Sunday, May 19, 2013

Active and Passive Voice

Passive voice atau kalimat pasif sangat sering dipakai, terutama dalam tulisan-tulisan teknik, dimana kita lebih banyak membicarakan fakta, proses, maupun kejadian daripada membicarakan orang/pelakunya.

Passive voice disusun dengan menggunakan kata kerja bantu "be" yang sesuai dengan bentuk waktu (tenses) yang digunakan dalam active voice atau kalimat aktif, diikuti oleh kata kerja bentuk ke-3 (the past participle). Subyek dalam active voice akan menjadi "agen" (agent) dalam passive voice. Agen ini seringkali tidak disebutkan, tapi jika disebutkan maka harus didahului oleh "by" dan diletakkan diakhir kalimat.

Dalam tes-tes berbentuk Sentence Completion, seperti TOEFL, TOEIC dan Ujian Nasional, kemampuan untuk menentukan apakah sebuah kalimat memiliki kata kerja aktif atau pasif seringkali diujikan. Peserta ujian harus mampu menganalisa subyek kalimat beserta bentuk waktu (tense) dengan benar.

A. Active Tenses & Passive Tenses

Lihatlah tabel berikut ini untuk mengetahui pasangan kata kerja aktif dengan bentuk pasifnya dalam berbagai bentuk waktu (tenses).
Bentuk kata kerja aktif dan pasif
Tense/Verb FormActive TensesPassive Tenses
Simple Present
Simple Past
Present Continuous
Past Continuous
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
Future
Conditional
Perfect Conditional
Present Infinitive
Perfect Infinitive
Present Participle / Gerund
Perfect Participle
do / does
did
am / is / are doing
was / were doing
have / has done
had done
will do
would do
would have done
to do
to have done
doing
having done
am / is / are done
was / were done
am / is / are being done
was / were being done
have / has been done
had been done
will be done
would be done
would have been done
to be done
to have been done
being done
having been done

B. Contoh-contoh Active Voice dan Passive Voice

Lihat contoh-contoh active voice dengan padanan passive voicenya.
Active VoicePassive Voice
We sell computers.
We keep the butter here.
Babbage invented ‘The Analytical Engine’.
They broke the window.
We will link the device to the central computer.
People have seen tigers in the forest.
He has installed the programs.
They are repairing the bridge.
They were carrying the man off the field.
Computers are sold.
The butter is kept here.
‘The Analytical Engine’ was invented in 1830.
The window was broken.
The device will be linked to the central computer.
Tigers have been seen in the forest.
The programs have been installed.
The bridge is being repaired.
The man was being carried off the field.

C. Penggunaan Passive Voice

Dalam bahasa Inggris, passive voice atau kalimat pasif tidak begitu saja digunakan tanpa alasan tertentu. Ada beberapa alasan mengapa kita sebaiknya menggunakan passive voice, sebagai pengganti active voice.
  1. Jika subyek atau pelaku kata kerja aktif tidak perlu disebutkan, atau jika kita lebih menitikberatkan pembicaraan pada kejadian atau tindakan daripada pelakunya.
  2. Jika kita tidak tahu atau lupa siapa subyek atau pelaku tindakan.
  3. Jika subyek kata kerja aktif bukan merupakan orang tertentu, misal ‘people’, atau kata ganti benda tak tentu (indefinite pronoun) ‘one’.
  4. Untuk menghindari gaya bahasa yang "kaku" atau tidak lazim, atau kalimat yang tidak memiliki tata bahasa yang baik. Passive voice biasanya digunakan untuk menghindari terjadinya pergantian subyek dalam satu kalimat.
    Contoh:
    1. Kalimat "When he arrived home a detective arrested him" sebaiknya disusun menjadi "When he arrived home he was arrested (by a detective)"
    2. Kalimat "When their mother was ill neighbors looked after the children" sebaiknya disusun menjadi "When their mother was ill the children were looked after by neighbors"
Karena itulah, passive voice tidak selalu harus menyebutkan "by ...", karena seringkali agen (pelaku) tersebut tidak penting untuk disebutkan, atau bahkan tidak diketahui secara jelas. Jika memang agen (pelaku) penting untuk disebutkan, lebih baik kita menggunakan kalimat aktif (active voice).

D. Exercises

  1. Read the text below, which describes the insurance company’s procedure for dealing with PC-users’ problems. Fill in the gaps using the correct passive form of the verb in brackets.

    All calls ...(register)... by the Help Desk staff. Each call ...(evaluate)... and then ...(allocate)... to the relevant support group. If a visit ...(require)..., the user ...(contact)... by telephone, and an appointment ...(arrange).... Most calls ...(deal with)... within one working day. In the event of a major problem requiring the removal of a user’s PC, a replacement can usually ...(supply)....

  2. Change the following into the passive voice. The agent (by ...) should not be mentioned, except in number 5.
    1. You need a doctor's prescription to buy the medicine.
    2. We use the hall only on special occasions.
    3. They make these artificial flowers of used paper.
    4. Someone has repaired the printer.
    5. The mob broke the office windows in a recent strike.
    6. People should return the books in time.
    7. We will announce the decision soon.
    8. They will deliver the goods tomorrow morning.
    9. A thief had stolen his new bicycle.
    10. They invited me to the party.

Monday, May 13, 2013

The Origin of Reog Ponorogo ~ A Tale from East Java (Narrative Text)

A long time ago, there was a very beautiful princess named Dewi Sanggalangit. She was a daughter of a famous king of Kediri Kingdom. In spite of her beauty and elegance that had made her win the heart of many princes and kings, Dewi Sanggalangit had no interest in making a family. This worried her parents who had been hoping to have grandchildren.

One day, her father asked, "My Daughter, when will you get married?"

Dewi Sanggalangit replied, "Father, I never think about it. If you really want me to get married, then I will only marry a man who is able to fulfill my wishes."

"Then, what are your wishes?" asked her father.

"I still don't know. Please let me contemplate and seek for revelations from Gods. When I'm done, I will let you know," Dewi Sanggalangit made a request, which was agreed by his father.

On the fourth day of her contemplation, Dewi Sanggalangit, accompanied by Biyung Emban, the chief lady-in-waiting, went to meet the King in the audience hall. After bowing before him, she said, "Father, whoever wishes to be my husband must be able to perform an extraordinary show that has never existed before. It is a dance accompanied by musical hornets and gamelan, with a procession of one hundred forty twin horses. There must be a two-headed animal as well."

The request was announced publicly and soon became a contest for everyone who had been wishing to marry her. All of them failed, except two men, Raja Singabarong, the King of Lodaya kingdom, and Raja Kelanaswandana, the King of Bandarangin.

This worried Dewi Sanggalangit and her father for they knew who the two men were. Raja Singabarong was a cruel and vicious lion-headed man. He was big and tall, with a lion face and neck covered with fur. On the other hand, Raja Kelanaswandana was a handsome man. Yet, he had a strange behavior. He was so fond of boys that he treated them as beautiful girls. Now that the contest had run, there was no way to cancel it.

In spite of his many mistresses, Singabarong had long expected Dewi Sanggalangit to be his queen. In order to fulfill Dewi Sanggalangit's requests, he had ordered his servants to find twin horses. He had also had the best artists create an attractive show and find a two-headed animal. However, the last two requests proved to be difficult to meet.

One day, he told Iderkala, his vice regent, to go to Bandarangin and find out about Kelanaswandana's preparation. Five days later, Iderkala returned, reporting that Kelanaswandana was ahead in the contest. More than one hundred twin horses had been prepared. An attractive show had also been created. Kelanaswandana didn't have much difficulty due to the help and support of his loyal vice regent, Patih Pujanggeleng, and his people who loved him and wanted him to get married and stop his bad habit. The only thing they couldn't find was a two-headed animal.

Raja Singabarong got very upset and told Iderkala to prepare a well-armed troop and attack Bandarangin at any time. He sent spies to locate Kelanaswandana's route from Wengker to Kediri, where he would ambush Kelanaswandana and seize the procession.

Somehow, the spies were caught by Kelanaswandana's men. Kelanaswandana, who was now aware of Singabarong's plan to attack, alerted Patih Pujanggeleng and prepared a sudden invasion to Lodaya before Singabarong started his move.

Filled with anxiety as his spies had not returned, Singabarong sent Iderkala to find out what had happened. His furry head was itching from fleas, so he went back to his castle where his peacock would peck at the annoying insects. As the bird was perching on his shoulder eating the fleas on his head, he fell asleep. He was unaware of what was going on, but as usual no one was dare to disturb and wake him up.

Meanwhile, Kelanaswandana's troop had advanced far into Lodaya. They didn't meet heavy resistance as the enemy was totally unprepared. Iderkala and his troop had also been defeated near the border. Now, they were nearing Singabarong's castle.

The noise of the troop woke Singabarong up. He rushed furiously outside his castle to see what was going on. He saw most of his soldiers had been defeated by Bandarangin troop, but what surprised him most was the sight of Raja Kelanaswandana among his troop. He shouted in anger, "Hey, Kelanaswandana. What in the world are you doing here?"

Raja Kelanaswandana replied, "Stop acting like a fool! I know you've been planning to seize what I've prepared for Dewi Sanggalangit. You must be punished!" As he said that, he directed his magical power towards Singabarong, whose head suddenly changed. The lion head had merged with the peacock perching on his shoulder. It made Singabarong look like a two-headed animal.

Blazing in anger, Singabarong drew his keris and charged at Kelanaswandana. He moved so fast that Kelanaswandana could not evade the attack. His left shoulder was scratched. The scar soon blistered, blackened, and fumed.

Kelanaswandana barely had time to make a stance when Singabarong charged at him with another attack. This time, he managed to block it with his hand, making Singabarong stagger a few steps back. Kelanaswandana didn't waste the chance. He launched a powerful kick which dropped the keris in Singabarong's hand.

Singabarong roared and sprang to Kelanaswandana as if he had been his prey. His claws, punches, and kicks landed on Kelanaswandana mercilessly. He obviously overpowered Kelanaswandana in that fight.

On the verge of his defeat, Kelanaswandana got up and removed a rope-like belt from his waist. It was his secret weapon, the magical whip of Kyai Pecut Samandiman. He slashed it at Singabarong. The whiplash sounded like an explosion, leaving a trail of fume in the air, and tossed Singabarong's body as if it had been a coin. Singabarong fell to the ground. As he tried to get up, he felt so weak that he tottered.

Raja Kelanaswandana approached Singabarong, who was now unable to move. "Be a two-headed animal!" he said. Suddenly, Singabarong turned into a strange animal. It had two heads, one was that of a lion, the other was a peacock's right above the lion's head. Kelanaswandana immediately asked his men to capture the animal and bring it home to Bandarangin.

Several days later, Raja Kelanaswandana came to Kediri to propose a marriage to Dewi Sanggalangit. One hundred forty twin horses were tailing behind him, accompanied by a strange two-headed animal which was dancing in excitement to the music of gamelan and hornet. Everyone was happy to see the show.

Dewi Sanggalangit accepted his proposal and became the Queen of Bandarangin in Wengker. Raja Kelanaswandana had managed to stop his bad habit and ruled Bandarangin in peace and harmony.

The show itself is still very popular today, known as Reog Ponorogo. It takes the name of its origin, Ponorogo, which is another name of Wengker, in East Java, Indonesia.

Tuesday, May 7, 2013

Tips dan Strategi Mengerjakan TOEFL Listening Section

Pada umumnya, peserta ujian TOEFL berpendapat bahwa Listening section dalam TOEFL sangat sulit, karena percakapan dan pembicaraan tidak dapat diulangi. Peserta TOEFL diharuskan mampu memahami serta merekam informasi yang dibutuhkan hanya setelah satu kali mendengarkan. Tidak ada pengulangan, dan peserta juga tidak bisa mencatat informasi yang didengar. Karena itulah, Listening section dalam TOEFL cukup membuat calon peserta TOEFL khawatir dengan kemampuan mereka.

Bagaimana jika materi Listening section tidak dapat terdengar dengan baik dan jelas?

Dalam Computer-Based TOEFL (CBT), setiap peserta mendapatkan headset untuk mendengarkan percakapan dan pembicaraan dalam Listening section. Sebelum tes dimulai, peserta TOEFL memiliki kesempatan untuk menyesuaikan volume headset masing-masing. Sesuaikan volume pada saat yang dianjurkan. Jika menunggu hingga tes dimulai, peserta TOEFL tidak akan dapat menyesuaikan volume lagi.

Sedangkan, dalam Paper-Based TOEFL, supervisor atau pengawas ujian bertanggung-jawab dalam memastikan apakah materi Listening section bisa terdengar dengan baik dan jelas oleh seluruh peserta TOEFL. Jika peserta TOEFL tidak dapat mendengarkan materi Listening section dengan baik, dia boleh mengangkat tangan dan meminta pengawas ujian menyesuaikan dan mengatur volume suara.

Strategi Belajar sebagai Persiapan Menghadapi TOEFL Listening section

Dengan cukup tingginya tingkat kesulitan TOEFL Listening section, peserta TOEFL harus bisa mempersiapkan diri dengan baik. Berlatih, dan terus berlatih secara teratur, sistematis, dan terarah adalah kunci menuju sukses TOEFL. Calon peserta TOEFL harus memiliki strategi yang tepat dalam melakukan latihan TOEFL Listening section.

Berikut ini, Mister Guru akan berbagi strategi berlatih Listening section agar peserta TOEFL bisa mendapatkan hasil yang baik.

  1. Jangan mencatat atau menghentikan rekaman
    Saat berlatih Listening section, jangan mencatat informasi apapun dan jangan menghentikan rekaman sebelum latihan berakhir. Hal ini penting sebagai latihan atau pembiasaan untuk menjaga konsentrasi terhadap soal-soal Listening section. Setelah latihan berakhir, periksalah jawaban dengan melihat kunci jawaban.
  2. Ulangi Latihan
    Jika pada latihan pertama anda melewatkan banyak pertanyaan, atau tidak mampu merekam informasi yang cukup, kerjakan latihan sekali lagi. Mulailah dari awal, dan jangan menghentikan rekaman sebelum latihan berakhir. Lalu periksa jawaban sekali lagi, kali ini dengan melihat penjelasan atau pembahasan jawaban. Cara ini akan mengasah kemampuan mendengarkan (listening-comprehension skill).
  3. Perhatikan informasi rinci
    Saat mendengarkan pembicara, berikan perhatian khusus pada contoh-contoh, diagram, atau grafik yang ada di layar (untuk Computer-Based TOEFL) serta nama-nama spesifik, tempat, dan tanggal yang disebutkan sang pembicara. Seringkali muncul pertanyaan-pertanyaan tentang hal-hal itu.
  4. Pahami hubungan antara para pembicara
    Jika ada lebih dari satu pembicara, pikirkan dan pahami hubungan mereka. Apakah mereka teman kuliah (college friends), teman sekamar (roommates), teman sekelas (classmates), atau dosen (lecturer) dengan mahasiswa? Apakah mereka mahasiswa dengan pegawai/staf administratif? Dengan memahami hubungan mereka, pembicaraan mereka akan menjadi lebih mudah untuk dipahami.
  5. Bacalah pilihan jawaban secara sepintas lalu (teknik skimming)
    Meskipun TOEFL Listening section dirancang untuk menguji kecakapan mendengarkan (Listening) dan memahami bahasa Inggris lisan, secara tidak langsung tes ini juga menguji kemampuan membaca (Reading) karena peserta TOEFL harus membaca pilihan jawaban. Waktu yang sangat singkat dan terbatas mengharuskan peserta TOEFL mampu membaca secara cepat. Salah satu teknik membaca cepat adalah skimming. Dalam teknik ini, peserta TOEFL melihat semua pilihan jawaban secara sepintas, tapi bukan membaca setiap baris secara perlahan. Cobalah berlatih dengan melihat pilihan jawaban dari atas ke bawah secara sepintas lalu, tanpa harus membaca maupun mencoba memahami setiap kalimat secara seksama. Lakukan hal berikut ini:
    1. Carilah kata dan frase yang hampir sama dalam dua atau lebih pilihan jawaban. Kata-kata atau frase yang serupa tersebut dapat memberikan petunjuk tentang topik dan dapat membantu peserta dalam memahami suatu informasi yang didengar secara terperinci.
    2. Jangan memilih suatu jawaban hanya karena tampak sama atau terdengar sama dengan kata-kata yang terdengar. Kata-kata dengan bunyi yang hampir sama bisa memiliki makna berbeda, dan berfungsi sebagai "jebakan" dalam TOEFL.
  6. Lihatlah pilihan jawaban secara sekilas terlebih dahulu (khusus Paper-Based TOEFL)
    Prosedur standar dalam mengerjakan TOEFL adalah mendengarkan lalu membaca pilihan jawaban dalam naskah soal. Akan tetapi, dalam prakteknya, melihat pilihan jawaban secara sepintas sebelum mendengarkan pembicara dalam rekaman seringkali merupakan teknik yang sangat membantu memahami apa yang akan dibicarakan. Dengan melihat pilihan jawaban secara sekilas, peserta TOEFL seringkali mendapatkan petunjuk tentang topik umum yang akan dibicarakan, baik itu berupa percakapan, pembahasan, maupun pertanyaan.
  7. Baca pilihan jawaban dengan teliti saat mendengarkan rekaman (khusus Paper-Based TOEFL)
    Saat mendengarkan pembicara, melihat pilihan jawaban secara teliti seringkali dapat membantu peserta TOEFL dalam memahami informasi-informasi rinci yang sedang dibicarakan. Cobalah mencocokkan beberapa kata yang didengar dengan kata-kata yang ada dalam pilihan jawaban. Dengan teknik mengamati pilihan jawaban, peserta TOEFL biasanya dapat menebak pertanyaan yang akan diberikan. Meskipun begitu, tetaplah ingat bahwa pilihan jawaban kadang-kadang seperti serupa dan seringkali membingungkan. Dan ketika teknik ini ternyata tetap tidak bisa memberikan petunjuk, berhentilah membaca dan pusatkan perhatian secara penuh pada rekaman.
Untuk memantapkan persiapan menghadapi tes TOEFL, jangan lupa membaca "Tips Sukses Tes TOEFL" serta "Strategi Mengerjakan Test TOEFL Dengan Mengenali Testing Point" di blog ini.
Semoga sukses.

Monday, May 6, 2013

"Used to" Untuk Menceritakan Kebiasaan Masa Lalu (Past Habit)

Salah satu cara untuk menceritakan kebiasaan di masa lalu adalah dengan menggunakan struktur "used to + infinitive". "Used to" memiliki makna bahwa suatu pekerjaan atau kegiatan hanya terjadi di waktu lampau, dan sekarang sudah tidak terjadi lagi. Jika diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Indonesia, "used to" kira-kira sama maknanya dengan "dulu biasanya" atau "dulu terbiasa". Jadi, "used" dalam "used to" sama sekali tidak berarti "menggunakan" atau "memakai".

Kompetensi dalam menggunakan "used to" untuk menceritakan kebiasaan di waktu lampau adalah salah satu kompetensi yang diujikan dalam Ujian Nasional Bahasa Inggris, khususnya untuk SMK. Karena itu, penggunaan "used to" harus dapat dikuasai dengan baik oleh pelajar SMA/MA dan SMK/MAK. Lihat beberapa contoh di bawah ini untuk menjelaskan penggunaan "used to":

  • She used to work in a shop. Now she works in a restaurant.
  • When I was younger, I used to swim in the river with my friends. Now it is heavily polluted with industrial waste.
  • He used to come here for breakfast almost every morning, but now he has moved to another city.
  • When I was a child, TVRI used to be the only domestic TV channel. Today, there are many channels available to choose.
  • She has got short hair now but it used to be very long.

Structure of Used to Sentences

Affirmative SentenceI
We
You
They
He
She
It
used tobe
do
write
work
have
study
play
Negative SentenceI
We
You
They
He
She
It
did not use to
didn't use to
be
do
write
work
have
study
play
Interrogative Sentence (Question)Did I
Did we
Did you
Did they
Did he
Did she
Did it
use tobe?
do?
write?
work?
have?
study?
play?
Catatan:
Penggunaan "used to ..." hanya untuk kebiasaan lampau. Kita tidak bisa menggunakan "use to ..." untuk menceritakan kebiasaan-kebiasaan di masa sekarang. Untuk mengungkapkan kebiasaan di masa sekarang (present habit), gunakanlah bentuk Simple Present tense.

Exercises:

A. Combine the two sentences using "but", and use "Used to" for the past habits.

Example:
Shanti worked in an accountant office. Now, she runs her own business.
Answer: Shanti used to work in an accountant office, but now she runs her own business.

  1. Lisa lived in a boarding house. Now, she lives in an apartment.
  2. The woman was my next-door neighbor. She has moved to another town.
  3. She took the bus to work. Now, she prefers cycling.
  4. We worked in the same office. Now, she has been transferred to another branch.
  5. The restaurant opened only on weekdays. Now, it opens in weekends too.

B. Complete these sentences. Use "used to" or the present simple (I play / she lives etc.)

Example:
He used to play football. He stopped playing a few years ago.
  1. "Do you do any sport?" ~ "Yes, I ... basketball."
  2. "Have you got a car?" ~ "No, I ... one but I sold it."
  3. "How do you go to work?" ~ "I usually ... to work by motorcycle."
  4. Wati ... a waitress. Now she works as a receptionist.
  5. When I worked in the foreign company, I ... English everyday. Now, I seldom speak English.
  6. Lia likes playing music. She ... the piano almost everyday.
  7. This room ... the language laboratory. Once a week, our students practice their speaking and listening skill here.
  8. I ... three glasses of coffee everyday, but my doctor suggested I drink less coffee.
  9. I'm an early riser. I always ... at 5 am every morning.
  10. I ... a monthly magazine. I stopped the subscription last year.
Reference:
Murphy Raymond, Essential Grammar in Use, pg. 58-59, Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, 1998.

Wednesday, May 1, 2013

Three Brothers, One Wish ~ Tale from the Philippines ~ Narrative Text

Once upon a time, there lived a woman named Ana whose husband was a farmer. They had three sons who, unlike other young men in the village, disliked farming.

After her husband had passed away, Ana had to work alone on the farmland. Her sons were unwilling to help. Tasyo, the oldest son, said, "No one gets rich from farming." Bindoy, the second son, said, "Farming is hard work. The yield is unequal to the amount of time we spend." Castor, the last son, said, "The land is difficult to cultivate. The plants will die if it's dry, and sink if it's wet."

One night, after having dinner, Ana spoke to her sons, "I'm getting older and I feel tired. Since none of you is willing to help me on the farmland, I think you should leave and seek your destiny. After seven years, you may go home and tell me what you have done. Let's see whether you can make your dreams come true without cultivating the land."

On the following day, determining to follow their mother's advice, the three brothers left their home. They were sad to leave their mother, but they had no choice.

After a long hours of walk, they arrived at a junction. Tasyo suggested, "From now on, we should split here and take our own way. At the end of the seventh year, let's meet here on our way home." His brothers agreed, and so, they separated, each heading.

The wet and dry season came one after the other. Seven years had passed. The three brothers went home and met at the junction. Tasyo, who had worked in a mirror factory, had mastered the art of making mirrors. Bindoy, having worked at a shipyard, had been an expert in building ships. Castor, having been acquainted with a group of robbers, had become a thief.

Their mother cried in happiness to have them back home. Years of hard work under the sun and rain had made her look older and weaker than before. However, her sons' return had made her very happy.

Several days later, one of the King's messengers arrived in that village with a very important announcement. The beautiful Perlita Princess had been kidnapped by a cruel and wicked wizard. No one knew where she had been kept and what might have happened to her. The announcement said that the King would honor a noble rank to anyone who could locate and bring the princess back safely, and would ask him to marry Perlita Princess.

Hearing the announcement, the three brothers arranged a plan to save the princess. They thought it might be the perfect chance to apply what they had learnt in order to achieve their dream of becoming rich.

Tasyo said, "I have a secret mirror through which we can see anything that bare eyes can't see. With it, we can find where the princess is."

Bindoy said, "I can build a ship to take us wherever the princess is."

Castor added, "I can kidnap the princess wherever she's kept."

The three brothers appeared in front of the King on the following day. the King's grief soon disappeared once he heard that Tasyo knew where the princess was. Through the magic mirror, they could see that the princess was being kept on a tall tower in a faraway island.

"How can we save her?" said the King.

"Let's see what we can do," said Bindoy and Castor. Then, Bindoy soon built a sailing ship. It was not long before the ship was ready and they sailed to the faraway island.

Arriving there, they found that the tower was guarded by many kinds of giants, including the fierce tikbalang and kapre. They gathered around the tower to prevent anyone from saving the princess.

Shaking their heads in despair, Tasyo and Bindoy said, "It's impossible for us to get past the giants and enter the tower."

"I'll try," said Castor. As a thief, he had learnt how to break into any kinds of buildings. Therefore, he could enter the tower easily and save the Princess before the giants knew what had happened. He took her aboard the awaiting ship and they managed to escape safely.

When the ship arrived at the port, celebration began to start allover the kingdom. The King was very pleased. He threw big dancing parties at his own expense.

Then, a new problem arose. Which of the three brothers was more eligible to marry the Princess since all of them had played an important part in saving her? Then, he conducted a meeting with his ministers and advisers to discuss the matter. Finally, they came out with a decision.

"Instead of marrying my daughter to her savior," the King announced, "I will give half of my kingdom to the three brothers, to be shared equally among them."

That was exactly what the three brothers had dreamed of. They would soon be rich and able to help their old mother. They returned to their village bringing abundant wealth. Soon, they bought a vast farming land and hired a lot of workers to cultivate it. Their mother now could rest after a long years of hard work. She lived happily with her sons beside her till the day she passed away.

The three brothers had become very rich, but the most valuable thing they learned was that the land will be a very valuable resource only when it is managed with wisdom, consistency, and devotion.

Source:
The Asian Cultural Center for Unesco, Dongeng-Dongeng Asia Untuk Anak-Anak jilid lima, Tiga Saudara Satu Cita-cita. Jakarta, PT. Dunia Pustaka Jaya, 1976.
Retold in English by Mister Guru.