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Showing posts with label Usage. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Usage. Show all posts

July 05, 2022

Past Perfect Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, dan Latihan Soal

Past Perfect
Pada kesempatan kali ini, kita akan membahas tentang struktur atau susunan kalimat dalam bentuk Past Perfect tense serta bagaimana penggunaannya. Untuk mempermudah kita dalam mempelajarinya, pembahasan ini dilengkapi dengan contoh kalimat serta latihan soal yang dapat kita kerjakan di akhir pembelajaran. Selamat belajar.
I. Struktur Past Perfect Tense
Struktur Past Perfect tense cukup mudah untuk diingat dan dipahami. Untuk kalimat positif, lihatlah struktur berikut:
Subject + auxiliary verb "HAD" + Past participle (VERB 3)
(Subyek + kata kerja bantu "HAD" + kata kerja bentuk ke-3)
Untuk daftar Verb 3 irregular verbs, lihat di SINI
Contoh kalimat:
  1. (+) I had been there. / I'd been there.
    (?) Had I been there?
    (-) I had not been there. / I hadn't been there
  2. (+) He had worked hard. / He'd worked hard.
    (?) Had he worked hard?
    (-) He had not worked hard. / He hadn't worked hard.
  3. (+) They had gone away. / They'd gone away.
    (?) Had they gone away?
    (-) They had not gone away. / They hadn't gone away.
  1. Untuk kalimat tanya (interrogative / question), letakkan kata kerja bantu "had" di depan subyek. Contoh; "Had they gone?"
  2. Untuk kalimat menyangkal (negative), tambahkan "not" di belakang kata kerja bantu "had". Contoh; "They hadn't gone?"
  3. Dalam percakapan, had seringkali disingkat dengan cara yang sama seperti saat kita menyingkat kata would menjadi 'd. Perbedaannya ada pada kata kerja yang mengikutinya. Pada Past Perfect tense, 'd selalu diikuti oleh verb-3 (past participle), sedangkan kata "would" yang disingkat menjadi 'd selalu diikuti oleh verb-1 (infinitive). Contoh:
    • They'd gone = They had gone.
    • They'd go = They would go.
    • She'd sung = She had sung.
    • She'd sing = She would sing.
II. Penggunaan Past Perfect Tense
Bagaimana dan kapan kita menggunakan bentuk Past Perfect Tense?
  1. Past Perfect Tense digunakan untuk membicarakan kejadian/tindakan yang terjadi sebelum sebuah kejadian/tindakan lainnya terjadi di waktu lampau. Jadi, Past Perfect Tense menunjukkan kejadian/tindakan yang terjadi lebih dulu sebelum kejadian/tindakan lainnya. Contoh:
    • The train left at 7am. We arrived at 7.10am. When we arrived, the train had left. The train had left when we arrived.
    • The fact that he came late wasn't surprising to me. It had happened a few times before.
  2. Past Perfect Tense digunakan sebagai bentuk yang setara dengan Present Perfect tense, misal dalam kalimat tidak langsung (Indirect / Reported speech). Contoh:
    • He said, "I have submitted the report." ~ He said that he had submitted the report.
    • She said, "I've lost my wallet." ~ She said that she had lost his wallet.
  3. Past Perfect Tense digunakan dalam kalimat Conditional (If - conditional) tipe ke 3. Kalimat conditional tipe ke 3 ini digunakan untuk mengungkapkan pengandaian tentang kejadian / keadaan di masa lampau yang tidak sesuai dengan fakta yang sebenarnya. Contoh:
    • If you had arrived ten minutes earlier, you wouldn't have missed the train. (Fakta: you didn't arrive ten minutes earlier and you missed the train)
    • He would have been soaking wet if he hadn't worn a raincoat. (Fakta: He wasn't wet because he wore a raincoat.)
  4. Sama halnya dengan when pada penggunaan pertama (no. 1) di atas, Past Perfect Tense bisa digunakan bersama Simple Past tense as soon as, the moment, immediately, till/until, before, after untuk menegaskan atau memperjelas bahwa kegiatan atau peristiwa yang dimaksud terjadi atau selesai dilakukan sebelum kegiatan lainnya di masa lampau. Contoh:
    • When he had shut the window, he turned on the AC.
    • Before we had reached the basecamp, the rain poured down.
    Pelajari lebih jauh DI SINI.
Lihat contoh dialog tentang penggunaan Past Perfect tense DI SINI.

A. Put the verbs in brackets into the past perfect tense.
  1. They were very tired. They (work) hard all day.
  2. I didn't know her. I (never met) her before.
  3. When the accident happened, I (finish) working at my garden.
  4. They found out that some burglars (break) into their house.
  5. When the cops arrived, the thieves (run) away.
  6. Sue did not go to work that day. She (be) sick for a week.
  7. We (not leave) the meeting room.
  8. you (arrive)?
  9. they (had) dinner?
  10. Some of the students (not do) the assignment.
B. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past or the Past Perfect tense.
  1. Jim (wait) for an hour when the bus (show) up.
  2. The classroom (look) clean. The students (clean) them when we (get) there.
  3. We (try) to chase the car after it (hit) the motorist.
  4. As soon as they (left) the building, it finally (collapse).
  5. I (hear) about his resignation before you (tell) me.
  6. Before I (become) a teacher in 2015, I (work) as an Assistant Manager for 6 years.
  7. The burglars (escape) before the cops (arrive) at the scene.
  8. If she (read) the announcement, she would have known about the change of schedule.
  9. Diane (tell) me that she (send) the goods on the previous day.
  10. The engine (break) after the race (start) for 10 minutes.
C. The Simple Past or the Past Perfect tense? Do this online exercise.
051011 0759PM 984

December 21, 2021

Asking And Giving Directions

A. How to Ask for Direction
  • Where is ..., please?
  • How do I get to ...?
  • Can you help me, please? I want to get to ....
  • Can you tell me where ... is?
  • I’m looking for ....
B. How to Give Direction
  • Go straight ahead. Take the lift / stairs.
  • Turn left / right at the traffic lights.
  • Walk straight.
  • It’s on your left / right.
  • It’s on the second floor.
  • It’s upstairs / downstairs.
  • Take the first right.
  • Take the first exit.
  • Take the ... bus and get off at ....
  • It's next to ....
  • It's opposite ....
C. Useful Expressions with Illustrations
Ask And Give Directions
D. Example Dialogues
Dialogue 1
Andy stops a passer-by to ask the way to the city museum.
Andy:Excuse me, could you tell me where the museum is?
Passer-by:The museum? It’s just over there, next to the park.
Andy:Ah yes, thanks very much.
Passer-by:You're welcome.
Dialogue 2
Ann needs to go to an ATM and asks a passer-by.
Ann:Excuse me. Could you tell me the way to the nearest ATM?
Passer-by:Well, go straight and turn left at the first junction. Go along the street and you will find a big supermarket. There are ATM booths in front of it.
Ann:And what’s the supermarket called?
Passer-by:Matahari. Shall I write it down for you?
Ann:No, I think I’ve got it. Thanks a lot.
Dialogue 3
Lidya wants to go to the art gallery but she doesn't know how to get there.
Lidya:Excuse me. How could I get to the art gallery?
Passer-by:The art gallery? Get the 11 bus from the corner here, and get off at the Central park. Then turn left into Bright Avenue, and go on until you get to the gallery. It's on your right.
Lidya:Could you write it down for me? I might get lost again otherwise.
Passer-by:Certainly ... [writes it down for Lidya] ... there you are.
Lidya:Thank you for your help.
Passer-by:My pleasure. Enjoy the art gallery!
Lidya:I will. Bye!
E. Exercises

December 09, 2021

How To Express Amazement, Admiration, or Surprise in English

  • Guess what!
  • Surprise!
  • I’ve got news for you!
  • Do you know what!
  • Are you sitting down?
  • You’d better sit down!
  • You won’t believe this, but...

That’s + adjective!


That’s + noun phrase!

a beautiful goal!
a brilliant maneuver!
a nice dress!

What + noun phrase!

a wonderful voice she has!
a brilliant maneuver!
a nice dress!

How + adjective / adverb!

stunning she looks!
gently she walks!
Amazement, Admiration, Surprise
  • I’m really surprised at ....
  • Oh no! It can’t be (true)!
  • My goodness!
  • What a surprise!
  • What on earth is that thing?
  • I was shocked by ....
  • It’s too good to be true!
  • It’s unbelievable!
  • I can’t believe it!
  • Incredible!
  • It’s really beyond belief!
I. Match each incomplete sentence into the correct word, "How" or "What".
II. Arrange these jumbled sentences
  1. experience – what – had – unforgettable – an – we
  2. was – fascinating – sunset – how – the
  3. actress – a – beautiful – what – is – she
  4. a – family – our – dinner – had – what – fantastic
  5. the – next – how – girl – is – adorable – door
  6. succeed – she – how – to – hard – tried
  7. perfect – by – what – Ronaldo – ball – a – long
  8. the – astonishing – was – sight – how
  9. hall – a – conference – large – what – is – it
  10. for – what – the – team – a – new – year – successful
III. Complete the following dialogues using your own words.
Dialogue 1
Didy:Look. Messy has just scored another goal.
Danny:Wow! ....
Dialogue 2
Bob:What are you reading?
Paul:Sport news as usual.
Bob:What's new today?
Paul:My favorite team won once again. So far, it is the only club that has won each of its five three league matches.
Bob:Really? ....
Paul:Furthermore, so far it has scored 11 goals and allowed none. Isn’t it amazing?
Bob:Indeed. ....
Dialogue 3
Yoyo:Can we go to the movie this evening?
Nike:I’d love to, but I’m sorry I’m tied up till 8 p.m. I’m going to have a meeting at 4 p.m. and it may last until 6. Then I still have to finish a report tonight in order to meet the deadline.
Nike:I wish I could go with you. What about Friday evening?

December 04, 2021

A Lot Of, Many, Or Much?

A Lot Of, Many, Or Much
I. "A lot of"
"A lot of" is used for all types of sentences, affirmative (positive), interrogative (questions), or negative sentences, for both countable and uncountable nouns.
  1. Example sentences with "a lot of" + countable nouns:
    • I have a lot of books.
    • Bob doesn't have a lot of clothes.
    • Do you have a lot of friends?
  2. Example sentences with "a lot of" + uncountable nouns:
    • I have a lot of work to do.
    • Ali doesn't have a lot of money.
    • Do you have a lot of spare time?
Note: "Much" is never used in affirmative / positive sentences, while "many" can sometimes be used at the beginning of an affirmative / positive sentence, especially when the meaning is negative.
II. "Many" and "much"
"Many" and "much" are used in interrogative (questions) and negative sentences. "Many" is used for both countable nouns, whereas "much" is for uncountable nouns.
  1. Example of interrogative sentences with "many" + countable nouns:
    • Do you have many books?
    • Does Siti have many clothes?
    • Do you have many photos?
    • I don't have many books.
    • Siti doesn't have many clothes.
    • I don't have many photos.
  2. Example of interrogative sentences with "much" + uncountable nouns:
    • Do you have much paper?
    • Does Ali have much money?
    • Do you have much spare time?
    • I don't have much paper.
    • Ali doesn't have much money.
    • I don't have much spare time.
III. "A lot", "many" and "much" without a noun
"A lot", "many" and "much" can also be used without a noun.
Example sentences:
  • I have some money but not much.
  • I took some pictures but not many.
  • She spoke to me but she didn't say much.
  • Do you watch TV much? ~ No, not much.
  • We like films, so we go to the cinema a lot.
  • I don't like him very much.
IV. Exercises
A. Interactive Quiz
Complete each sentence by filling in the blank spaces with the correct answer, "a lot of", "many", or "much".
B. Writing Exercise
Rewrite the following sentences into the interrogative (questions).
  1. He has a lot of friends.
  2. Bill takes a lot of medicine.
  3. This hotel has a lot of rooms.
  4. There are a lot of bananas on the table.
  5. They drink a lot of tea.
Rewrite the following sentences into the negative.
  1. He is saving a lot of money.
  2. There are a lot of kangaroos in the country.
  3. There are a lot of people in front of the building.
  4. She eats a lot of biscuits.
  5. There is a lot of traffic in the streets during rush hours.
Complete the following sentences using "a lot of", "many", or "much". Sometimes, more than one answer may be possible.
  1. Ali has ... spare time.
  2. Indonesia has ... beautiful beaches.
  3. Does Brisbane have ... bridges?
  4. Do you eat ... rice?
  5. We don't have ... bread.
  6. Do they have ... different customs?
  7. Barbara has ... flowers in her garden.
  8. We usually have ... rain from October to April.
  9. There are ... islands in Indonesia.
  10. Do they grow ... rice?
  11. How ... money have you got?
  12. How ... photographs did you take?
  13. How ... is this book?
  14. How ... does the ticket cost?
  15. Did they ask you ... questions?

November 26, 2021

Participial Adjectives (Participle sebagai Adjective)

Participial Adjectives
pakah yang dimaksud dengan PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVE? Participial adjective adalah bentuk participle, yang berfungsi sebagai ajektiva. Ajektiva (adjective), atau seringkali disebut sebagai kata sifat, memiliki fungsi untuk menjelaskan kata benda (nouns).

Participle itu sendiri sebenarnya adalah turunan dari kata kerja (verb). Ada 2 (dua) jenis participle, yaitu;

  1. Present participle, yang dikenal sebagai kata kerja (verb) berakhiran -ing, contoh; interesting, drawing, amazing, shocking, dsb.
  2. Past participle, atau dikenal sebagai kata kerja ke-3 (verb 3), contoh; interested, drawn, amazed, shocked, dsb.
A. Perbedaan antara Present Participle dengan Past Participle

Sebagai kata sifat, kedua jenis participle ini memberikan makna yang berbeda terhadap kata benda yang dibicarakan. Lihat contoh kalimat yang menggunakan participle di bawah ini:

  1. Winning the match was an exciting experience for the players. (Present participle)
  2. The excited players were celebrating the victory. (Past participle)

Present participle pada contoh no. 1 memiliki makna aktif, yaitu menyebabkan atau melakukan sesuatu. Kata benda (noun) ‘experience’ menyebabkan sesuatu hal, sehingga disebut sebagai ‘exciting experience'.

Sedangkan, past participle memiliki makna pasif. Kata benda (noun) yang dimaksud menjadi obyek dan terdampak oleh berbagai situasi. Pada contoh no. 2, kata benda "players" menjadi obyek dari sesuatu, sehingga disebut sebagai ‘excited players’.

B. Daftar Participial Adjective
Kenalilah beberapa participial adjective yang ada di dalam daftar berikut dan cobalah memahami maknanya. Lengkapilah daftar ini dengan participial adjective yang kalian ketahui.
VerbPresent ParticiplePast Participle
A. Horse Race Game
To win the horse race. Choose the correct answer for each of the following sentences. Only the fastest answer can get the full score and all others get only half a point. Now, let's get the race started.

B. Sentence Completion Exercise
Do the following exercise. Use either present participle or past participle of the verbs in the brackets.
  1. The ... announcement has raised questions among the students. (confuse)
  2. The ... students did not know what uniform to wear on the following day. (confuse)
  3. The ... film caused me to fall asleep. (bore)
  4. The ... audience fell asleep during the speech. (bore)
  5. The ... brochure provides tourists with the information they need. (enclose)
  6. The team were ... when they heard about the approval. (excite).
  7. I was very ... to see what was happening at that time. (shock)
  8. This is one of the most ... books I’ve ever read. (interest)
  9. The children soon fell asleep after the ... journey. (tire)
  10. Our vacation was ruined by the ... experience. (frighten)
  11. Aceh was completely destroyed by a ... tsunami on December 26, 2004. (devastate)
  12. The process of repairing ... buildings and streets took years to complete. (damage)
  13. The snake is still a ... sight for most women. (terrify)
  14. The ... workers sat down to rest under the shade of a tree. (exhaust)
  15. His experiences in Jakarta were rather .... (depress)
  16. The woman was trying to comfort the ... child when a policeman came. (cry)
  17. Lapindo tragedy clearly wiped out many ... business opportunities in the area. (promise)
  18. To anticipate the ... volume of air passengers in the holiday season, the airline has added more than 40,000 seats to 14 routes. (increase)
  19. The new ... system is equipped with an advanced protection system. (operate)
  20. A month after the theft, the ... jewelry was recovered. (steal)
Prev: BSE SMP Cls IX 072311 0343PM PV 5113

November 19, 2021

The Simple Future Tense (Will + Infinitive)

I. Positive and negative statement with "Will + Infinitive"
SubjectAuxiliary Verb (Will)Main Verb (Infinitive)
I / We / You / They / He / She / It / David / The studentswill ('ll)
will not (won't)
II. Interrogative statement (Question) with "Will + Infinitive"
Auxiliary Verb (Will)SubjectMain Verb (Infinitive)
WillI / We / You / They / He / She / It / David / The studentsbuy?
III. Usage of future tense with "Will" and example sentences
  1. We use "will" for the future (tomorrow / next week / next month, etc.). E.g.:
    • Sue travels a lot. Today she is in Madrid. Tomorrow, she'll be in Rome. Next week she'll be in Tokyo.
    • Leave the old bread in the garden. The birds will eat it.
    • Don't drink coffee before you go to bed. You won't sleep.
    • She will not be at school tomorrow.
  2. We use "will" for unplanned future actions, which are done spontaneously at the time of speaking. E.g.:
    • Hold on. I'll get a pen.
    • We will see what we can do to help you.
    • Maybe we'll stay in and watch television tonight.
    For things we have arranged or planned to do, "be going to + infinitive" is commonly used.
    Learn more about Contrasting Future Forms "Be Going To" VS "Will" HERE.
  3. We often use the simple future tense (will + infinitive) after "I think ...."E.g.:
    • I think I'll talk to him about it.
    • I think I will see her after work.
    • I don't think I will do that.
  4. We use the simple future tense (will + infinitive) to make a prediction about what we think will happen in the future. E.g.:
    • The weather forecast says that it will rain tomorrow.
    • Things will get better soon.
    • Thousands of people will come to the new circuit to watch the first race.
    Learn more about Talking about Future Plans and Predictions in English HERE
    Learn more about Making Predictions with Future Continuous Tense HERE.
  5. "Will you ...?" are usually used in polite requests. To make requests sound even more polite, "please" can be used at the end of the sentence.E.g.:
    • Will you talk to him about it?
    • Will you sign here, please?
    • Will you be quiet, please? I'm trying to concentrate.
    Learn more about Imperative Sentences and Polite Requests in English HERE
  1. Write affirmative (positive), interrogative (question), and negative sentences with "will ...". Number 1 has been done as an example.
    1. They - build a new office.
      +: They will build a new office.
      ?: Will they build a new office?
      -: They won't build a new office.
    2. Ria - get the job.
    3. We - be away for a week.
    4. It - take a long time.
    5. She - be at work tomorrow.
    6. The committee - postpone the meeting.
  2. In this interactive exercise, choose the correct answer for each question, "will" or "won't".
  3. Helen is travelling in Europe. By referring to the picture below, complete the sentences with "she's", "she was", or "she'll be".
      Simple Future Tense
    1. Yesterday, ... in Paris.
    2. Tomorrow, ... in Amsterdam.
    3. Last week, ... in Barcelona.
    4. Next week, ... in London.
    5. At the moment, ... in Brussels.
    6. Three days ago, ... in Munich.
    7. At the end of her trip, ... very tired.
  4. Write sentences beginning with "I think ..." or "I don't think ...". Number 1 and 2 have been done as an example.
    1. Diana will pass the exam.
      Answer: I think Diana will pass the exam.
    2. John won't pass the exam.
      Answer: I don't think John will pass the exam.
    3. We'll win the game.
    4. I won't be here tomorrow
    5. Sue will like her present.
    6. They won't get married.
    7. You won't enjoy the film.
    8. We will finish the project in time.
    9. We will not leave yet.
    10. The train will arrive on time.
  5. Change the following commands into polite requests using "Will you ...? Number 1 has been done as an example.
    1. Sign this form, please.
      Answer: Will you sign this form, please?
    2. Leave your bags here.
    3. Speak loudly, please.
    4. Say that again.
    5. Come with me.
    6. Make some coffee, please.
  • Murphy, Raymond Essential Grammar In Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • 6610-0124PM-940.

    November 13, 2021

    Cause and Effect, Opposition, and Condition Words

    n this post, we are going to learn adverb clause words, transitions, conjunctions, and prepositions which express cause and effect, opposition, and condition. To make it easier for you to understand the subject, there are example sentences as well as an interactive exercise where you can practice and test your uderstanding. Happy learning.
    CAUSE & EFFECTbecause
    now that
    as/so long as
    inasmuch as
    so (that)
    because of
    due to
    OPPOSITION / CONTRASTeven though
    although / though
    on the other hand
    but (... anyway)
    yet (... still)
    in spite of
    only if / even if
    whether or not
    provided (that)
    providing (that)
    in case (that)
    in the event (that)
    otherwiseor (else)in case of
    or (else)

    1. Adverb clauses
    1. He went to bed because he was sleepy. (Cause and effect)
    2. Gold is expensive, whereas copper is cheap. (Opposition)
    3. I’m going to the movie this evening whether or not it rains. (Condition)
    2. Transitions:
    1. It was hot. Therefore, he turned on the air condition. (Cause and effect)
    2. It was raining. Nevertheless, he went out. (Opposition)
    3. You’d better wear a jacket. Otherwise, you’ll catch cold. (Condition)
    3. Conjunctions:
    1. It was getting late, so we decided to go home. (Cause and effect)
    2. It was getting late, yet we still continued working. (Opposition)
    3. You should leave now, or (else) you’ll be late for school. (Condition)
    4. Prepositions:
    1. The flight was canceled due to the heavy fog. (Cause and effect)
    2. They went out despite the bad weather. (Opposition)
    3. In case of fire, call 911 immediately. (Condition)


    Do this exercise. Complete the sentences using one of the words listed in the above table.
    Cause and Effect, Opposition, and Condition Words
    1. Dina lives in the city, ... Rinda lives in the country.
    2. The meeting was postponed ... the heavy rain.
    3. ... I had a cold, I decided to go to school.
    4. You’d better prepare for the test, ... you will fail again.
    5. You forget the meaning of these words ... you never practice it.
    6. Mastering English is just a matter of practice. ... you must practice a lot.
    7. She kept riding her motorcycle ... the flat back tire.
    8. I’m going to take my TV set ... it hasn’t been repaired.
    9. Her father has told her to study. ... she is going to the movie.
    10. Parents should supervise their children when watching TV. ... they may watch inappropriate programs.
    11. He didn't get the job ... he didn't have enough experience.
    12. He got the job ... he didn't have enough experience.
    13. I'll lend you some money ... you really need it.
    14. The music was loud ... you could hear it from miles away.
    15. I couldn't sleep ... I was very tired.
    16. ... it rained a lot, we enjoyed our vacation.
    17. We went out ... the rain.
    18. He passed the exam ... he was well-prepared.
    19. I didn't get the job ... I had all the necessary qualifications.
    20. ... fire, please leave the building as quickly as possible.

    September 09, 2021

    Exercises: The Simple Past VS Present Perfect Tense (Intermediate)

    Simple Past VS Present Perfect
    n this post, we are going to do some exercises on contrasting the Simple Past with the Present Perfect tense. To learn about the differences between the Simple Past and the Present Perfect tense, read "Contrasting The Simple Past VS The Present Perfect Simple".

    To learn more about both tenses separately, read "Simple Past Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, dan Latihan Soal" and "Present Perfect Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, dan Latihan Soal".

    A. Use the words in brackets to answer the questions.
    Man: "Has the package arrived?"
    Woman: "Yes, ...(a few hours ago)...."
    Answer: "Yes, it arrived a few hours ago."
    1. Man: "Have you seen Bob?"
      Woman: "Yes, ...(a few minutes ago)...."
    2. Woman: "Have you started your new job?"
      Man: "Yes, ...(last week)...."
    3. Man: "Have you had lunch?"
      Woman: "Yes, ...(an hour ago)...."
    4. Man: "Have you submitted the report?"
      Woman: "...(yesterday)...."
    5. Man: "Have they contacted you?"
      Woman: "...(on Monday)...."
    B. Right or wrong? Correct the underlined verbs if they are wrong.
    • I've lost my key. I can't find it.
      Answer: RIGHT
    • Have you seen Bob yesterday?
      Answer: WRONG: Did you see Bob yesterday?
    1. I've finished my work at 2 o'clock.
    2. I'm ready now. I've finished my work at 2 o'clock.
    3. What time have you finished your work?
    4. Sue isn't here. She's gone out.
    5. Jim's grandfather has died in 2009.
    6. Where have you been last night?
    7. I have started my carreer as a teacher in 2002.
    8. I have worked as a teacher for more than 20 years.
    9. Laila left a few minutes ago.
    10. The letter hasn't arrived yesterday.
    C. Put the verbs in the simple past or present perfect.
    • I ...(lose)... my key. I can't find it.
      Answer: I've lost my key. I can't find it.
    • We ...(not have)... a holiday last year.
      Answer: We didn't have a holiday last year.
    1. My friend is a writer. He ...(write)... many books.
    2. I ...(play)... tennis yesterday afternoon.
    3. What time ...(you/go)... to bed last night?
    4. ...(you/ever/meet)... a famous person?
    5. The weather ...(not/be)... very good yesterday.
    6. My hair is wet. I ...(just wash)... it.
    7. I ...(wash)... my hair before breakfast this morning.
    8. Kathy travels a lot. She ...(visit)... many countries.
    9. Sonia isn't here. She ...(not/come)... yet.
    10. We ...(live)... in Malang for two years but now we live in Jember.
    11. Man: "Have you ever been to Bali?"
      Woman: "Yes, we ...(go)... there on holiday last year.
    12. Man: "Where's Tika?"
      Woman: "I don't know. I ...(not see)... her.
    13. Lia works in an office. She ...(work)... there for almost two years.
    14. I ...(meet)... your sister at a party last week. She's very nice.
    15. I ...(wait)... here since seven o'clock and she ...(not come)... yet.
    16. I ...(look)... at this picture for five minutes, but I can't see you in it.
    17. COVID-19 outbreak ...(start)... in early 2020.
    18. Since then, the government ...(take)... various measures to stop the spread of the virus.
    19. The World Health Organization ...(declare)... COVID-19 a pandemic in March 2020.
    20. ...(you/see)... a good movie lately?
    Want to practice more? Try to do another exercise on contrasting the Simple Past with the Present Perfect tense HERE.

    August 25, 2021

    Some VS Any: Exercises

    fter studying the difference between "some" and "any" and how to use them HERE, do the following exercises.
    A. Fill in the blanks with "some" or "any".
    Some VS Any
    1. I bought ... cheese but I didn't buy ... bread.
    2. I am going to the shop. We need ... sugar.
    3. There aren't ... shops in this part of town.
    4. Rio and Hannah haven't got ... children.
    5. Have you got ... brothers or sisters?
    6. There are ... beautiful flowers in the garden.
    7. Do you know ... good hotels in Malang?
    8. Would you like ... tea? I've just made ....
    9. When we were on holiday, we visited ... very interesting places.
    10. Don't buy ... rice. We don't need ....
    11. I went out to buy ... milk but they didn't have ... in the shop.
    12. I'm thirsty. Can I have ... water, please?
    13. Can you give ... information about places of interests in the town?
    14. I was too tired to do ... work.
    15. Man: "Have you seen ... good films recently?"
      Woman: "No, I haven't been to the cinema for ages."
    B. Complete the sentences with "some" or "any" + one of these words.
    air   cheese   help   emails   photographs   batteries   friends   languages   milk   shampoo
    1. I want to wash my hair. Is there ...?
    2. We have received ... from buyers complaining about the product.
    3. I haven't got my camera, so I can't take ....
    4. Do you speak ... foreign ...?
    5. Yesterday evening I went to a restaurant with ... of mine.
    6. Can I have ... in my coffee, please?
    7. The flashlight isn't working. There aren't ... in it.
    8. It's hot in this office. I'm going out for ... fresh ....
    9. Man: "Would you like ...?"
      Woman: "No, thank you. I've had enough to eat."
    10. I can do this job alone. I don't need ....
    C. Complete the sentences. Use "some" or "any" and the correct form of the verb in the brackets. Number 1 and 2 has been done as an example.
    1. Ann didn't take any photographs but I took some. (I/take)
    2. Man: "Where's your luggage?"
      Woman: "Oh, I haven't got any/I don't have any." (I/not/have)
    3. Woman: "This coffee is too bitter for me. Can I have some sugar?"
      Man: "Yes, ... in the kitchen. (we/have)
    4. Man: "Do you need any money?"
      Woman: "No, thank you. .... (I/have)
    5. Man: "Can you lend me some money?"
      Woman: "I'm sorry but .... (I/not/have)
    6. The tomatoes in the shop didn't look very good so ....(I/not/buy)
    7. There were some nice oranges in the shop so .... (I/buy)
    Study and review how to use "some" and "any" and the differences HERE Reference:
  • Murphy, Raymond Essential Grammar In Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Prev: How to Educate ESL Students, Tue 04232013 0755PM PV 397

    August 21, 2021

    Some VS Any: What's The Difference?

    Some VS Any
    n this post, you are going to learn how to use "some" and "any" quantifiers and how they are different. Read the dialogue below in which there are sentences with "some" and "any" quantifiers. Pay close attention to how "some" and "any" are used.
    A. Example Dialogue
    Raka is visiting Hadi and his mother, Mrs. Wira, after school. Here's their conversation:
    Mrs. Wira:Do you have any homework today, Hadi?
    Hadi:Oh, I forget. But I think we don't have any homework today. I'm glad. I don't like homework.
    Mrs. Wira:I know you don't like it, but - are you sure you don't have any homework?
    Raka:I think we have some homework, Hadi. Yes! We must write an English exercise!
    Hadi:Oh, Raka!
    Raka:Look - this is the exercise.
    Hadi:Yes. I remember now.
    Mrs. Wira:Well, you'd better start your homework now.
    Hadi:Yes .... Oh, I don't have any paper.
    Mrs. Wira:Here's some paper. Do you have a pen?
    Hadi:Yes. Oh, my pen is out of ink, and I don't have any spare pens.
    Mrs. Wira:Oh, dear! Raka, do you have a spare pen?
    Raka:Yes, Mrs. Wira.
    Mrs. Wira:Good. Please lend it to Hadi.
    Raka:Here you are, Hadi.
    Hadi:Thank you.
    Mrs. Wira:Now, Hadi, you have some paper and a pen. Now you can write that exercise.
    Hadi:There! That's finished now.
    Mrs. Wira:Let me see it, Hadi. Hmmm, you have some mistakes here, I think.
    Hadi:Do I? Where?
    Mrs. Wira:Look at this sentence. That isn't correct. Can you improve it?
    Hadi:Oh, yes! I remember the correct words now. I must change that sentence.
    Mrs. Wira:Let me see your exercise, Raka.
    Raka:Oh, Mrs. Wira, I think I have some mistakes too.
    Mrs. Wira:No, no, Raka. This is very good. You don't have any mistakes in this exercise.
    Hadi:Raka usually doesn't make any mistakes. But I always make some. Please look at this sentence again, Mom. Is it correct now?
    Mrs. Wira:Yes, I think so, Hadi. I don't see any mistakes now.
    Mrs. Wira:Well, would you like something to drink now?
    Hadi and Raka:Yes,please.
    Mrs. Wira:Good. Let's have some lemonade. .... Oh, I don't have any lemonade, but we can have some tea!
    B. Explanation
    1. "Some" is used in positive sentences. Examples:
      1. I'm going to buy some books.
      2. There's some ice in the fridge.
      3. We did some exercises.
    2. "Any" is used in negative sentences. Examples:
      1. I'm not going to buy any books.
      2. There isn't any ice in the fridge.
      3. We didn't do any exercises.
    3. Most questions (but not all) use "any". Examples:
      1. Is there any ice in the fridge?
      2. Do you have any money?
      3. Why didn't you do any exercises?
    4. When we make offers or requests, we normally use "some", not "any". Examples:
      1. Would you like some ice cream?
      2. Can I have some coffee, please?
      3. Can you lend me some money?
    5. We can use "some" and "any" without a noun. Examples:
      1. I didn't take any photographs, but Ann took some. (=some photographs)
      2. I've just made some coffee. Would you like some? (=some coffee)
      3. We don't have any sugar. I'm going to buy some this afternoon. (=some sugar)
    To check your understanding about the difference between "some" and "any", proceed to the exercise page HERE.
  • Murphy, Raymond Essential Grammar In Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • August 03, 2021

    Conditional Sentence Type 0 And Type 1

    Conditional Sentence Type 0 And Type 1
    reviously in our earlier post, we have learned about all types of Conditional sentences, i.e. type 0, 1, 2, 3, and mixed conditionals, including their usage or functions, examples, and exercises as well.

    In this post, we are going to focus and take a closer look at Conditional sentence type 0 and type 1.

    Conditional sentence type 0

  • If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Simple Present)....
  • If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Imperative)....
  • Usage / function:
    • Conditional sentences in "If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Simple Present)..." can be used to express general truths / facts. (see examples a and b below)
    • Conditional sentences in "If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Imperative)...." can be used to express suggestions, instructions, or commands. (see examples c and d below)
    1. If the moon passes between the sun and Earth, a solar eclipse happens.
    2. If we heat water to 100 degrees Celsius, it boils.
    3. If you arrive at the station, call me.
    4. If you want to turn on the device, press this button.

    Conditional sentence type 1

    If ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Simple Future / Modals)....
    Usage / function:
    Conditional sentences in "If / when ...(Simple Present)..., ...(Simple Future / Modals)..." can be used to express;
    • reminders (see examples a and b below)
    • suggestions (see examples c and d below)
    1. If you eat too much, you will get a stomachache.
    2. If you don't shut that window, we will die of cold.
    3. If we want to see the sunrise, we will have to leave very early.
    4. If you want to buy that car, you should provide a bigger garage.
    A. Match the sentences on the left with the ones on the right. Number 1 has been done for you as an example.
    If you need help,somebody will open the door.
    If we keep ice in a hot temperature,they will get wet.
    If you fail the exam,let's go for a swim.
    If you ring the bell,it melts.
    If it rains,consult your advisor.
    If it is fine,you'll need to take a remedial test.
    1. If you need help, consult your advisor.
    2. ....
    3. ....
    4. ....
    5. ....
    6. ....
    B. Write correct conditional sentences by putting the verbs in the bracket into the correct form. In some sentences, conditional sentence type 0 and 1 can be used interchangeably. Number 1 has been done as an example.
    1. If I get a ticket, I (go) to the concert.
      Answer: If I get a ticket, I will go to the concert.
    2. If we have time, we (visit) you.
      Answer: ....
    3. If you don't watch the TV, (turn) it off.
      Answer: ....
    4. If the weather is fine, we (go) to the beach.
      Answer: ....
    5. If you want those pictures, I (send) you the copies.
      Answer: ....
    6. If you don't feel well, (stay) at home.
      Answer: ....
    C. Complete the following conditional sentences using your own ideas and words.
    1. If you pass the exam, ....
    2. If I finish my study, ....
    3. If you want to have it, ....
    4. If you have a question, ....
    5. If the weather is fine this afternoon, ....
    D. Do the matching exercise below by dragging each clause to the correct pair.
    You can also study the lesson about conditional sentences type 0 and type 1 through the slide presentation attached below.

    November 01, 2020

    Perbedaan Agree on, Agree about, Agree with, Dan Agree to

    Penggunaan Agree with, Agree on, Agree about, Dan Agree to
    asih berkaitan dengan materi "Asking And Giving Opinions", kali ini kita akan membahas makna sebuah kata dalam bahasa Inggris yang sering digunakan untuk merespon atau memberi tanggapan terhadap suatu pendapat, yaitu "agree". "Agree" adalah kata kerja (verb) yang makna umumnya adalah "setuju", "sepakat", dan kadang meluas menjadi "cocok".

    Akan tetapi, tahukah kalian bahwa kata "agree" bisa memiliki beragam makna, tergantung pada kata yang mengikutinya? Perbedaan makna tersebut bisa dilihat dari obyek atau jenis kata yang mengikutinya.

    Selengkapnya, mari kita pelajari makna kata "agree" beserta contoh kalimat penggunaannya di bawah ini. Parhatikan bagian kalimat yang bergaris bawah.

    1. Agree on / about
      "Agree on / about" berarti sependapat atau memiliki pendapat yang sama tentang sesuatu.
      • All members of the committee agreed on/about the plan to merge the two sections.
      • They agree on the issue that the company should pay more attention to the ecosystem.
      • She agreed on some points of the debate.
      • The committee agreed on the results of the discussion.
      • They finally agreed about the establishment of a new regulation.
    2. Agree with
      "Agree with" berarti memiliki pendapat yang sama dengan orang lain, setuju terhadap sesuatu, atau suatu fakta sesuai dengan fakta lainnya.
      • She didn't agree with my opinion.
      • I agree with you that human rights must be respected by anyone.
      • The field evaluation showed that their statements didn't agree with the facts.
      • Basically, people agree with the approach that the government adopted.
      • We found out that the survey result agreed with the goverment's data.
    3. Agree to
      "Agree to" berarti menerima atau menyetujui suatu permintaan / persyaratan (demand, requirement, recommendation) atau memiliki komitmen untuk melakukan suatu tindakan (to do an action).
      • The bank agreed to provide funding for small and medium enterprises.
      • The committee agreed to implement a new approach to address the environmental issues.
      • The principal agreed to the recommendation given by the school committee.
      • She agreed to the auditor's demands.
    Lengkapilah kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini dengan "on", "about", "with", atau "to".
    1. They agreed ... his demands.
    2. She agreed ... see me after school.
    3. Some members didn't agree ... the manager's decision.
    4. The organisation has agreed ... the recommendations given by the local government.
    5. Parents mostly agree ... the school's plan to adopt the new system.
    6. In English, the subject of a sentence must agree ... the verbs.
    7. I'm sorry, spicy hot food never agrees ... my stomach.
    8. After the meeting, the board of directors agreed ... implement new marketing strategies.
    9. After the meeting, the board of directors agreed ... the implementation of new marketing strategies.
    10. We couldn't agree ... some points of the new regulation.

    May 02, 2020

    6 Kesalahan Berbahasa Inggris Dalam Materi Asking And Giving Opinions

    aat mempelajari materi "Asking and Giving Opinions" dalam mata pelajaran bahasa Inggris, seringkali siswa harus melakukan unjuk kerja seperti membuat dialog bahasa Inggris dan mempraktekkannya di depan kelas. Meskipun telah mendapat pembekalan berupa ungkapan-ungkapan untuk menanyakan atau meminta pendapat (asking for opinions), mengeluarkan pendapat (giving opinions), serta menyetujui dan tidak menyetujui pendapat (agreeing and disagreeing with opinions), siswa masih sering membuat kesalahan dalam menggunakan ungkapan-ungkapan tersebut.

    Berikut ini beberapa macam kesalahan yang sangat sering dilakukan siswa dalam mempraktekkan materi "Asking And Giving Opinions".

    1. Menggunakan frase "according to me" atau "according to my opinion" untuk mengungkapkan pendapat pribadi.

      Dalam bahasa Indonesia, frase "menurut saya" dan "menurut pendapat saya" adalah ungkapan yang umum digunakan untuk mengutarakan pendapat. Akan tetapi, jika frase tersebut diterjemahkan secara serampangan tanpa memperhatikan kaidah penggunaan kata dalam bahasa Inggris, terjemahan yang didapat seringkali adalah "according to me", atau "according to my opinion".

      Padahal penggunaan "according to me" untuk mengutarakan pendapat pribadi adalah kurang tepat, karena penggunaan "according to ..." yang benar adalah untuk mengutip pendapat, kondisi, atau pernyataan orang lain, atau mengutip suatu peraturan tertentu, dan bukan pendapat pribadi orang yang berbicara. Contoh-contoh kalimat dengan penggunaan "according to me" yang benar adalah:

      • According to the travel agency, the bus will arrive at the destination on 8 P.M. this evening.
        As stated by the travel agency, the bus will arrive at the destination on 8 P.M. this evening.
      • According to the new regulation, legal requirements will be required for exports of wood products.
        In conformity with the new regulations, legal requirements will be required for exports of wood products.
      • Everyone worked hard according to their ability.
        Everyone worked hard depending on their ability.

      Untuk mengutarakan pendapat, terjemahan bahasa Inggris yang tepat untuk frase "menurut saya" atau "menurut pendapat saya" adalah in my opinion, in my point of view, as for me. (Lihat materi "Asking And Giving Opinions").

    2. Menggunakan kalimat "I am agree", atau "I am not agree" untuk mengungkapkan setuju atau tidak setuju.

      Agree adalah termasuk kata kerja yang berkaitan dengan aktifitas mental dan harus menggunakan bentuk simple, bukan bentuk continuous. Penggunaannya tidak membutuhkan auxiliary verb "be" atau "to be", seperti "am", "is", atau "are". Jadi cukup kata kerja "agree" dalam bentuk simple saja. (Lihat materi Simple Present Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, & Latihan Soal)

      Karena itu, kalimat yang tepat seharusnya adalah, "I agree" untuk mengungkapan kesetujuan, atau "I don't agree" untuk mengungkapkan ketidaksetujuan terhadap suatu pendapat.

    3. Menggunakan kalimat "I am believe", atau "I am not believe" untuk mengungkapkan keyakinan atau ketidakyakinan terhadap suatu pendapat.

      Sama dengan penjelasan nomer 2, believe adalah termasuk kata kerja yang berkaitan dengan aktifitas mental dan tidak membutuhkan auxiliary verb "be" atau "to be".

      Karena itu, kalimat yang tepat seharusnya adalah, "I believe" untuk mengungkapan keyakinan, atau "I don't believe" untuk mengungkapkan ketidakyakinan.

    4. Menggunakan kalimat "Are you agree?", "Are you believe that ...?", atau "What are you thinking about ...?" untuk menanyakan pendapat.

      Masih sama dengan penjelasan nomer 2, agree, believe, dan think jika bermakna memiliki pendapat tidak membutuhkan auxiliary verb "be" atau "to be", seperti "am", "is", atau "are". Jadi cukup kata kerja dalam bentuk simple.

      Karena itu, kalimat yang tepat untuk menanyakan pendapat seharusnya adalah, "Do you agree", "Do you believe", dan "What do you think about ...?".

      Di sini, penggunaan kata kerja "think" berarti "berpendapat", bukan "sedang memikirkan". Jika "think" bermakna "sedang memikirkan", maka penggunaan kalimat "What are you thinking about?" sudah tepat, yang berarti "Apa yang sedang kamu pikirkan?

    5. Menggunakan kalimat "I couldn't agree more" atau "I can't agree more" untuk menyatakan tidak setuju.

      Makna yang tepat dari kalimat "I couldn't agree more" atau "I can't agree more" adalah "saya (sangat) setuju". Jelas bahwa penggunaannya adalah untuk mengungkapkan kesetujuan terhadap suatu pendapat, bukan ketidaksetujuan.

      Kesalahan Berbahasa Inggris Dalam Materi Asking And Giving Opinions
    6. Menggunakan kalimat "I agree to you" untuk menyatakan setuju terhadap pendapat seseorang.
      Makna yang sebenarnya dari frase "agree to" adalah "memberikan persetujuan terhadap sesuatu" atau "setuju untuk melakukan sesuatu". Contoh:
      • The principal has agreed to our proposed plans.
      • He agreed to consult his doctor for the symptoms.
      Jika maksudnya adalah untuk mengungkapkan kesetujuan terhadap pendapat seseorang, maka frase yang lebih tepat digunakan adalah "agree with". Jadi kalimat yang benar seharusnya "I agree with you".
    Itulah 6 daftar kesalahan berbahasa Inggris yang sering terjadi dalam pembelajaran materi "Asking And Giving Opinions". Untuk lebih jauh mempelajari materi "Asking And Giving Opinions", baca juga beberapa materi pada tautan di bawah ini. Semoga bermanfaat.

    April 23, 2020

    Present Continuous Tense: Bentuk, Penggunaan, & Latihan Soal

    Latihan soal Present Continuous Tense
    resent continuous tense atau present progressive tense adalah salah satu bentuk waktu (tense) yang sering digunakan dalam bahasa Inggris. Present continuous tense berbeda dengan simple present tense, baik dalam penggunaannya maupun struktur dan bentuk kata kerjanya. Dalam materi kali ini, kita akan membahas struktur, bentuk, dan penggunaan present continuous tense secara lengkap, lalu diikuti dengan latihan soal untuk memastikan pemahaman kalian tentang present continuous tense.
    I. Bagaimana struktur & bentuk Present Continuous tense?
    Struktur dan bentuk Present Continuous tense adalah sbb:
    (+) Subject + auxiliary verb (be) + main verb (verb + ing)
    (?) Auxiliary verb (be) + subject + main verb (verb + ing)?
    (-) Subject + auxiliary verb (be) not + main verb (verb + ing)

    Lihatlah contoh-contoh kalimat Present continuous tense di bawah ini:
    Contoh kalimat positif dalam Present Continuous tense
    Subject auxiliary verb (be)main verb
    (verb + ing)
    Iamworkingwith a laptop.
    Aniisreadinga magazine.
    The studentsaredoinga test.
    Contoh kalimat tanya dalam Present Continuous tense
    Auxiliary verb (be)Subjectmain verb
    (verb + ing)
    AmIworkingwith a laptop?
    IsAnireadinga magazine?
    Arethe studentsdoinga test?
    Contoh kalimat negatif dalam Present Continuous tense
    Subject auxiliary verb
    (be) + not
    main verb
    (verb + ing)
    Iam notworkingwith a laptop.
    Youare notstudyingEnglish.
    Aniis notreadinga magazine.
    The studentsare notdoinga test.
    II. Bagaimana penggunaan Present Continuous Tense?
    Present Continuous Tense digunakan untuk:
    • Membicarakan kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung atau sedang dilakukan sekarang / pada saat ini juga, biasanya dengan keterangan waktu; now, at the moment, at present. Contoh:
      • You are studying how to use the present continuous tense.
      • Right now you are looking at this screen.
      • You are reading these example sentences.
    • Membicarakan kegiatan di masa sekarang yang bersifat sementara, bukan merupakan kebiasaan dan tidak bersifat permanen, biasanya dengan keterangan waktu; at this time, temporarily, for the time being. Contoh:
      • The government is trying to stop the spread of Covid-19.
      • Experts are working hard to develop a vaccine for Covid-19.
      • He is living with his sister until he finds a boarding house.
    • Membicarakan kegiatan yang sudah direncanakan / dipersiapkan dan akan segera dilakukan di waktu yang akan datang, dan harus disertai dengan keterangan waktu (adverbs of time), seperti; this evening, tomorrow, next week, in July, atau paling tidak waktu kegiatan sudah dipahami / diketahui. Contoh:
      • We are leaving at 8 this evening. We have booked the train tickets.
      • I am seeing my dentist tomorrow. We have made an appointment.
      • We are going to the beach this weekend.
    • Digunakan dengan always, umumnya dalam kalimat positif, untuk membicarakan suatu kebiasaan, disengaja atau tidak disengaja, yang dianggap mengganggu dan menjengkelkan karena terjadi berulang kali. Contoh:
      • She is always asking me questions.
      • Rama is always complaining about his job.
      • Oh no. You are always losing your keys.
      Dalam penggunaan ini, always + present continuous tense berbeda dengan always + simple present tense yang membicarakan rutinitas biasa.
    III. Bagaimana penulisan ejaan dalam Present Continuous tense?
    Present Continuous tense disusun dengan menggunakan kata kerja bentuk "ing" (verb -ing), caranya dengan menambahkan akhiran "ing" pada kata kerja dasar. Ada beberapa aturan dalam pembentukan verb-ing, sebagai berikut:
    • Tidak ada perubahan pada kata kerja dasar jika huruf terakhir berupa konsonan yang pengucapannya tidak mendapat penekanan.
      Contoh: walk > walking, work > working, stand > standing, blow > blowing, rain > raining, steer > steering, play > playing, open > opening, dll.
    • Menggandakan huruf terakhir jika huruf terakhir berupa konsonan yang pengucapannya mendapat penekanan.
      Contoh: stop > stopping, run > running, begin > beginning, drop > dropping, bid > bidding, get > getting, dll.
    • Jika kata kerja dasar berakhiran "ie", gantilah "ie" dengan "y".
      Contoh: lie > lying, die > dying, tie > tying, dll.
    • Jika kata kerja dasar berakhiran dengan huruf vokal (vowel) "e", hilangkan "e".
      Contoh: come > coming, make > making, take > taking, choose > choosing, give > giving, write > writing, dll.
    Latihan Soal
    Task 1.
    Ubahlah kata kerja berikut ini ke dalam bentuk "verb-ing".
    stay = ....
    hire = ....
    delete = ....
    tap = ....
    move = ....
    shine = ....
    kick = ....
    win = ....
    send = ....
    wave = ....
    boil = ....
    listen = ....
    leave = ....
    practice = ....
    erase = ....
    fly = ....
    cut = ....
    use = ....
    Task 2.
    Tambahkanlah "be" dan ubahlah kata kerja dalam kurung ke dalam bentuk "-ing" sehingga menjadi kalimat dalam bentuk Present Continuous tense yang benar. Lihat contoh pada nomer 1.
    1. We (eat) in a restaurant tonight.
      Jawaban: We are eating in a restaurant tonight.
    2. They (not work) tomorrow.
    3. When ... you (start) your new job?
    4. ... they (wait) for the bus?
    5. Look! That man (climb) the coconut tree.
    6. What ... you (do)?
    7. Rinda (type) the letter now.
    8. She (not use) the washing machine right now.
    9. Hendra (learn) to drive.
    10. My friends (come) to see me this evening.
    Task 3.
    Lengkapilah kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini dengan memberikan kata kerja yang sesuai dalam bentuk Present Continuous tense. Setiap kalimat bisa memiliki lebih dari 1 (satu) jawaban benar.
    buy - play - cook - listen to - read - do - water - drink - watch - sleep

    1. My grandma ... the flowers in our garden.
    2. Tono and his brother ... a kite in the yard now.
    3. The cat ... on the sofa.
    4. My mother ... dinner in the kitchen.
    5. Andi ... not ... music right now.
    6. My father ... today's newspaper in the living room.
    7. ... she ... TV at the moment?
    8. The animals ... water from the pond.
    9. ... you ... this bed sheet? It's expensive.
    10. What ... they ... in the garage?
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