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Home Posts filed under Conjunctions
Showing posts with label Conjunctions. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Conjunctions. Show all posts

November 13, 2021

Cause and Effect, Opposition, and Condition Words

I
n this post, we are going to learn adverb clause words, transitions, conjunctions, and prepositions which express cause and effect, opposition, and condition. To make it easier for you to understand the subject, there are example sentences as well as an interactive exercise where you can practice and test your uderstanding. Happy learning.
A. CAUSE & EFFECT, OPPOSITION, CONDITION WORDS / PHRASES
ADVERB CLAUSE WORDSTRANSITIONSCONJUNCTIONSPREPOSITIONS
CAUSE & EFFECTbecause
since
now that
as
as/so long as
inasmuch as
so (that)
therefore
consequently
so
for
because of
due to
OPPOSITION / CONTRASTeven though
although / though
whereas
while
nevertheless
nonetheless
however
on the other hand
but (... anyway)
yet (... still)
despite
in spite of
CONDITIONif
unless
only if / even if
whether or not
provided (that)
providing (that)
in case (that)
in the event (that)
otherwiseor (else)in case of
or (else)
B. EXAMPLE SENTENCES OF CAUSE & EFFECT, OPPOSITION, CONDITION

1. Adverb clauses
  1. He went to bed because he was sleepy. (Cause and effect)
  2. Gold is expensive, whereas copper is cheap. (Opposition)
  3. I’m going to the movie this evening whether or not it rains. (Condition)
2. Transitions:
  1. It was hot. Therefore, he turned on the air condition. (Cause and effect)
  2. It was raining. Nevertheless, he went out. (Opposition)
  3. You’d better wear a jacket. Otherwise, you’ll catch cold. (Condition)
3. Conjunctions:
  1. It was getting late, so we decided to go home. (Cause and effect)
  2. It was getting late, yet we still continued working. (Opposition)
  3. You should leave now, or (else) you’ll be late for school. (Condition)
4. Prepositions:
  1. The flight was canceled due to the heavy fog. (Cause and effect)
  2. They went out despite the bad weather. (Opposition)
  3. In case of fire, call 911 immediately. (Condition)
C. MULTIPLE CHOICE INTERACTIVE EXERCISE


D. SENTENCE COMPLETION EXERCISE

Do this exercise. Complete the sentences using one of the words listed in the above table.
Cause and Effect, Opposition, and Condition Words
  1. Dina lives in the city, ... Rinda lives in the country.
  2. The meeting was postponed ... the heavy rain.
  3. ... I had a cold, I decided to go to school.
  4. You’d better prepare for the test, ... you will fail again.
  5. You forget the meaning of these words ... you never practice it.
  6. Mastering English is just a matter of practice. ... you must practice a lot.
  7. She kept riding her motorcycle ... the flat back tire.
  8. I’m going to take my TV set ... it hasn’t been repaired.
  9. Her father has told her to study. ... she is going to the movie.
  10. Parents should supervise their children when watching TV. ... they may watch inappropriate programs.
  11. He didn't get the job ... he didn't have enough experience.
  12. He got the job ... he didn't have enough experience.
  13. I'll lend you some money ... you really need it.
  14. The music was loud ... you could hear it from miles away.
  15. I couldn't sleep ... I was very tired.
  16. ... it rained a lot, we enjoyed our vacation.
  17. We went out ... the rain.
  18. He passed the exam ... he was well-prepared.
  19. I didn't get the job ... I had all the necessary qualifications.
  20. ... fire, please leave the building as quickly as possible.

April 08, 2020

Both ... and; Either ... or; Neither ... nor

B
oth - and, Either - or, dan Neither - nor dalam bahasa Inggris adalah merupakan kata sambung berpasangan yang disebut "Paired Conjunction". Fungsinya adalah untuk menggabungkan dua kata benda, kata kerja, kata sifat, maupun kata keterangan demi efisiensi kalimat. Yang harus selalu diingat dalam penggabungan ini adalah struktur yang paralel, atau setingkat, misal kata benda harus digabungkan dengan kata benda, bukan dengan jenis kata lainnya. Selanjutnya, mari kita lihat penjelasan di bawah ini.

1. Both ... and

Both Either Neither
Both ... and ...memiliki makna 'one and the other' (kedua-duanya, baik yang ini maupun yang itu). Jika posisinya adalah subyek, both ... and ... membutuhkan kata kerja plural (jamak). Contoh:
  • Both Rina and Kiki are attending the sales meeting.
  • Both Alya and Rika have submitted their assignment.
Both ... and ... bisa digunakan untuk memberi penekanan pada 2 (dua) kombinasi kata sifat (adjective), kata benda (noun), atau kata kerja (verb). Contoh:
  • The trip was both long and boring.
  • My father is both a teacher and a translator.
Tambahan:
Ada beberapa macam penggunaan both selain yang telah disebutkan di atas:
  • Both bisa berdiri sendiri atau diikuti oleh kata benda (noun)
  • Both bisa diikuti (of) + the/these/those atau possessives
  • Both bisa diikuti of + us/you/them
  • A personal pronoun + both is also possible
Contoh:
  • Both (drivers) were uninjured in the accident.
  • They both tried to evacuate the passengers.

2. Either ... or

'Either ... or' digunakan dalam kalimat bermakna positif, yang berarti "one or the other, this or that, he or she" (salah satu dari dua, yang ini atau yang itu). Jika posisinya adalah subyek, kata kerja (verb) yang dibutuhkan bergantung pada subyek yang ada tepat di depan kata kerja. Contoh:
  • Either Joni or his friends have to report to the manager. (subyek yg terdekat dengan kata kerja adalah jamak (plural), "his friends")
  • Either Joni or Laila has to attend the meeting. (subyek yg terdekat dengan kata kerja adalah tunggal (singular), "Laila"
Tambahan:
"Either" bisa berdiri sendiri maupun digunakan bersama kata benda (noun/pronoun), atau dengan "of + the/these/those". Dalam struktur demikian, either membutuhkan kata kerja tunggal (singular). Contoh:
  • I don't like either of those films.
  • Either (of these) is acceptable.

3. Neither ... nor

'Neither ... nor' digunakan dengan kata kerja berbentuk positif, namun menjadikan kalimat bermakna negatif, yang berarti "not this one nor the other, not this nor that, not he nor she"" (bukan/tidak yang ini maupun yang itu, tidak kedua-duanya). Jika posisinya adalah subyek, kata kerja (verb) yang dibutuhkan bergantung pada subyek yang ada tepat di depan kata kerja. Contoh:
  • Neither Joni nor his friends study French. (subyek yg terdekat dengan kata kerja adalah jamak (plural), "his friends")
  • Neither Joni nor Laila studies French. (subyek yg terdekat dengan kata kerja adalah tunggal (singular), "Laila"
Tambahan:
"Neither" bisa berdiri sendiri maupun digunakan bersama kata benda (noun/pronoun), atau dengan "of + the/these/those". Dalam struktur demikian, neither membutuhkan kata kerja tunggal (singular). Contoh:
  • Neither of those films was directed by him.
  • Neither (of these) is acceptable.

4. Persamaan "Not either ... or" dengan "Neither ... nor"

"Not either ... or" bermakna sama dan bisa menggantikan "neither ... nor", kecuali jika sebagai subyek kalimat. Contoh:
  • The film was not either interesting or worth-seeing.
    The film was neither interesting nor worth-seeing.
  • He didn't either copy or save the files.
    He neither copied nor saved the files.
Latihan Soal
Lengkapilah kalimat-kalimat berikut ini dengan "Both ... and", "Either ... or", atau "Neither ... nor".
  1. We really had a great time at the beach. The weather was ... warm ... sunny.
  2. Our holiday was ruined. Almost all of the time, the weather was ... clear ... sunny.
  3. We have to find another room because this room isn't ... large ... bright.
  4. Experts are now working hard to find a cure for COVID-19. They are testing ... anti-viral medications ... vaccines.
  5. ... the government ... the people were prepared for COVID-19 outbreak.
  6. We don't know why he was absent yesterday. He didn't ... call ... send a message.
  7. Choose whichever you like. You can have ... fried chicken ... fried duck.
  8. I think you should help them. They need ... your help ... your advice.
  9. I can't move ... this box ... that one by myself. They are too heavy.
  10. The classroom is very dirty. ... the floor ... the tables have been cleaned for the whole week.
  11. It's urgent. We need your immediate confirmation ... by email ... by fax.
  12. To help stop the spread of germs, when you cough cover your mouth with ... a tissue ... your upper sleeve, not your hands.
  13. She isn't at the office right now. She must be ... having lunch ... attending a meeting on the second floor.
  14. ... Wina ... Vita showed up at the party. They said they had a very important meeting at their office.
  15. He is a good teacher. ... his explanation ... his examples are clear and easy to understand.
BSESD-Cls 1 080810 0145 PM 655

August 07, 2011

Conjunctions and Participles Exercise

Conjunctions and Participles Exercise
Subject: Conjunctions and Participles
Level: Intermediate
Type of Test: Multiple Choice
No. of Test Items: 25 items.
Start of English Test
  1. ... Ted knew the material, he failed the exam.
    1. Nevertheless
    2. Because
    3. Provided that
    4. Even though
  2. Jim goes hiking, ... he has asthma.
    1. otherwise
    2. despite the fact that
    3. because
    4. provided that
  3. Jenny’s smile is an important aspect to her personality. ..., she doesn’t realize it.
    1. Consequently
    2. Nevertheless
    3. Because
    4. Since
  4. She got ... a shock ... she dropped the tray
    1. so - that
    2. such - that
    3. really - then
    4. very - so that
  5. We can go camping with him ... we bring our own equipment.
    1. unless
    2. otherwise
    3. consequently
    4. provided
  6. Lucy can’t attend the meeting ... she finds a baby-sitter.
    1. provided
    2. unless
    3. now that
    4. otherwise
  7. ..., the best car to buy is a BMW.
    1. Because of its durability
    2. Because of it lasts a long time
    3. Because of it is durable
    4. Because its durability
  8. The region is referred to as the “Land of Fruit” ... it yields a bountiful harvest of oranges and apples.
    1. because
    2. such as
    3. although
    4. so that
  9. Seat belt laws were introduced ... traffic fatalities would be reduced.
    1. when
    2. as if
    3. so that
    4. after
  10. The great stone city Angkon flourished for six centuries ... it fell in 1431 and lay prey to the jungle for four long centuries.
    1. until
    2. as soon as
    3. so that
    4. because
  11. While attempting to reach his home before the storm, ....
    1. the storm caught John.
    2. John's bicycle broke down.
    3. it happened that John's bicycle broke down.
    4. John had an accident on his bicycle.
  12. Our flight from Amsterdam to London was delayed ... the heavy fog.
    1. on account
    2. because
    3. consequently
    4. due to
  13. ..., the travelers found that their flight had been canceled because of the severe snowstorm.
    1. They arrived at the airport
    2. When arrived at the airport
    3. Arriving at the airport
    4. That they arrived at the airport
  14. ... in a debate contest, participants must try their best to convince the juries.
    1. They compete
    2. When competing
    3. When competed
    4. When compete
  15. ..., tobacco farmers had not yet felt its effect.
    1. Even though there was a campaign against smoking
    2. There was a campaign against smoking
    3. That there was a campaign against smoking
    4. Though a campaign against smoking
  16. ... the finish line first, the runner gave up.
    1. He failed to reach
    2. Having failed to reach
    3. That he failed reaching
    4. Having failed reaching
  17. Having been served lunch, ....
    1. it was discussed by the committee members the problem.
    2. a discussion of the problem was made by the members of the committee.
    3. the committee members discussed the problems.
    4. the problem was discussed by the members of the committee.
  18. ... he began to make friends more easily.
    1. Having entered school in the new city, it was found that.
    2. He entered the new school
    3. After entering the new school
    4. When entered the new school
  19. The weather was ... cold that I didn’t like to leave my apartment.
    1. very
    2. such
    3. really
    4. so
  20. ... he is not a superstitious person, he believes in spiritual life.
    1. However
    2. Unless
    3. Although
    4. As
  21. ... the rain, fans started lining up outside the studios, hoping to catch a glimpse of the teen idols.
    1. When
    2. Despite
    3. Although
    4. Unless
  22. I need to work hard ... I can support my family.
    1. but
    2. so that
    3. if
    4. however
  23. We must work quickly. ..., we will be late.
    1. If
    2. Otherwise
    3. Unless
    4. However
  24. She has invited me to her party. ..., I may not be able to come.
    1. However
    2. So
    3. Therefore
    4. In spite
  25. The boy had a big breakfast this morning. ..., he said he was still hungry.
    1. Consequently
    2. Nevertheless
    3. Otherwise
    4. Eventhough
End of English Test