indirect / Reported speech). Contoh:
    • He said, "I have submitted the report." ~ He said that he had submitted the report.
    • She said, "I've lost my wallet." ~ She said that she had lost his wallet.
  3. Past Perfect Tense digunakan dalam kalimat Conditional (If - conditional) tipe ke 3. Kalimat conditional tipe ke 3 ini digunakan untuk mengungkapkan pengandaian tentang kejadian / keadaan di masa lampau yang tidak sesuai dengan fakta yang sebenarnya. Contoh:
    • If you had arrived ten minutes earlier, you wouldn't have missed the train. (Fakta: you didn't arrive ten minutes earlier and you missed the train)
    • He would have been soaking wet if he hadn't worn a raincoat. (Fakta: He wasn't wet because he wore a raincoat.)
  4. Sama halnya dengan when pada penggunaan pertama (no. 1) di atas, Past Perfect Tense bisa digunakan bersama Simple Past tense as soon as, the moment, immediately, till/until, before, after untuk menegaskan atau memperjelas bahwa kegiatan atau peristiwa yang dimaksud terjadi atau selesai dilakukan sebelum kegiatan lainnya di masa lampau. Contoh:
    • When he had shut the window, he turned on the AC.
    • Before we had reached the basecamp, the rain poured down.
    Pelajari lebih jauh DI SINI.
Lihat contoh dialog tentang penggunaan Past Perfect tense DI SINI.

A. Put the verbs in brackets into the past perfect tense.
  1. They were very tired. They (work) hard all day.
  2. I didn't know her. I (never met) her before.
  3. When the accident happened, I (finish) working at my garden.
  4. They found out that some burglars (break) into their house.
  5. When the cops arrived, the thieves (run) away.
  6. Sue did not go to work that day. She (be) sick for a week.
  7. We (not leave) the meeting room.
  8. you (arrive)?
  9. they (had) dinner?
  10. Some of the students (not do) the assignment.
B. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past or the Past Perfect tense.
  1. Jim (wait) for an hour when the bus (show) up.
  2. The classroom (look) clean. The students (clean) them when we (get) there.
  3. We (try) to chase the car after it (hit) the motorist.
  4. As soon as they (left) the building, it finally (collapse).
  5. I (hear) about his resignation before you (tell) me.
  6. Before I (become) a teacher in 2015, I (work) as an Assistant Manager for 6 years.
  7. The burglars (escape) before the cops (arrive) at the scene.
  8. If she (read) the announcement, she would have known about the change of schedule.
  9. Diane (tell) me that she (send) the goods on the previous day.
  10. The engine (break) after the race (start) for 10 minutes.
C. The Simple Past or the Past Perfect tense? Do this online exercise.
051011 0759PM 984

May 23, 2022

There + be: 'There is' And 'There are'

ook at the picture of a livingroom on the left. We can describe the existence of things in the room by using "there is" and/or "there are". The examples below talk about the existence or presence of things in the livingroom by using "there is" and "there are". Pay attention to them.
  • There is a window in the livingroom.
  • There is a sofa next to the window.
  • There is an orange carpet on the floor.
  • There is a standing lamp next to the sofa.
  • There is a wooden shelf beside the window.
  • There are some books and a photograph on the shelf.

A. Using "There is" and "There are"
I. Countable Nouns
Singular Nouns:
+: There is (There's) + singular noun
?: Is there + singular noun?
-: There is not (There isn't) + singular noun
Example sentences:
  • There is (There's) a big tree in the garden.
  • There is (There's) a book on that shelf.
  • There is (There's) a car in the garage.
  • There is (There's) the book you're looking for.
  • A: Is there a book in the bag?
    B: Yes, there is. / No, there isn't.
Plural Nouns
+: There are + plural noun
?: Are there + plural noun?
-: There are not (There aren't) + plural noun
Example sentences:
  • There are big trees in the garden.
  • There aren't many books on that shelf.
  • There are three cars in the garage.
  • There are the books you're looking for.
  • A: Are there many books on that shelf?
    B: Yes, there are. / No, there aren't.
  • A: How many students are there in your class?
    B: There are twenty.
II. Uncountable Nouns
+: There is (There's) + uncountable noun
?: Is there + uncountable noun?
-: There is not (There isn't) + uncountable noun
Example sentences:
  • There is (There's) some money in the drawer.
  • There is some tea on the table.
  • There is some ice in the fridge.
  • There is not (There isn't) any money in the wallet.
  • We can't go skiing. There is not (There isn't) any snow.
Note: "Some" is usually used with positive and interrogative sentences, while "any" is used with interrogative and negative sentences. To learn the difference between "some" and "any", read Some VS Any: What's The Difference?.
B. Example Dialogue
Practice the following dialogue. Pay attention to the italicized words.
In the kitchen
An estate agent is showing Mr. and Mrs. Harris the kitchen.
Estate Agent:There you are. A wonderful new kitchen.
Mr. Harris:It's very small.
Estate Agent:There's the cooker and there's the refrigerator.
Mrs. Harris:Where?
Estate Agent:Behind you. The refrigerator's behind you.
Mrs. Harris:I can't open it.
Mr. Harris:I can't put the table outside. Then you can open the refrigerator.
Mrs. Harris:What's that under the table? On the floor?
Estate Agent:It's a box.
Mrs. Harris:What's inside the box?
Estate Agent:There are spoons, knives, forks, ....
Mr. Harris:Plates ....
Mrs. Harris:And there are cups, too. Where will we put all these things?
Estate Agent:Put them in the cupboard. There's a cupboard behind the door.
A. Write sentences with "There is" or "There are" using the provided nouns. Look at the example.
  1. a cup - the table.
    Answer: There is a cup on the table.
  2. a book - the shelf.
  3. a lot of cars - the parking lot
  4. so many ants - on the table
  5. some tea - the table
  6. some ice - the fridge
  7. a computer - the room
  8. few good restaurants - my town
  9. some money - my pocket
  10. a big lamp - the center of the room
  11. two English dictionaries - our library
B. Complete these sentences with "there is / there isn't / is there / there are / there aren't / are there".
  1. The fridge is empty. ... any food in it.
  2. Surabaya is a big city. ... many good hotels there.
  3. ... more than 17,500 islands in Indonesian archipelago.
  4. I like shopping here. ... a wide variety of products to choose from.
  5. The park is not crowded. ... many visitors that day.
  6. I don't think we need to eat out. ... enough rice for dinner.
  7. ... a new building next to the parking lot. It is the school auditorium.
  8. ... an ATM near here? I need to draw some money.
  9. ... komodo dragons in the zoo?
  10. How many computers ... in the office?
C. Let's play a "Horse Race" game. Answer each question as quickly as possible. You may play it in full-screen mode if necessary.
051611 1147AM PV122

February 14, 2022

Past Continuous Tense: Struktur, Penggunaan, & Latihan Soal

Past Continuous Tense
ika sebelumnya kita sudah belajar tentang Simple Past tense dan Present Continuous tense, pada materi ini kita akan membahas tentang bentuk waktu lain yang juga sangat penting untuk dipelajari dalam bahasa Inggris, yaitu "Past Continuous tense".

Past continuous tense adalah bentuk waktu yang digunakan saat kita membicarakan suatu aktifitas atau peristiwa yang sedang dilakukan atau sedang terjadi pada saat tertentu di masa lampau.

Sebagai ilustrasi, lihatlah gambar di atas dan perhatikan bentuk kata kerja (verbs) pada kalimat-kalimat dalam paragraf singkat berikut ini:

At ten o'clock, Nancy was working out. She wasn't cooking. Now she is cooking and preparing lunch. She is not working out.

Perhatikan kalimat dengan kata kerja (verbs) dicetak tebal, yaitu:
  • At ten o'clock, Nancy was working out.
  • She wasn't cooking.

Kata-kata yang dicetak tebal pada kedua kalimat di atas inilah contoh kata kerja dalam bentuk Continuous tense.

I. Bentuk dan Struktur Past Continuous tense
A. Kalimat Afirmatif / positif.
Subject + was / were + verb-ing
SubjectAuxiliary verb BEMain verb (verb-ing)
She and I
My friends and I
The men
My friends
The man
B. Kalimat Interogatif / tanya.
Was / Were + subject + verb-ing?
Auxiliary verb BESubjectMain verb (verb-ing)?
she and I
my friends and I
the men
my friends
the man
C. Kalimat Negatif / penyangkalan.
Subject + was not (wasn't) / were not (weren't) + verb-ing
SubjectAuxiliary verb BE + NOTMain verb (verb-ing)
Iwas not (wasn't)working.
She and I
My friends and I
were not (weren't)
were not (weren't)
were not (weren't)
Youwere not (weren't)working.
The men
My friends
were not (weren't)
were not (weren't)
were not (weren't)
The man
was not (wasn't)
was not (wasn't)
was not (wasn't)
was not (wasn't)
was not (wasn't)
II. Penggunaan Past Continuous tense.
Past Continuous tense pada umumnya digunakan untuk tujuan-tujuan berikut ini:
  1. Membicarakan kegiatan / peristiwa yang sedang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau. Kegiatan / peristiwa tersebut dimulai sebelum waktu itu, dan saat itu masih sedang terjadi dan belum berakhir.
    Contoh kalimat:
    • At ten o'clock, Nancy was working out. She wasn't cooking. She started cooking at nine, and finished at eleven.
    • Yesterday I watched a movie on the internet. The movie started at 7 pm and finished at 9 pm. At 8 pm yesterday, I was watching the movie.
    Past Continuous tense illustration
  2. Dalam bercerita, past continuous tense umumnya digunakan untuk menggambarkan situasi yang menjadi latar belakang sebuah adegan. Cerita tersebut seringkali dimulai dengan past continuous tense untuk menggambarkan peristiwa yang menjadi latar belakang, lalu dilanjutkan dengan kalimat dalam simple past tense untuk menceritakan adegan yang terjadi.
    "The farmer and his wife were working in their farm. The sun was shining. The wind was blowing gently. The birds were chirping on the trees around the farm. Suddenly, they heard a loud explosion from the barn."
  3. Past continuous tense sering digunakan bersama simple past tense dengan kata penghubung "when" atau "while" untuk 2 (dua) peristiwa/kegiatan yang terjadi pada waktu yang bersamaan di masa lampau. Past continuous tense digunakan untuk peristiwa/kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung saat peristiwa/kegiatan lainnya terjadi (biasanya menggunakan bentuk simple past tense). Jadi past continuous membicarakan peristiwa/kegiatan yang lebih lama, sedangkan simple past tense membicarakan peristiwa yang tiba-tiba terjadi pada saat itu.

    Pada contoh kalimat di bawah ini, ada 2 (dua) peristiwa/kegiatan yang sedang dibicarakan.

    1. Kegiatan yang lebih lama (she was watching a movie at 8 pm), menggunakan bentuk past continuous tense.
    2. Peristiwa yang tiba-tiba terjadi (the door opened), menggunakan bentuk simple past tense.
    Kedua peristiwa/kegiatan tersebut bisa diungkapkan dalam satu kalimat dengan menggunakan kata hubung "when" (untuk peristiwa yang tiba-tiba terjadi) atau "while" (untuk kegiatan yang lebih lama). Contoh-contoh kalimat di bawah ini menggunakan 4 (empat) kombinasi yang berbeda:
    • She was watching a movie when the door opened.
    • When the door opened, she was watching a movie.
    • While she was watching a movie, the door opened.
    • The door opened while she was watching a movie.
    Catat bahwa "when the door opened" juga merupakan keterangan waktu.
  4. Past Continuous juga sering digunakan dengan "while" untuk membicarakan dua kegiatan / peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung secara bersamaan di waktu lampau. Kedua kegiatan / peristiwa tersebut berlangsung selama beberapa lama, dan keduanya menggunakan bentuk Past Continuous tense. Contoh:
    • While I was sunbathing, my friends were playing beach volleyball.
    • He was playing a video game while his sister was watching a movie.
    • The mechanic was repairing the car while Andy was curiously watching him.
  5. Past continuous seringkali digunakan bersama frase "I was wondering if you could/would…….., I was hoping, and I was thinking". Di sini, past continuous digunakan agar permintaan atau saran terdengar lebih halus dan sopan. Contoh:
    • I was wondering if you’d like to go out with me for dinner one evening.
    • I was hoping you would be able to come to my party.
  6. Past continuous digunakan untuk menggambarkan situasi yang sedang berubah. Contoh:
    • It was getting darker. The wind was rising.
    • Despite the headwinds created by the COVID-19, the economy was recovering.
  7. Pada kalimat tak langsung (indirect speech), past continuous digunakan untuk mengganti kata kerja berbentuk present continuous. Contoh:
    • Ann said, "I am still working."
      Ann said that she was still working.
  8. Sama halnya dengan present continuous, ada beberapa kata kerja (verbs) yang tidak biasa digunakan dalam bentuk past continuous.
  • Lihat How to Use Past Continuous Tense untuk mempelajari penggunaan Past Continuous Tense dalam versi bahasa Inggris.
  • Bagaimana membedakan penggunaan Simple Past Tense dengan Past Continuous tense? Pelajari selengkapnya DI SINI.

A. Ubahlah kata kerja di dalam kurung ke dalam bentuk Past Continuous tense yang benar.
  1. John (work) in his office at 10 am this morning.
  2. When I walked past his house, he (mow) the lawn.
  3. The sun (shine) while the afternoon breeze (blow).
  4. The teacher (explain) his lesson when the fire alarm went off.
  5. Jane (practice) the piano at 8 pm last night.
  6. He (not joke) when he told the news.
  7. The children (not play) football at 4 pm this afternoon.
  8. What you (do) at 7 pm last night?
  9. What he (do) when you entered the room?
  10. Mom (cook) when Dad called her.
  11. We (work) in the garden when it started to rain.
  12. She left early because it (snow).
  13. They (visit) the museum at 10 am this morning.
  14. At 8 am yesterday morning, the students (do) their test.
  15. At that time, the moon (hide) behind the cloud.
B. Ubahlah kata kerja di dalam kurung ke dalam bentuk Past Continuous tense atau Simple Past tense.
  1. When the principal (appear) at the classroom door, some students (make) a presentation. They (talk) about cyberbullying while others (listen) attentively.
  2. At 8 am this morning, they (clean) the room. They (start) working at 7 and (finish) at about 10.
  3. The boys (practice) when David (call). He (say) that he was still at work.
Dapatkan soal latihan lebih lengkap lagi di Exercise: Contrasting The Simple Past With The Past Continuous
081211 0248PM PV1107

January 11, 2022

Comparative Exercises: Comparing Things in English

efore doing the exercises below, you may want to review what we have learned about comparisons in "Degrees of Comparison: Positive, Comparative, Superlative, dan Parallel Increase". As a reminder, here is how to compare things using adjectives.
A. Using Positive Degree:
To show that two things or people are similar in some way, we can use "as + adjective + as". Example sentences:
  • The tiger is as dangerous as the lion.
  • For me, the rose is as beautiful as the sunflower.
B. Using Comparative degree:
To compare two things which are not similar, we can use "comparative adjectives + than". Comparatives can be "adjective + er + than" or "more + adjective + than". To learn more about comparative adjectives, read THIS.
  • Apples are smaller than coconuts.
  • This motorcycle is more expensive than that one.
C. Using Superlative degree:
To compare three or more things, one of which is superior or inferior to the others, we use a "the superlative". The superlative can be formed with "the + adjective + est" or "the most + adjective".
  • John is the tallest boy in his class.
  • The rose is the most beautiful flower in my garden.
I. Write the comparative of the adjectives below.
  • big: bigger.
    1. pretty: ....
    2. interesting: ....
    3. strong: ....
    4. serious: ....
    5. happy: ....
    6. good: ....
    7. bad: ....
    8. delicious: ....
    9. loud: ....
    10. heavy: ....
    II. Multiple choice quiz.
    III. Look at the pictures below and complete each sentence using the given adjectives.
    1. A is ...(big)... B.
    2. A is ...(big)... C.
    3. C is ...(small)... A.
    4. C is ...(small)... box.
    5. C is not ...(big)... B.
    6. B is ...(big)... than C.
    7. Comparing Things
    8. The red motorcycle is ...(fast)... the green one.
    9. The blue motorcycle is ...(slow)... the yellow one.
    10. The blue motorcycle is ...(fast)... the red one.
    11. The yellow motorcycle is ...(fast)... of all.
    12. The blue motorcycle is not ...(fast)... the yellow one.
    13. The green motorcycle is much ...(slow)... the yellow one.
    14. The green motorcycle is ...(slow)... of all.
    15. The yellow motorcycle is much ...(fast)... the green one.
    16. The green motorcycle is ...(fast)... the yellow one.
    III. Complete each of the below sentences using a comparative.
  • Her car isn't very big. She wants a bigger one.
  • Her car is old. She wants a newer one.
    1. My job isn't very interesting. I want to do something ....
    2. He is not very tall. His brother is ....
    3. My car is old. I want to buy a ... one.
    4. These flowers aren't very nice. The blue ones are ....
    5. My chair is not comfortable. Yours is ....
    6. This car is too expensive. I want to buy a ... one.
    7. The food here isn't very good. I know a place that serves ... food.
    8. Tom doesn't work very hard. Jim works ....
    9. This knife isn't very sharp. Have you got a ... one?
    10. Our team didn't play well. The opponent played ....
    11. This beach isn't very beautiful. Mandalika beach is ....
    12. People today aren't very polite. In the past they were ....
    13. This table is too big. Let's find a ... one.
    14. Lombok is too far. I think we'll visit a ... place.
    15. The exercise is too difficult for them. They need something ....
    Prev: BSE SMK/MAK XII 62711 753PM PV5098

    December 04, 2021

    A Lot Of, Many, Or Much?

    A Lot Of, Many, Or Much
    I. "A lot of"
    "A lot of" is used for all types of sentences, affirmative (positive), interrogative (questions), or negative sentences, for both countable and uncountable nouns.
    1. Example sentences with "a lot of" + countable nouns:
      • I have a lot of books.
      • Bob doesn't have a lot of clothes.
      • Do you have a lot of friends?
    2. Example sentences with "a lot of" + uncountable nouns:
      • I have a lot of work to do.
      • Ali doesn't have a lot of money.
      • Do you have a lot of spare time?
    Note: "Much" is never used in affirmative / positive sentences, while "many" can sometimes be used at the beginning of an affirmative / positive sentence, especially when the meaning is negative.
    II. "Many" and "much"
    "Many" and "much" are used in interrogative (questions) and negative sentences. "Many" is used for both countable nouns, whereas "much" is for uncountable nouns.
    1. Example of interrogative sentences with "many" + countable nouns:
      • Do you have many books?
      • Does Siti have many clothes?
      • Do you have many photos?
      • I don't have many books.
      • Siti doesn't have many clothes.
      • I don't have many photos.
    2. Example of interrogative sentences with "much" + uncountable nouns:
      • Do you have much paper?
      • Does Ali have much money?
      • Do you have much spare time?
      • I don't have much paper.
      • Ali doesn't have much money.
      • I don't have much spare time.
    III. "A lot", "many" and "much" without a noun
    "A lot", "many" and "much" can also be used without a noun.
    Example sentences:
    • I have some money but not much.
    • I took some pictures but not many.
    • She spoke to me but she didn't say much.
    • Do you watch TV much? ~ No, not much.
    • We like films, so we go to the cinema a lot.
    • I don't like him very much.
    IV. Exercises
    A. Interactive Quiz
    Complete each sentence by filling in the blank spaces with the correct answer, "a lot of", "many", or "much".
    B. Writing Exercise
    Rewrite the following sentences into the interrogative (questions).
    1. He has a lot of friends.
    2. Bill takes a lot of medicine.
    3. This hotel has a lot of rooms.
    4. There are a lot of bananas on the table.
    5. They drink a lot of tea.
    Rewrite the following sentences into the negative.
    1. He is saving a lot of money.
    2. There are a lot of kangaroos in the country.
    3. There are a lot of people in front of the building.
    4. She eats a lot of biscuits.
    5. There is a lot of traffic in the streets during rush hours.
    Complete the following sentences using "a lot of", "many", or "much". Sometimes, more than one answer may be possible.
    1. Ali has ... spare time.
    2. Indonesia has ... beautiful beaches.
    3. Does Brisbane have ... bridges?
    4. Do you eat ... rice?
    5. We don't have ... bread.
    6. Do they have ... different customs?
    7. Barbara has ... flowers in her garden.
    8. We usually have ... rain from October to April.
    9. There are ... islands in Indonesia.
    10. Do they grow ... rice?
    11. How ... money have you got?
    12. How ... photographs did you take?
    13. How ... is this book?
    14. How ... does the ticket cost?
    15. Did they ask you ... questions?

    November 26, 2021

    Participial Adjectives (Participle sebagai Adjective)

    Participial Adjectives
    pakah yang dimaksud dengan PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVE? Participial adjective adalah bentuk participle, yang berfungsi sebagai ajektiva. Ajektiva (adjective), atau seringkali disebut sebagai kata sifat, memiliki fungsi untuk menjelaskan kata benda (nouns).

    Participle itu sendiri sebenarnya adalah turunan dari kata kerja (verb). Ada 2 (dua) jenis participle, yaitu;

    1. Present participle, yang dikenal sebagai kata kerja (verb) berakhiran -ing, contoh; interesting, drawing, amazing, shocking, dsb.
    2. Past participle, atau dikenal sebagai kata kerja ke-3 (verb 3), contoh; interested, drawn, amazed, shocked, dsb.
    A. Perbedaan antara Present Participle dengan Past Participle

    Sebagai kata sifat, kedua jenis participle ini memberikan makna yang berbeda terhadap kata benda yang dibicarakan. Lihat contoh kalimat yang menggunakan participle di bawah ini:

    1. Winning the match was an exciting experience for the players. (Present participle)
    2. The excited players were celebrating the victory. (Past participle)

    Present participle pada contoh no. 1 memiliki makna aktif, yaitu menyebabkan atau melakukan sesuatu. Kata benda (noun) ‘experience’ menyebabkan sesuatu hal, sehingga disebut sebagai ‘exciting experience'.

    Sedangkan, past participle memiliki makna pasif. Kata benda (noun) yang dimaksud menjadi obyek dan terdampak oleh berbagai situasi. Pada contoh no. 2, kata benda "players" menjadi obyek dari sesuatu, sehingga disebut sebagai ‘excited players’.

    B. Daftar Participial Adjective
    Kenalilah beberapa participial adjective yang ada di dalam daftar berikut dan cobalah memahami maknanya. Lengkapilah daftar ini dengan participial adjective yang kalian ketahui.
    VerbPresent ParticiplePast Participle
    A. Horse Race Game
    To win the horse race. Choose the correct answer for each of the following sentences. Only the fastest answer can get the full score and all others get only half a point. Now, let's get the race started.

    B. Sentence Completion Exercise
    Do the following exercise. Use either present participle or past participle of the verbs in the brackets.
    1. The ... announcement has raised questions among the students. (confuse)
    2. The ... students did not know what uniform to wear on the following day. (confuse)
    3. The ... film caused me to fall asleep. (bore)
    4. The ... audience fell asleep during the speech. (bore)
    5. The ... brochure provides tourists with the information they need. (enclose)
    6. The team were ... when they heard about the approval. (excite).
    7. I was very ... to see what was happening at that time. (shock)
    8. This is one of the most ... books I’ve ever read. (interest)
    9. The children soon fell asleep after the ... journey. (tire)
    10. Our vacation was ruined by the ... experience. (frighten)
    11. Aceh was completely destroyed by a ... tsunami on December 26, 2004. (devastate)
    12. The process of repairing ... buildings and streets took years to complete. (damage)
    13. The snake is still a ... sight for most women. (terrify)
    14. The ... workers sat down to rest under the shade of a tree. (exhaust)
    15. His experiences in Jakarta were rather .... (depress)
    16. The woman was trying to comfort the ... child when a policeman came. (cry)
    17. Lapindo tragedy clearly wiped out many ... business opportunities in the area. (promise)
    18. To anticipate the ... volume of air passengers in the holiday season, the airline has added more than 40,000 seats to 14 routes. (increase)
    19. The new ... system is equipped with an advanced protection system. (operate)
    20. A month after the theft, the ... jewelry was recovered. (steal)
    Prev: BSE SMP Cls IX 072311 0343PM PV 5113

    November 19, 2021

    The Simple Future Tense (Will + Infinitive)

    I. Positive and negative statement with "Will + Infinitive"
    SubjectAuxiliary Verb (Will)Main Verb (Infinitive)
    I / We / You / They / He / She / It / David / The studentswill ('ll)
    will not (won't)
    II. Interrogative statement (Question) with "Will + Infinitive"
    Auxiliary Verb (Will)SubjectMain Verb (Infinitive)
    WillI / We / You / They / He / She / It / David / The studentsbuy?
    III. Usage of future tense with "Will" and example sentences
    1. We use "will" for the future (tomorrow / next week / next month, etc.). E.g.:
      • Sue travels a lot. Today she is in Madrid. Tomorrow, she'll be in Rome. Next week she'll be in Tokyo.
      • Leave the old bread in the garden. The birds will eat it.
      • Don't drink coffee before you go to bed. You won't sleep.
      • She will not be at school tomorrow.
    2. We use "will" for unplanned future actions, which are done spontaneously at the time of speaking. E.g.:
      • Hold on. I'll get a pen.
      • We will see what we can do to help you.
      • Maybe we'll stay in and watch television tonight.
      For things we have arranged or planned to do, "be going to + infinitive" is commonly used.
      Learn more about Contrasting Future Forms "Be Going To" VS "Will" HERE.
    3. We often use the simple future tense (will + infinitive) after "I think ...."E.g.:
      • I think I'll talk to him about it.
      • I think I will see her after work.
      • I don't think I will do that.
    4. We use the simple future tense (will + infinitive) to make a prediction about what we think will happen in the future. E.g.:
      • The weather forecast says that it will rain tomorrow.
      • Things will get better soon.
      • Thousands of people will come to the new circuit to watch the first race.
      Learn more about Talking about Future Plans and Predictions in English HERE
      Learn more about Making Predictions with Future Continuous Tense HERE.
    5. "Will you ...?" are usually used in polite requests. To make requests sound even more polite, "please" can be used at the end of the sentence.E.g.:
      • Will you talk to him about it?
      • Will you sign here, please?
      • Will you be quiet, please? I'm trying to concentrate.
      Learn more about Imperative Sentences and Polite Requests in English HERE
    1. Write affirmative (positive), interrogative (question), and negative sentences with "will ...". Number 1 has been done as an example.
      1. They - build a new office.
        +: They will build a new office.
        ?: Will they build a new office?
        -: They won't build a new office.
      2. Ria - get the job.
      3. We - be away for a week.
      4. It - take a long time.
      5. She - be at work tomorrow.
      6. The committee - postpone the meeting.
    2. In this interactive exercise, choose the correct answer for each question, "will" or "won't".
    3. Helen is travelling in Europe. By referring to the picture below, complete the sentences with "she's", "she was", or "she'll be".
        Simple Future Tense
      1. Yesterday, ... in Paris.
      2. Tomorrow, ... in Amsterdam.
      3. Last week, ... in Barcelona.
      4. Next week, ... in London.
      5. At the moment, ... in Brussels.
      6. Three days ago, ... in Munich.
      7. At the end of her trip, ... very tired.
    4. Write sentences beginning with "I think ..." or "I don't think ...". Number 1 and 2 have been done as an example.
      1. Diana will pass the exam.
        Answer: I think Diana will pass the exam.
      2. John won't pass the exam.
        Answer: I don't think John will pass the exam.
      3. We'll win the game.
      4. I won't be here tomorrow
      5. Sue will like her present.
      6. They won't get married.
      7. You won't enjoy the film.
      8. We will finish the project in time.
      9. We will not leave yet.
      10. The train will arrive on time.
    5. Change the following commands into polite requests using "Will you ...? Number 1 has been done as an example.
      1. Sign this form, please.
        Answer: Will you sign this form, please?
      2. Leave your bags here.
      3. Speak loudly, please.
      4. Say that again.
      5. Come with me.
      6. Make some coffee, please.
  • Murphy, Raymond Essential Grammar In Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • 6610-0124PM-940.

    September 09, 2021

    Exercises: The Simple Past VS Present Perfect Tense (Intermediate)

    Simple Past VS Present Perfect
    n this post, we are going to do some exercises on contrasting the Simple Past with the Present Perfect tense. To learn about the differences between the Simple Past and the Present Perfect tense, read "Contrasting The Simple Past VS The Present Perfect Simple".

    To learn more about both tenses separately, read "Simple Past Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, dan Latihan Soal" and "Present Perfect Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, dan Latihan Soal".

    A. Use the words in brackets to answer the questions.
    Man: "Has the package arrived?"
    Woman: "Yes, ...(a few hours ago)...."
    Answer: "Yes, it arrived a few hours ago."
    1. Man: "Have you seen Bob?"
      Woman: "Yes, ...(a few minutes ago)...."
    2. Woman: "Have you started your new job?"
      Man: "Yes, ...(last week)...."
    3. Man: "Have you had lunch?"
      Woman: "Yes, ...(an hour ago)...."
    4. Man: "Have you submitted the report?"
      Woman: "...(yesterday)...."
    5. Man: "Have they contacted you?"
      Woman: "...(on Monday)...."
    B. Right or wrong? Correct the underlined verbs if they are wrong.
    • I've lost my key. I can't find it.
      Answer: RIGHT
    • Have you seen Bob yesterday?
      Answer: WRONG: Did you see Bob yesterday?
    1. I've finished my work at 2 o'clock.
    2. I'm ready now. I've finished my work at 2 o'clock.
    3. What time have you finished your work?
    4. Sue isn't here. She's gone out.
    5. Jim's grandfather has died in 2009.
    6. Where have you been last night?
    7. I have started my carreer as a teacher in 2002.
    8. I have worked as a teacher for more than 20 years.
    9. Laila left a few minutes ago.
    10. The letter hasn't arrived yesterday.
    C. Put the verbs in the simple past or present perfect.
    • I ...(lose)... my key. I can't find it.
      Answer: I've lost my key. I can't find it.
    • We ...(not have)... a holiday last year.
      Answer: We didn't have a holiday last year.
    1. My friend is a writer. He ...(write)... many books.
    2. I ...(play)... tennis yesterday afternoon.
    3. What time ...(you/go)... to bed last night?
    4. ...(you/ever/meet)... a famous person?
    5. The weather ...(not/be)... very good yesterday.
    6. My hair is wet. I ...(just wash)... it.
    7. I ...(wash)... my hair before breakfast this morning.
    8. Kathy travels a lot. She ...(visit)... many countries.
    9. Sonia isn't here. She ...(not/come)... yet.
    10. We ...(live)... in Malang for two years but now we live in Jember.
    11. Man: "Have you ever been to Bali?"
      Woman: "Yes, we ...(go)... there on holiday last year.
    12. Man: "Where's Tika?"
      Woman: "I don't know. I ...(not see)... her.
    13. Lia works in an office. She ...(work)... there for almost two years.
    14. I ...(meet)... your sister at a party last week. She's very nice.
    15. I ...(wait)... here since seven o'clock and she ...(not come)... yet.
    16. I ...(look)... at this picture for five minutes, but I can't see you in it.
    17. COVID-19 outbreak ...(start)... in early 2020.
    18. Since then, the government ...(take)... various measures to stop the spread of the virus.
    19. The World Health Organization ...(declare)... COVID-19 a pandemic in March 2020.
    20. ...(you/see)... a good movie lately?
    Want to practice more? Try to do another exercise on contrasting the Simple Past with the Present Perfect tense HERE.

    August 25, 2021

    Some VS Any: Exercises

    fter studying the difference between "some" and "any" and how to use them HERE, do the following exercises.
    A. Fill in the blanks with "some" or "any".
    Some VS Any
    1. I bought ... cheese but I didn't buy ... bread.
    2. I am going to the shop. We need ... sugar.
    3. There aren't ... shops in this part of town.
    4. Rio and Hannah haven't got ... children.
    5. Have you got ... brothers or sisters?
    6. There are ... beautiful flowers in the garden.
    7. Do you know ... good hotels in Malang?
    8. Would you like ... tea? I've just made ....
    9. When we were on holiday, we visited ... very interesting places.
    10. Don't buy ... rice. We don't need ....
    11. I went out to buy ... milk but they didn't have ... in the shop.
    12. I'm thirsty. Can I have ... water, please?
    13. Can you give ... information about places of interests in the town?
    14. I was too tired to do ... work.
    15. Man: "Have you seen ... good films recently?"
      Woman: "No, I haven't been to the cinema for ages."
    B. Complete the sentences with "some" or "any" + one of these words.
    air   cheese   help   emails   photographs   batteries   friends   languages   milk   shampoo
    1. I want to wash my hair. Is there ...?
    2. We have received ... from buyers complaining about the product.
    3. I haven't got my camera, so I can't take ....
    4. Do you speak ... foreign ...?
    5. Yesterday evening I went to a restaurant with ... of mine.
    6. Can I have ... in my coffee, please?
    7. The flashlight isn't working. There aren't ... in it.
    8. It's hot in this office. I'm going out for ... fresh ....
    9. Man: "Would you like ...?"
      Woman: "No, thank you. I've had enough to eat."
    10. I can do this job alone. I don't need ....
    C. Complete the sentences. Use "some" or "any" and the correct form of the verb in the brackets. Number 1 and 2 has been done as an example.
    1. Ann didn't take any photographs but I took some. (I/take)
    2. Man: "Where's your luggage?"
      Woman: "Oh, I haven't got any/I don't have any." (I/not/have)
    3. Woman: "This coffee is too bitter for me. Can I have some sugar?"
      Man: "Yes, ... in the kitchen. (we/have)
    4. Man: "Do you need any money?"
      Woman: "No, thank you. .... (I/have)
    5. Man: "Can you lend me some money?"
      Woman: "I'm sorry but .... (I/not/have)
    6. The tomatoes in the shop didn't look very good so ....(I/not/buy)
    7. There were some nice oranges in the shop so .... (I/buy)
    Study and review how to use "some" and "any" and the differences HERE Reference:
  • Murphy, Raymond Essential Grammar In Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Prev: How to Educate ESL Students, Tue 04232013 0755PM PV 397

    August 21, 2021

    Some VS Any: What's The Difference?

    Some VS Any
    n this post, you are going to learn how to use "some" and "any" quantifiers and how they are different. Read the dialogue below in which there are sentences with "some" and "any" quantifiers. Pay close attention to how "some" and "any" are used.
    A. Example Dialogue
    Raka is visiting Hadi and his mother, Mrs. Wira, after school. Here's their conversation:
    Mrs. Wira:Do you have any homework today, Hadi?
    Hadi:Oh, I forget. But I think we don't have any homework today. I'm glad. I don't like homework.
    Mrs. Wira:I know you don't like it, but - are you sure you don't have any homework?
    Raka:I think we have some homework, Hadi. Yes! We must write an English exercise!
    Hadi:Oh, Raka!
    Raka:Look - this is the exercise.
    Hadi:Yes. I remember now.
    Mrs. Wira:Well, you'd better start your homework now.
    Hadi:Yes .... Oh, I don't have any paper.
    Mrs. Wira:Here's some paper. Do you have a pen?
    Hadi:Yes. Oh, my pen is out of ink, and I don't have any spare pens.
    Mrs. Wira:Oh, dear! Raka, do you have a spare pen?
    Raka:Yes, Mrs. Wira.
    Mrs. Wira:Good. Please lend it to Hadi.
    Raka:Here you are, Hadi.
    Hadi:Thank you.
    Mrs. Wira:Now, Hadi, you have some paper and a pen. Now you can write that exercise.
    Hadi:There! That's finished now.
    Mrs. Wira:Let me see it, Hadi. Hmmm, you have some mistakes here, I think.
    Hadi:Do I? Where?
    Mrs. Wira:Look at this sentence. That isn't correct. Can you improve it?
    Hadi:Oh, yes! I remember the correct words now. I must change that sentence.
    Mrs. Wira:Let me see your exercise, Raka.
    Raka:Oh, Mrs. Wira, I think I have some mistakes too.
    Mrs. Wira:No, no, Raka. This is very good. You don't have any mistakes in this exercise.
    Hadi:Raka usually doesn't make any mistakes. But I always make some. Please look at this sentence again, Mom. Is it correct now?
    Mrs. Wira:Yes, I think so, Hadi. I don't see any mistakes now.
    Mrs. Wira:Well, would you like something to drink now?
    Hadi and Raka:Yes,please.
    Mrs. Wira:Good. Let's have some lemonade. .... Oh, I don't have any lemonade, but we can have some tea!
    B. Explanation
    1. "Some" is used in positive sentences. Examples:
      1. I'm going to buy some books.
      2. There's some ice in the fridge.
      3. We did some exercises.
    2. "Any" is used in negative sentences. Examples:
      1. I'm not going to buy any books.
      2. There isn't any ice in the fridge.
      3. We didn't do any exercises.
    3. Most questions (but not all) use "any". Examples:
      1. Is there any ice in the fridge?
      2. Do you have any money?
      3. Why didn't you do any exercises?
    4. When we make offers or requests, we normally use "some", not "any". Examples:
      1. Would you like some ice cream?
      2. Can I have some coffee, please?
      3. Can you lend me some money?
    5. We can use "some" and "any" without a noun. Examples:
      1. I didn't take any photographs, but Ann took some. (=some photographs)
      2. I've just made some coffee. Would you like some? (=some coffee)
      3. We don't have any sugar. I'm going to buy some this afternoon. (=some sugar)
    To check your understanding about the difference between "some" and "any", proceed to the exercise page HERE.
  • Murphy, Raymond Essential Grammar In Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • August 03, 2021

    Conditional Sentence Type 0 And Type 1

    Conditional Sentence Type 0 And Type 1
    reviously in our earlier post, we have learned about all types of Conditional sentences, i.e. type 0, 1, 2, 3, and mixed conditionals, including their usage or functions, examples, and exercises as well.

    In this post, we are going to focus and take a closer look at Conditional sentence type 0 and type 1.

    Conditional sentence type 0

  • If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Simple Present)....
  • If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Imperative)....
  • Usage / function:
    • Conditional sentences in "If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Simple Present)..." can be used to express general truths / facts. (see examples a and b below)
    • Conditional sentences in "If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Imperative)...." can be used to express suggestions, instructions, or commands. (see examples c and d below)
    1. If the moon passes between the sun and Earth, a solar eclipse happens.
    2. If we heat water to 100 degrees Celsius, it boils.
    3. If you arrive at the station, call me.
    4. If you want to turn on the device, press this button.

    Conditional sentence type 1

    If ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Simple Future / Modals)....
    Usage / function:
    Conditional sentences in "If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Simple Future / Modals)..." can be used to express;
    • reminders (see examples a and b below)
    • suggestions (see examples c and d below)
    1. If you eat too much, you will get a stomachache.
    2. If you don't shut that window, we will die of cold.
    3. If we want to see the sunrise, we will have to leave very early.
    4. If you want to buy that car, you should provide a bigger garage.
    A. Match the sentences on the left with the ones on the right. Number 1 has been done for you as an example.
    If you need help,somebody will open the door.
    If we keep ice in a hot temperature,they will get wet.
    If you fail the exam,let's go for a swim.
    If you ring the bell,it melts.
    If it rains,consult your advisor.
    If it is fine,you'll need to take a remedial test.
    1. If you need help, consult your advisor.
    2. ....
    3. ....
    4. ....
    5. ....
    6. ....
    B. Write correct conditional sentences by putting the verbs in the bracket into the correct form. In some sentences, conditional sentence type 0 and 1 can be used interchangeably. Number 1 has been done as an example.
    1. If I get a ticket, I (go) to the concert.
      Answer: If I get a ticket, I will go to the concert.
    2. If we have time, we (visit) you.
      Answer: ....
    3. If you don't watch the TV, (turn) it off.
      Answer: ....
    4. If the weather is fine, we (go) to the beach.
      Answer: ....
    5. If you want those pictures, I (send) you the copies.
      Answer: ....
    6. If you don't feel well, (stay) at home.
      Answer: ....
    C. Complete the following conditional sentences using your own ideas and words.
    1. If you pass the exam, ....
    2. If I finish my study, ....
    3. If you want to have it, ....
    4. If you have a question, ....
    5. If the weather is fine this afternoon, ....
    D. Do the matching exercise below by dragging each clause to the correct pair.
    You can also study the lesson about conditional sentences type 0 and type 1 through the slide presentation attached below.